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Latent Variables and Factor Analysis

Latent Variables and Factor Analysis

Four Volume Set
Edited by:

February 2015 | 1 472 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd

This four-volume Major Work contains texts which explore both the foundations of latent variables and factor analysis, and specific contemporary challenges in the field.


The collection has been designed as a multi-disciplinary resource, with literature drawn from many different areas of study, such as sociology, psychology, education and political science.


In the editor’s introductory essay, a general approach to the meaning and use of latent variables in the social sciences is laid out, the basics of factor analysis and how it works are explained, and the logic that guided the selection of literature included in the collection is elaborated upon.  The combination of these elements makes for a truly comprehensive and user-friendly research tool, invaluable to social scientists across a range of disciplines.


Volume One: The Conceptualization and Operationalization of Variables

Volume Two: Applications of Unmeasured Variables

Volume Three: Factor Analysis for Latent Variables

Volume Four: Advanced Topics


Part One: Perspectives on Measurement
Measurement and Conceptualization Problems: The Major Obstacle to Integrating Theory and Research

H.M. Blalock, Jr
Detection and Determinants of Bias in Subjective Measures

Kenneth Bollen and Pamela Paxton
Conventional Wisdom on Measurement: A Structural Equation Perspective

Kenneth Bollen and Richard Lennox
Measurement in Sociology

Floyd House
A History of Social Science Measurement

Benjamin Wright
Part Two: Construct Validity
Classical and Modern Methods of Psychological Scale Construction

Leonard Simms
Construct Validity in Psychological Tests

Lee Cronbach and Paul Meehl
Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix

Donald Campbell and Donald Fiske
Assessing Construct Validity in Organizational Research

Richard Bagozzi, Youjae Yi and Lynn Phillips
The Empirical Assessment of Construct Validity

Scott O’Leary-Kelly and Robert Vokurka
The Dangers of Poor Construct Conceptualization

Scott MacKenzie
Part Three: Item Response Theory
Classical Test Theory

Robert DeVellis
The New Rules of Measurement

Susan Embretson
Applying Item Response Theory (IRT) Modeling to Questionnaire Development, Evaluation and Refinement

Maria Orlando Edelen and Bryce Reeve
The Past and Future of Multidimensional Item Response Theory

Mark Reckase
Part Four: Exploratory Factor Analysis
Exploratory Factor Analysis: A User’s Guide

Eamonn Ferguson and Tom Cox
Evaluating the Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Psychological Research

Leandre Fabrigar et al.
The Quality of Factor Solutions in Exploratory Factor Analysis: The Influence of Sample Size, Communality, and Overdetermination

Kristine Hogarty et al.
A Review and Evaluation of Exploratory Factor Analysis Practices in Organizational Research

James Conway and Allen Huffcutt
Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Published Research: Common Errors and Some Comment on Improved Practice

Robin Henson and Kyle Roberts
Evaluating the Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Developmental Disability Psychological Research

Megan Norris and Luc Lecavalier
Part Five: Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Factor Analytic Models: Viewing the Structure of an Assessment Instrument from Three Perspectives

Barbara Byrne
The Generality of Criminal Behavior: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Criminal Activity of Sex Offenders in Adulthood

Patrick Lussier, Marc LeBlanc and Jean Proulx
Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Multitrait-Multimethod Data: Many Problems and a Few Solutions

Herbert Marsh
Sample Size and Number of Parameter Estimates in Maximum Likelihood Confirmatory Factor Analysis: A Monte Carlo Investigation

Dennis Jackson
Reporting Practices in Confirmatory Factor Analysis: An Overview and Some Recommendations

Dennis Jackson, J. Arthur Gillaspy, Jr and Rebecca Purc-Stephenson
Reporting Structural Equation Modeling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results: A Review

James Schreiber et al.
Part Six: Exploratory Versus Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Factor Analysis in Counseling Psychology Research, Training, and Practice: Principles, Advances, and Applications

Jeffrey Kahn
Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Guidelines, Issues, and Alternatives

Amy Hurley et al.
Current Methodological Considerations in Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Thomas Schmitt
Comparing Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis: A Study on the 5-Factor Model of Personality

Peter Borkenau and Fritz Ostendorf
In Search of Underlying Dimensions: The Use (and Abuse) of Factor Analysis in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

Daniel Russell
Part Seven: Principal Components Analysis
Component Analysis versus Common Factor Analysis: Some Issues in Selecting an Appropriate Procedure

Wayne Velicer and Douglas Jackson
Component Analysis versus Common Factor Analysis: A Monte Carlo Study

Steven Snook and Richard Gorsuch
Common Factor Analysis versus Principal Component Analysis: Differential Bias in Representing Model Parameters?

