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Armed Forces & Society

Armed Forces & Society

eISSN: 15560848 | ISSN: 0095327X | Current volume: 47 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Quarterly

Contact Information:
Editorial Office
Department of Political Science
University Academic Center, Rm.370
601 University Drive
Texas State University
San Marcos, TX 78666

Phone: (512) 245-1563
Fax: (512) 245-7815

Armed Forces & Society is the leading peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, and international journal publishing on topics such as

  • Civil Military Relations
  • Military Organizations
  • Use of Force
  • Conflict Resolution
  • Logic and Consequences of War
  • Terrorism
  • Military Leadership & Professionalism
  • Ethics
  • Security
  • Arms Control
  • Peacekeeping
  • Defense Economics
  • Recruitment and Retention
  • Reserve Forces and Veterans
  • Representation Issues
  • Family and Health Issues
  • Military History

Armed Forces & Society publishes empirical, theoretically-informed articles, research notes, book reviews, and review essays.  Its articles may adopt an interdisciplinary, comparative, or historical perspective, use qualitative or quantitative methods, and range from policy-relevant to theoretical themes—but they always meet the highest standards of intellectual rigor, scholarly argument, evidence, and readability.

Armed Forces & Society: an interdisciplinary journal publishes articles quarterly on civil-military relations, veterans, force effectiveness and diversity, military culture, officer education and training, military institutions, ethics, unit cohesion, military families, peacemaking, privatization, public opinion, and conflict management. The journal is international in scope with a focus on interdisciplinary and policy discourse. The editors and contributors include political scientists, sociologists, psychologists, legal scholars, historians, and economists, as well as specialists in military organization and strategy, and peacekeeping.

For further exploration, please read Dr. Pat Shields’s “Dynamic Intersection of Military and Society (2020).

Patricia M. Shields Texas State University, San Marcos, USA
Book Review Editor
Jeremy M. Teigen Ramapo College, USA
Board of Editors
Eyal Ben-Ari Kinneret College, Israel
Bernard Boene L'Ecole Superieure Militaire de Saint-Cyr, France
Risa Brooks Marquette University, USA
Paul Camacho University of Massachusetts, USA
Richard Chasdi Walsh College, Michigan, USA
Lindsay Cohn U.S. Naval War College, USA
Damon Coletta United States Air Force Academy, USA
Thomas Crosbie Royal Danish Defense College, Denmark
Christopher Dandeker King's College London, UK
Karl DeRouen, Jr. University of Alabama, USA
Thomas Doyle Texas State University, USA
Antulio Echevarria U.S. Army War College, USA
Morten Ender United States Military Academy, USA
Peter D. Feaver Duke University, USA
Reuven Gal Israeli Institute for Military Studies, Israel
James Golby U.S. Army
James Griffith U.S. Army National Guard, USA (ret.)
William Hauser U.S. Army (ret.), USA
Lindy Heinecken Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Anthony King University of Exeter, UK
Gerhard Kuemmel Bundeswehr Institute of Social Research, Germany
Terence Lee National University of Singapore, Singapore
Christian Leuprecht Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
Yagil Levy The Open University of Israel, Israel
Robert Mandel Lewis and Clark College, USA
Laura Miller RAND, USA
Rene Moelker Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands
Brenda Moore State University of New York at Buffalo, USA
Boubacar N'Diaye College of Wooster
Emmanuel Ojo University of Ilorin, Nigeria
Ami Pedahzur University of Texas at Austin, USA
David Pion-Berlin University of California, Riverside, USA
Jonathan Powell University of Central Florida, USA
Jos C. N. Raadschelders The Ohio State University, USA
Sebastiaan Rietjens Netherlands Defense Academy, Netherlands
William Ruger Charles Koch Institute, USA
Rebecca L. Schiff U.S. Naval War College, USA
Anders Sookermany Norwegian Defence University College, Norway
Ori Swed Texas Tech University, USA
Hassan Tajalli Texas State University, USA
Donald Travis US Army - Retired
Pascal Vennesson Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Robert A. Vitas Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, USA
Travis Whetsell The Ohio State University, USA
John Allen Williams Loyola University, Chicago, USA
Managing Editor
Connie Buscha Texas State University, USA
Editors Emeritus
Morris Janowitz (1973-1983)
David R. Segal (1983-1989)
Claude Welch (1989-1993)
Jay Stanley (1992-1995)
James Burk (1995-1998)
Mark Eitelberg (1998-2001)
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  • Manuscript Guidelines

    Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to, where authors will be required to set up an online account on the SageTrack system powered by ScholarOne. Submission of a manuscript implies a commitment by the author to publish in the journal if the manuscript is accepted; authors must certify that the manuscript is not currently under consideration by any other journal.

    Ordinarily, manuscripts should not exceed 26 pages and 8,000 words, including tables, figures, and references. Manuscripts received which are significantly higher than the limit will be automatically rejected. Manuscripts are subjected to blind peer review, and thus it should be anonymized. The author’s names and self-citations should be removed or blacked out. Any other identification, including any references in the manuscript, the notes, the title, and reference sections, should be removed from the paper and listed on separate pages, e.g., title page.

    Manuscript Preparation and Submission

    Manuscripts should be prepared using the APA Style Guide (Seventh Edition). All pages must be typed, double-spaced. The body of the manuscript must be in 12-point Times New Roman. Blockquotes should be single-spaced and indented. The margins should be 1 inch on all four sides. Please omit a running head and any header/footer entries. Reference and endnote pages should be 10.5 point font with 1.5 line spacing.

