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An Introduction to Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research
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An Introduction to Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research



April 2017 | 296 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
This practical book provides the tools needed to design, execute, and evaluate fully integrated mixed methods research studies. A uniting metaphor of the architectural arch helps students understand the benefits of a mixed methods approach as they consider ways to integrate the qualitative and quantitative strands at all stages of design and execution. With use of examples from popular media and published research, this text also includes a detailed discussion of ways to accomplish mixing methods during data collection and analysis and a separate chapter on designing and executing a realistic mixed methods dissertation. 
 
List of Tables and Figures
 
Preface
Conceptual Framework  
Purpose  
Audience  
Distinguishing Features  
Organization of the Book  
Organization of Each Chapter  
Taking Advantage of the Text  
Related Assignments  
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
PART 1: FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES
 
Chapter 1: Definitional Issues
Example from Popular Media: Locating the Bones of Richard III  
Purposes and Goals of the Chapter  
Different Perspectives on the Definition of Mixed Methods Research  
The Centrality of Mixing to the Definition of Mixed Methods Research  
Distinguishing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches  
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches as Different Analytical Strategies  
Conceptualizing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches on a Continuum  
Mixed Methods as a Logic of Inquiry  
Evaluation and Mixed Methods  
Conceptual Framework – Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research  
The Architectural Arch as a Metaphor  
"Mixed Up" Methods  
Controversies Involving Foundational Issues  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Supplemental Activity  
Recommended Reading  
 
Chapter 2: Classifying the Purposes of Mixed Methods Research
Mixed Methods Research Featured in the Popular Media  
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter  
Arguments for the Preeminence of Purpose in Distinguishing Mixed Methods Studies  
An Over-Riding Purpose of Mixing Compatible Methods: Triangulation  
Typologies for Categorizing Research Articles by Purpose  
Evolution of Typologies  
An Expanded Typology of Purposes  
Design Features of the Major Categories of Purpose Types  
Prevalence of the Use of Different Types of Purposes  
Design Features of the Exemplary Publication (Durksen & Klassen, 2012)  
Mixing in the Chapter Exemplar  
Value-Added of Mixed Methods in the Chapter Exemplar  
Situations Where a Mixed Methods Approach May Not Be Appropriate  
Conclusions  
Recommendations for Practice  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Supplemental Activities  
Recommended Reading  
 
Chapter 3: Recognizing Paradigmatic Assumptions
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter  
Goals of the Chapter  
Defining What is Meant by a Paradigm  
Differing Viewpoints About the Relevance of Paradigms  
Key Features of Paradigmatic Stances to Research That Are Compatible with Mixed Methods  
Pragmatism  
Dialectical Pluralism  
Realist and Critical Realist Paradigm  
Transformative-Emancipatory Paradigm  
Grounded Theory and Mixed Methods – Exemplary Publication (Gasson & Waters, 2013)  
Paradigmatic Assumptions that are Likely to Be Incompatible with Mixed Methods  
Being Reflexive About Your Own Paradigm  
Controversies Associated with Paradigms  
Conclusion  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Supplemental Activities  
Recommended Reading  
 
Chapter 4: Distinguishing Mixed Methods Designs
Purposes, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter  
Timing and Priority as Key Features That Distinguish Mixed Method Designs  
A Classification System for Prototypical Mixed Method Designs  
Summary About Design Types  
Priority as a Key Feature of Mixed Method Designs  
A Notation System that Incorporates Priority and Timing  
Explaining the Prevalence of a Quantitative Priority  
Mixed Methods Studies with Unequal Priority  
Mixed Methods Studies with a Qualitative Priority  
Design Features of the Exemplary Publication  
Describing Key Features of the Chapter Exemplar  
Strategies to Establish Priority  
Equal Priority Mixed Methods Studies  
Conclusions  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Supplemental Activities  
Recommended Reading  
 
PART 2: EXECUTING FULLY INTEGRATED MIXED METHODS RESEARCH
 
Chapter 5: Strategies for Mixing Prior to Analysis
Example from the Popular Media: The Blue Zones  
Purposes, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter  
Organization of the Chapter  
Design Phase Mixing: Mixed Method Purpose Statements and Research Questions  
Wording Research Questions to Reflect Priority  
Three Approaches to Writing Mixed Method Research Questions  
Mixing During Sampling  
Combining Probability and Purposeful Sampling  
Timing as a Way to Distinguish Mixed Method Sampling Approaches  
Using Identical or Nested Samples  
Exemplary Article: A Mixed Method Study of Using Social Media (Young & Jaganath, 2013)  
Five Types of Mixing in the Chapter Exemplar  
Methodological Transparency in the Exemplar  
Conclusion  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Supplemental Activities  
Recommended Reading  
 
Chapter 6: Mixed Method Analytical Procedures
Returning to the Metaphor of the Architectural Arch  
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter  
Mixed Method Analytical Strategies  
Examples of the Use of Mixed Method Analytical Strategies  
Example 1: Illustrating Data Transformation: Creamer and Ghoston (2012)  
Example 2: Illustration Four Mixed Methods Analytical Strategies: Jang, McDougall, Pollon, Herbert, and Russell (2008)  
Example 3: Illustrating Two Mixed Method Analytical Strategies: Elliott, Gale, Parsons, Kuh, and The HALCyon Study (2014)  
Mixing by Constructing Inferences and Meta-Inferences  
Examples of Meta-Inferences  
Embedding Design Strategies that Promote Meaningful Meta-Inferences  
Conclusions  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Supplemental Activities  
Recommended Reading  
 