Keith Widaman
Constructing Socio-economic Status Indices: How to Use Principal Components Analysis

Seema Vyas and Lilani Kumaranayake
Part Eight: Formative Measurement
Index Construction with Formative Indicators: An Alternative to Scale Development

Adamantios Diamantopoulos and Heidi Winklhofer
A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research

Cheryl Burke Jarvis, Scott MacKenzie and Philip Podsakoff
Interpretation of Formative Measurement in Information Systems Research

Ronald Cenfetelli and Geneviève Basseller
Advancing Formative Measurement Models

Adamantios Diamantopoulos, Petra Riefler and Katharina Roth
The Error Term in Formative Measurement Models: Interpretation and Modeling Implication

Adamantios Diamantopoulos
Questions about Formative Measurement

James Wilcox, Roy Howell and Einar Breivik
Formative Measurement and Academic Research: In Search of Measurement Theory

Andrew Hardin et al.
Part Nine: Formative Versus Reflective Measurement
On the Nature and Direction of Relationships between Constructs and Measures

Jeffrey Edwards and Richard Bagozzi
Reconsidering Formative Measurement

Roy Howell, James Wilcox and Einar Brievik
Interpretational Confounding Is Due to Misspecification, Not to Type of Indicator: Comment on Howell, Breivik and Wilcox (2007)

Kenneth Bollen
On the Meaning of Formative Measurement and How It Differs from Reflective Measurement: Comment on Howell, Breivik and Wilcox (2007)

Richard Bagozzi
Is Formative Measurement Really Measurement? Reply to Bollen (2007) and Bagozzi (2007)

Roy Howell, James Wilcox and Einar Brievik
The Fallacy of Formative Measurement

Jeffrey Edwards
Part Ten: Factor Analysis With Ordinal And Dichotomous Data
Empirical Evaluation of Alternative Methods of Estimation for Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Ordinal Data

David Flora and Patrick Curran
Evaluating Estimation Methods for Ordinal Data in Structural Equation Modeling

Pui-Wa Lei
The Sensitivity of Confirmatory Maximum Likelihood Analysis to Violations of Measurement Scale and Distributional Assumptions

Emin Babakus, Carl Ferguson, Jr and Karl Jöreskog
Polychoric versus Pearson Correlations in Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Ordinal Variables

Francisco Holgado-Tello et al.
Part Eleven: Factor Rotations
Factor Rotations in Factor Analyses

Hervé Abdi
The Invariance Problem in Factor Analysis

J. Guilford
Rotation Criteria and Hypothesis Testing for Exploratory Factor Analysis: Implications for Factor Pattern Loadings and Interfactor Correlations

Thomas Schmitt and Daniel Sass
A Comparison of Factor Rotation Methods for Dichotomous Data

W. Holmes Finch
Part Twelve: Latent Class Analysis
Searching for Ideal Types: The Potentialities of Latent Class Analysis

Jacques Hagenaars and Loek Halman
Latent Class Models in Social Work

Susan Neely-Barnes
Identifying Class Structure: A Latent Class Analysis of the Criterion-Related and Construct Validity of the Goldthorpe Class Schema

Geoffrey Evans and Colin Mills
Integrating Person-Centered and Variable-Centered Analyses: Growth Mixture Modeling with Latent Trajectory Classes

Bengt Muthén and Linda Muthén
The Integration of Continuous and Discrete Latent Variable Models: Potential Problems and Promising Opportunities

Daniel Bauer and Patrick Curran

"Dr. Babones has brought together an important collection of articles on latent variables and factor analysis that applied researcher and practitioners will find essential for understanding methodological foundations, as well as relevant applications. This is necessary in a time when the amount of information on factor analysis can be overwhelming for both beginners and experts alike.”

Tom A Schmitt, PhD.
CEO, Equastat

"This collection is a wonderful resource for students who are planning to learn about this important method. The carefully-chosen papers and the editor’s introductory essays will greatly facilitate self-study in this field. Beginners will save substantial time to get the right direction in learning, especially when courses and workshops on factor analyses are not available. Meanwhile, the collection is also a valuable reader for instructors to teach these methods. I appreciate Professor Babones' work in this collection, and I am sure many students and scholars will benefit from this publication." 

Qiushi Feng
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore

These volumes provide a fine historical and comprehensive coverage of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The theory and practical use of factor analysis are both superbly presented. At the same time, special attention is given to foundation issues in measurement, and how factor analysis relates to these issues. Researchers, students, and faculty members will find these volumes essential aids in deepening and broadening their knowledge and skills.

Richard P. Bagozzi
Dwight F. Benton Professor of Behavioral Science in Management, University of Michigan

This is a carefully-selected and well-balanced set of key articles covering a wide range of issues in factor analysis and latent variable modeling. What is particularly impressive is the inclusion of "classic" papers from several disciplines that have shaped or even revolutionalized thinking on measurement and modeling. Both novice and experienced researchers across disciplines will strongly benefit from consulting this comprehensive reference work. Congratulations for putting together such an an excellent resource.

Professor Adamantios Diamantopoulos
Chair of International Marketing, Department of Business Administration, University of Vienna