    Submission Should Contain Three Files

    The manuscript should include three major sections (in this order): Title Page with abstract, Main Body, and References. Manuscript features should appear in this order: 

    • Title page
      • Full article title
      • Abstract (maximum 150 words)
      • Author(s) Biography (no more than 50 words)
      • Each author’s complete name and institutional affiliation(s)
      • Acknowledgments and credits
      • Grant numbers and/or funding information o Corresponding author (name, address, phone/fax, e-mail)
    • Manuscript
      • Pg 1 contents:
        • Title
        • Abstract
      • Text (should begin on a new page)
      • Tables (should begin on a new page)
        • Tables should be structured according to APA Guidelines. Each table must have a clear and concise title.
        • When appropriate, use the title to explain an abbreviation parenthetically—Eg. Comparison of Median Income of Adopted Children (AC) v. Foster Children (FC).
      • Figures. (should begin on a new page)
        • Figures should be numbered consecutively in the order they appear in the text and must include figure captions.
        • Figures will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially.
        • The figure resolution should be 300dpi at the time of submission.
      • References (should begin on a new page)
      • End Notes (should begin on a new page)
    • Appendices
      • Appendices that may be referenced in the manuscript should appear in a separate document unless they are intended to be published with the article if it is accepted. Otherwise, appendices shall be published online as a supplement to the article.
      • Appendices should be lettered to distinguish from numbered tables and figures. Include a descriptive title for each appendix (e.g., “Appendix A. Variable Names and Definitions”). Cross-check text for accuracy against appendices

    Manuscript Heading Design

    Headings and subheadings  

    Headings and subheadings should be clear and brief. Headings should indicate the organization of the content of the section. Generally, three heading levels are sufficient to organize text; however, APA provides for five levels. They should be formatted as follows…

    First Level Headings, Centered, Bold, Title Case

    Second Level Headings, Flush Left, Bold, Title Case 

    Third level headings, bold sentence that begins a paragraph and ends with a period. The text then immediately follows after. 

    Fourth level headings, italicized sentence that begins a paragraph and ends with a period. The text then immediately follows after. 

    Fifth level headings, sentences that begin a paragraph and end with a period. The text then immediately follows after. 


    In-Text Citations

    There must be a corresponding citation in the reference list for each text citation, and for each reference list citation, there must be a corresponding text citation. Each corresponding citation must have identical spelling and year. Each text citation must include at least two pieces of information, author(s), and year of publication.  

    End Notes  

    If explanatory endnotes are required for your manuscript, please use Microsoft Word’s Insert Footnote feature under the Reference ribbon. Footnotes should be added at the bottom of the page after the references. The word “Notes” should be centered at the top of the page.  


    Basic rules for the reference list:  

    • The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order according to the authors’ last names;
    • If there is more than one work by the same author, order them according to their publication date – oldest to newest (therefore, a 2008 publication would appear before a 2009 publication);
    • When listing multiple authors of a source, use “&” instead of “and”;
    • Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if there are one, and any proper names – i. e. only those words that are normally capitalized;
    • Italicize the title of the book, the title of the journal/serial, and the title of the web document;
    • Manuscripts submitted to Armed Forces & Society (AF&S) should strictly follow the APA manual (7th edition);
    • Every in-text citation must have a detailed reference in the Reference section;
    • Every reference listed in the Reference section must be cited in text;
    • Do not use “et al.” in the Reference list at the end; names of all authors of a publication should be listed there.

    Examples Of Commonly Found References 

    For more examples, please check APA (7th ed).  

    Periodicals. Note that all periodicals must include a DOI if they are not yet assigned to an issue.

    Journal article with one author
    Smith, A. (2015). Effects of Multiple Deployments on Families and Unit Readiness. Armed Forces & Society, 13(6), 578-583.  

    Journal article with more than one author, but less than 8
    Gabbett, T., Jenkins, D., & Abernethy, B. (2010). Physical collisions and injury during professional rugby league skills training. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 578-583.  

    Journal article – 8 or more authors
    Crooks, C., Ameratunga, R., Brewerton, M., Torok, M., Buetow, S., Brothers, S., … Jorgensen, P. (2010). Adverse reactions to food in New Zealand children aged 0-5 years. New Zealand Medical Journal, 123(1327). DOI: xx-xx-xxx-xxxxxx2343.  

    Conference Paper
    Williams, J., & Seary, K. (2010). Bridging the divide: Scaffolding the learning experiences of the mature age student. In J. Terrell (Ed.), Making the links: Learning, teaching and high quality student outcomes. Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the New Zealand Association of Bridging Educators (pp. 104-116). Wellington, New Zealand.  

    Podcast (audio or video)
    Rozaieski, B. (2011). Logan cabinet shoppe: Episode 37: Entertainment center molding [Video podcast]. Retrieved from  

    Thesis (online)
    Mann, D. L. (2010). Vision and expertise for interceptive actions in sport (Doctoral dissertation, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia). Retrieved from  


    Book with place of publication
    Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love: A guide to creating iconic brand identities. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.  

    Book with editors & edition
    Collins, C., & Jackson, S. (Eds.). (2007). Sport in Aotearoa/New Zealand society (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson.  

    Book with author & publisher are the same
    MidCentral District Health Board. (2008). District annual plan 2008/09. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Author.  

    Chapter in an edited book
    Dear, J., & Underwood, M. (2007). What is the role of exercise in the prevention of back pain? In D. MacAuley & T. Best (Eds.), Evidence-based sports medicine (2nd ed., pp. 257-280). Malden, MA: Blackwell.  

    Editor’s Note  

    To encourage a faster production process of your article, it is advised that you closely adhere to the points above for references. Otherwise, it will entail a long process of solving copyeditor’s queries and may directly affect the publication time of your article. In case of any questions, please contact the journal’s editorial assistant at  

    Copyrighted Materials

    Author(s) are responsible for securing permission to reproduce all copyrighted figures or materials before they are published in (AF&S). A copy of the written permission must be included with the manuscript submission.

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