Published in Association with British Medical Ultrasound Society

Bid Kumar Wrexham Medical Institute, UK
Deputy Editors
Sean Cournane St Vincent's University Hospital, Republic of Ireland
Colin Griffin Royal Liverpool University Hospital, UK
Gill Harrison City University London, UK

Other Titles in:

eISSN: 17431344 | ISSN: 1742271X | Current volume: 25 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: Quarterly

The Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society, Ultrasound is dedicated solely to publishing ultrasound-related topics for users of this rapidly evolving specialty. It provides a forum for presentation of relevant scientific and technical advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The international editorial board publishes high quality educational articles, useful for everyday practice, alongside reviews, research and case studies.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

Ultrasound is the official journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS), a multidisciplinary, charitable society comprising radiologists, obstetricians, sonographers, physicists and veterinarians among others. The journal aims to cover all aspects of medical ultrasound from the theoretical through to clinical applications and their impact on both workforce and patients.

The journal fulfils both an educational and scientific research role. It publishes a mixture of invited review articles, current research, and descriptions of new techniques and equipment. Our editorial board ensures scientific papers undergo stringent peer review prior to publication and acts to encourage authors to submit their work to the journal. Ultrasound does not confine itself to British views but welcomes authors from the UK and overseas.

Editorial Board
Paul Atkinson Dalhousie University, St John Reg Hospital, Canada
Shivaram Avula Alder Hey Children's Hospital, UK
Parijat Bhattacharjee London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, UK
Peter Cantin Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust, UK
Abhijit Chatterjee Kolkata, India
Keith Chiu LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong
Emma Chung University of Leicester, UK
Vikram Dogra University of Rochester, USA
Nick Dudley United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, UK
Ellen Dyer Rosie Hospital, UK
Hazel Edwards East & North Herts NHS Trust, UK
Bob Jarman Queen Elizabeth Hospital, UK
Gerry Johnson Tameside hospital, UK
Chris de Korte Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, the Netherlands
Bidyut Kumar Wrexham Medical Institute, UK
Geeta Kumar Wrexham Maelor Hospital, UK
Won Jae Lee Samsung Medical Centre, Korea
Adrian Lim Charing Cross Hospital, UK
Kevin Martin University Hospitals of Leicester, UK
Richard McWilliams Royal Liverpool Hospital, UK
K Murali Sandwell General Hospital, UK
Debbie Nisbet Royal Women's Hospital, Australia
David Oxborough University of Liverpool, UK
Pam Parker Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, UK
Shalini Patni Birmingham Heartland Hospital., UK
Neelam Potdar University hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust., UK
Paul Sidhu King's College Hospital, UK
Richard Simpson Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK
Sean Tennant Christie NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Nanda Venkatanarasimha Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Lorraine Walsh Birmingham children's hospital., UK
Asoka Weerasinghe Dewsbury District General Hospital, UK
Mike Weston St James's University Hospital, UK
Stephen Wolstenhulme St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK
Adrian Wong Oxford University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK
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    1. Article types
    2. Editorial Policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.2.1 Acknowledgments
      2.2.2 Writing assistance
      2.3 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.6 Clinical Trials
      2.7 Reporting Guidelines
      2.8 Data
    3. Publishing Policies
      3.1 Publication Ethics
      3.1.1 Plagiarism
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open Access and author archiving
      3.4 Permissions
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Word processing formats
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Manuscript layout
      4.4.1 Reference style
      4.5 Title Page
      4.5.1 Declarations
      4.6 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 How to submit your manuscript
      5.2 Title, keywords and abstracts
      5.3 Corresponding author contact details
      5.4 Covering Letter
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 SAGE Production
      6.2 Access to your published article
      6.3 Online First publication
    7. Further Information

    Ultrasound is the official journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society, and covers all aspects of medical ultrasound from technological advances through to clinical applications and their impact on both workforce and patients. The journal fulfils an educational and research role, publishing informative review articles, original research, best practice guidelines, case reports, clinical audits, and descriptions of new techniques and equipment. Our international Editorial Board welcomes contributions from the UK and overseas, and ensures that all articles are subject to rigorous peer review.

    Ultrasound is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.  The Ultrasound Editors
    recommend that authors follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this journal.