Chapter 7: Data Transformation and other Strategies for Mixing During Analysis
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter  
Contributions of the Chapter  
Organization of the Chapter  
Quantifying and Quantitizing Qualitative Data  
Quantifying  
Attending to Sample Size  
Examples of Quantifying and Quantitizing Qualitative Data  
Example One from Mazzola, Walker, Schockley, & Spector (2011): Quantifying two Qualitatively Derived Variables for Purposes of Demonstrating a Relationship  
Example Two from Castro, Kellison, Boyd, & Kopak (2010): Demonstrating a Relationship between Qualitatively and Quantitatively Derived Variables  
Example Three from Young and Jaganath (2013): Quantifying Qualitative Themes to Show Change over Time  
Example Four from Odom et al. (2006): Quantifying Qualitative Themes to Distinguish Groups  
Qualitizing Numeric Data  
Mixed Method Approaches to Case Study  
Philosophical Assumptions of Case Study that are Well-Suited to Mixed Methods  
Mixing by Linking Qualitative and Quantitative Data in a Case Report  
Accomplishing Mixing through Sampling Procedures in Case Study Research  
Exemplary Article: Mixed Methods Case Study Research by Cooper (2014)  
Mixing across Stages of the Research Process in the Exemplar  
Conclusions  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Supplemental Activities  
Recommended Reading  
 
PART 3: EVALUATING QUALITY
 
Chapter 8: Evaluating Quality in Mixed Methods Research Publications
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter  
Organization of the Chapter  
Chapter Exemplar: McMahon (2007) Study About the Endorsement of Rape Myths among College Athletes  
Mixed Method Evaluation Rubric (MMER)  
Defining and Illustrating the Evaluation Criteria in the MMER  
Criterion # 1: Transparency Application to the Exemplar  
Criterion # 2: Amount of Mixing Application to the Exemplar  
Criterion # 3: Interpretive Comprehensiveness Application to the Exemplar  
Criterion # 4: Methodological Foundation Application to the Exemplar  
Using Evaluation Criteria to Demonstrate a Link between Design and Quality  
Challenges and Future Uses of the MMER  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Supplemental Activities  
Recommended Reading  
 
Chapter 9: Designing and Reporting a Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research Proposal or Doctoral Dissertation
Communicating Priority  
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter  
Organization of the Chapter  
Situations When the Multi-Method Label is Appropriate  
Intentionality About Incorporating Design Features That Promote Mixing  
Designing a Mixed Methods Study in Ways that are Feasible for a Newcomer to Empirical Research  
Chapter Exemplars that are the Most Feasible as Models for Doctoral Research  
Methods that are Adaptable to a Mixed Methods Approach  
Content Analysis  
Organizing a Mixed Methods Research Manuscript  
Extending the Quality of Reporting  
Process-Oriented Graphics  
Illustrating the Guidelines for Methodological Transparency with an Exemplar  
Conclusions  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Recommended Reading  
 
PART 4: CONTROVERSIES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
 
Chapter 10: Controversies and Future Directions
Purposes, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter  
Contribution of the Chapter  
Organization of the Chapter  
Looking Back: Controversies about Mixed Methods Research  
Evidence About Prevalence  
Reframing Designs to Emphasize Mixing During Analysis  
Conceiving Mixed Priority Designs  
Inserting a Third Column: Visualizing Designs in Ways that Highlight Mixing  
Re-Conceptualizing Priority in Terms of Inferences and Meta-Inferences  
Applying a Template to Visualize Meta-Inferences  
Summarizing Major Themes  
Lessons from the Exemplars  
Refocusing the Logic of Combination  
Applying the Mixed Methods Label  
Summary of Key Points  
Key Terms  
Supplemental Activities  
Recommended Reading  
 
Appendices
Appendix A: Summary of Key Points by Chapter  
Appendix B: List of Supplemental Activities by Chapter  
Appendix C: Blank Template for Article Summaries  
Appendix D: Templates for Chapter Exemplars  
 
Endnote
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Name Index
 
Subject Index

Supplements

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  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter

“Author Elizabeth G. Creamer provides an accessible, user-friendly text for graduate students and those new to the field of mixed methods. It aims to move the field to using fully integrated designs, and emphasizes the importance of the yield, particularly the meta-inferences, of mixed methods studies.  Case examples from a variety of fields bring these concepts to life throughout the text.”

Leanne M. Kallemeyn
Loyola University Chicago

“Finally—a text that explains mixed methods research in a thorough yet readable format, one that is full of excellent examples and helpful tables, and that presents a perspective that is simultaneously detailed and broad in scope.”

Laura J. Meyer
University of Denver

“The text is comprehensive and well written. It provides a strong background and overview of mixed methods, and educates students on how to be consumers of mixed methods studies.”

Tina L. Freiburger
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee

Methodological choices vary according to epistemology, discipline, and motivation, making the 'sell for a particular methodology quite difficult' (Cousin, 2009, p. 5). By weaving her argument for mixed methods across numerous research contexts, motivations, and disciplines, Creamer’s work bypasses these challenges and asserts itself as a provocative guide for a wide range of researchers. Creamer’s ability to make mixed methods accessible for readers— regardless of their discipline—is a vital contribution to mixed methods literature.

Cherie D. Edwards, David Reeping, Ashley Taylor, and Alison Bowers
Virginia Tech University

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1

Chapter 9


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