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ult to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.  Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Ultrasound will be reviewed.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant:

    • that you are submitting your original work;
    • that you have the rights in the work;
    • that you are submitting the work for first publication in Ultrasound and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere;
    • and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

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    1. Article types

    Articles usually take the following formats, although ultimately this is at the Editor's discretion.

    Original Research
    Original scientific and medical research articles relating to any aspect of medical ultrasound. Maximum length for manuscripts is 4,000 words, plus up to six tables or figures and 40 references. Structured headings are required.

    Authoritative reviews of medical issues, gathering together disparate information sources into a single coherent article. Maximum length for review is 5,000 words, plus up to eight tables or figures and 50 references.

    Informative, topical or educational articles on any subject relating to ultrasound in medicine (e.g. professional development issues, surveys and best practice guidelines). Maximum length for essays is 4,000 words, plus up to six tables or figures and 30 references.

    Case Reports
    Case reports should be either a novel presentation of a common condition, or a common presentation of a rare condition. All case reports should provide a clear educational ('take-home') message. Maximum length for case reports is 2,000 words plus four tables or figures and up to 10 references. Structured headings are desirable. Please note that written informed consent to publish the images and medical details is required for all case studies.

    Communication in response to articles previously published in Ultrasound. Maximum length for letters is 500 words plus up to one table or figure and five references.

    Book reviews
    Book reviews should be no more than 500 words in length, usually commissioned by the Editor.

    Short pieces on topical subjects, usually commissioned by the Editor. 1,000 words, plus up to 10 references. 

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    All contributions to Ultrasound will be considered for publication on the understanding that they are not under consideration/accepted for publication or already published elsewhere. All will be peer-reviewed by at least two independent reviewers, and the final decision on acceptance or rejection will remain with the Editors. Ultrasound adheres to a rigorous double-blind reviewing policy in which the identity of both the reviewer and author are always concealed from both parties, so there is no possibility of bias in any editorial decision.

    As part of the submission process you will be invited to provide the names of peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the following: 

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission;
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors;
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted.

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended reviewers or negate to invite an opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
    When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    2.2.1 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    2.2.2 Writing Assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    2.3 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Ultrasound to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.
    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included with your manuscript. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here

    2.4 Funding

    Ultrasound requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Any article containing identifiable patient information must be accompanied by a letter from the authors confirming that the patient has given written informed consent to publication. Patient’s names, initials or hospital numbers should never be published in written descriptions. Other information (age, gender, race, etc) should only be included where it is essential for scientific purposes. The Editors may also ask authors to remove personal information that, whilst interesting and colourful, does not add to the substance of an article, but does increase the likelihood of parties being identified. If there is any doubt about whether or not information is identifiable, the Editors are happy to discuss this before an article is submitted. Reviewers will also be asked to take careful account of issues relating to patient confidentiality when reviewing articles.

    For case studies, written consent to publish images and medical details must always be obtained from the patient or their guardian / responsible family member. Not only should submissions be accompanied by the letter confirming written informed consent, but the Editors also expect to be informed about the measures that have been taken to anonymise the details that could have led to parties being identified. They also reserve the right to work with the authors to make additional anonymising changes as they or the reviewers see fit.

    Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patients hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Should you require a template form for obtaining written informed consent, please download here.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The journal has adopted the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals published by the International Association of Veterinary Editors.

    2.6 Clinical trials

    Ultrasound conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    2.7 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart as a cited figure, and a completed CONSORT checklist as a supplementary file.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives

    2.8 Data

    SAGE acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process for academic journal articles.

    Ultrasound requests all authors submitting any primary data used in their research articles alongside their article submissions to be published in the online version of the journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The editor may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data. The Editors can also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations.

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    3. Publishing policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Ultrasound and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open Access and author archiving

    Ultrasound offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

    3.4 Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway

    All previously published material must be accompanied by the written consent to reproduction of the copyright holder. An acknowledgement of permission should be included at the relevant point in the paper, and a full reference to the original place of publication should be included in the reference list.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript

    4.1 Word processing formats

    Preferred file formats are .doc for text and tables produced in Word, .tif for images, and .xls for graphs produced in Excel.

    4.2 Figures, images and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines. Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online and in print at no charge to the author.

    Tables: Tables should be formatted in Word and accompanied by a brief title. Please number tables in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.

    Figures: All figures should be numbered in the order in which they are mentioned in the text and accompanied by a figure legend. Images (e.g. ultrasound images) must be supplied at high resolution, preferably 600 dpi. Images supplied at less than 300 dpi are unsuitable for print and will delay publication. The preferred file format is .tif. Please supply each image in a separate file (not within a Word document) and list the figure legends at the end of the main text.

    Graphs and diagrams should be produced electronically and clearly labelled using a sans serif font such as Arial. Please ensure that figure labels will be consistent with the size of the main text in final reproduction. Graphs may be supplied as Excel spreadsheets (one per sheet).

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. These will be subjected to peer-review alongside the article.  For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files, which can be found within our Manuscript Submission Guidelines page.

    4.4 Manuscript layout

    Ultrasound conforms to the SAGE house style.  Click here to review guidelines on SAGE UK House Style.

    The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point. Please put headings and subheadings in bold case, and press ‘Enter’ only at the end of a paragraph, list entry or heading. Typical main headings for Original Research articles include Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion. Assemble the main text file of the manuscript in this order: (1) Abstract; (2) Main text; (3) References;(4) Figure legends  (5) Tables. Do not include the names of authors, their institutions or any other information that may compromise the blind reviewing process.

    Please use current accepted abbreviations and define them at first mention. For equipment described in the Methods section, please supply the names of manufacturers. All measurements should be expressed in SI units.

    4.4.1 Reference style

    Ultrasound adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference style. Click here to review the guidelines on SAGE Vancouver to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.
    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Harvard output file here and the SAGE Vancouver output file here

    4.5 Title Page

    Please complete the Title Page template available below in full and submit as a separate document entitled ‘Title Page':

    Any manuscripts which are not accompanied by a completed Title Page template will be returned.

    Please see below for an example of a completed Title Page:

    4.5.1 Declarations

    The following statements should be included in the title page under the heading ‘Declarations’ for every manuscript submitted. These will be published at the end of every paper accepted for publication. 

    Conflicting interests
    Ethical approval

    Please see the below example of a completed declarations section:

    Conflicting interests: HG is an employee of Statins Incorp. EF has received grants from Globescape plc. LM provides consultative advice to Lab Tests Ltd.
    Funding: This research was funded by the University of York
    Ethical approval: The ethics committee of Northern Yorkshire approved this study (REC number: GH23335H)
    Guarantor: EF
    Contributorship: LM and HG researched literature and conceived the study. EF was involved in protocol development, gaining ethical approval, patient recruitment and data analysis. AB wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors reviewed and edited the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript
    Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Sarah Powells for her assistance and guidance in this research. We would also like to thank Globescape plc for providing reagents at a reduced cost.
    *Please state author names as initials*
    ** The guarantor is the person willing to take full responsibility for the article, including for the accuracy and appropriateness of the reference list. This will often be the most senior member of the research group and is commonly also the author for correspondence.**

    4.6 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    5.1 How to submit your manuscript

    Ultrasound is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ULT to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    Please note: All submissions must be in English and should be proofread by all authors prior to submission.

    Files should be uploaded in the following order: (1) Title page (2) Main text;; (3) Tables (if not included in main text; (4) Figures; (5) Supplementary files (this includes online-only supplementary files, e.g. video files).

    5.2 Title, keywords and abstracts

    Please supply a title, short title, an abstract and keywords to accompany your article. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting the SAGE Journal Author Gateway for guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

    An abstract of no more than 300 words must accompany all articles except letters. For Reviews this abstract should be a single, unstructured paragraph stating the scope of the review, the main themes covered, and conclusions which may be drawn from the review including implications for clinical practice and future work. Original Research articles require structured abstracts with the following format: Introduction (description of rationale for study), Methods (brief description of methods or study design), Results (summary of significant results), and Conclusions (succinct statement of data interpretation). Please be concise, avoid the use of acronyms and abbreviations, and do not cite references in the abstract.

    5.3 Corresponding author contact details

    Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    5.4 Covering letter

    The covering letter is important. To help the Editor in his preliminary evaluation, please indicate why you think the paper suitable for publication. If your paper should be considered for fast-track publication, please explain why.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.

    6.2 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.3 Online First publication

    Online First allows final revision articles (completed articles in queue for assignment to an upcoming issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a final journal issue which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. For more information please visit our Online First Fact Sheet

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    7. Further Information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the Manuscript Submission process should be sent to the Senior Publishing Editor as follows:

    Charlotte Jardine
    Senior Publishing Editor
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7336 2125

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