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Journal of Management

Journal of Management

Published by SAGE in association with the Southern Management Association
Official Journal of the Southern Management Association

eISSN: 15571211 | ISSN: 01492063 | Current volume: 46 | Current issue: 6 Frequency: 8 Times/Year
The Journal of Management (JOM) is committed to publishing scholarly empirical and theoretical research articles, that have a high impact on the management field as a whole. The journal encourages new ideas or new perspectives on existing research. The journal covers such areas as:

  • Business strategy & policy
  • Organizational behavior
  • Human resource management
  • Organizational theory
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Research Methods

Review Issues are published biannually in January and July. These issues include widely read and widely cited collections of articles in the field of management and have become a major resource for management scholars. The Review Issues cover a broad range of topics from a wide range of academic disciplines, methodologies, and theoretical paradigms. The review issue call for proposals is posted in December. Proposals can be submitted during the month of June.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The Journal of Management welcomes empirical and theoretical articles dealing with micro, meso, and macro workplace phenomena. Manuscripts that are suitable for publication in the Journal of Management cover domains such as business strategy and policy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational theory, and research methods.

David G. Allen Texas Christian University, US & University of Warwick, UK
Editor Elect
Brian L. Connelly Auburn University, USA
Senior Associate Editors
Eden B. King Rice University, USA
Fred Oswald Rice University, USA
Taco Reus RSM Erasmus University
Methods Task Force Chair
Don Bergh University of Denver, USA
Associate Editor Team
Bianca Beersma VU University, Amsterdam
Rebecca Greenbaum Rutgers University, USA
Gerard P. Hodgkinson University of Manchester, UK
Luis Martins McCombs School of Business, University of Texas, Austin, USA
Ernest O'Boyle University of Iowa, USA
Anne Parmigiani University of Oregon, USA
Christopher O. L. H. Porter Indiana University, USA
Christopher Rosen University of Arkansas, USA
Karen A. Schnatterly University of Missouri, USA
William Schulze University of Utah, USA
Jorge Walter George Washington University, USA
William Wan Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
Managing Editor
Stro Prothro Texas Christian University, USA
Editorial Board
Herman Aguinis George Washington University, USA
Federico Aime Oklahoma State University, USA
Todd M. Alessandri Northeastern University, USA
Bradley J. Alge Purdue University, USA
Matthew Allen Babson College, USA
Maureen L. Ambrose University of Central Florida, USA
Neil Anderson Brunel University, UK
Goce Andrevski Queen's School of Business, Canada
Shahzad Ansari University of Cambridge, UK
John Antonakis University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Craig E. Armstrong University of Alabama, USA
Felix Arndt University of Pennsylvania, USA
Jonathan D. Arthurs Oregon State University, USA
Samuel Aryee University of Surrey, UK
Neal Ashkanasy University of Queensland, Australia
Ariel Avgar Cornell University, USA
Natarajan Balasubramanian Syracuse University, USA
Timothy R. Barnett Mississippi State University, USA
Murray R. Barrick Texas A&M University, USA
Michael Bashshur Singapore Management University, Singapore
Talya N. Bauer Portland State University, USA
Manuel Becerra University of Queensland , Australia
Brian E. Becker University at Buffalo, USA
Devasheesh Bhave Singapore Management University, Singapore
Robert J. Bies Georgetown University, USA
Lyda Bigelow University of Utah, USA
Steven L. Blader New York University, USA
Ramona Bobocel University of Waterloo, Canada
Corine Boon University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Prashant Bordia The Australian National University, Australia
John W. Boudreau University of Southern California, USA
Oana Branzei Western University, Canada
Matthias Brauer University of Mannheim, Germany
Joan F. Brett Arizona State University, USA
Keith D. Brouthers King's College London, UK
Olga Bruyaka West Virginia University, USA
Rhett Brymer Miami University, USA
Joanna Campbell University of Cincinnati, USA
J. Ignacio Canales University of Glasgow, UK
Albert A. Cannella, Jr. Texas A&M University, USA
Dorothy R. Carter University of Georgia, USA
Wendy Casper University of Texas Arlington, USA
Gary J. Castrogiovanni Florida Atlantic University, USA
Clint Chadwick University of Kansas, USA
C.S. Richard Chan State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA
Jianhong Chen University of New Hampshire, USA
Mike Cheung National University of Singapore, Singapore
Michael S. Cole Texas Christian University, USA
Adrienne J. Colella Tulane University, USA
David Collings Dublin City University, Ireland
Donald E. Conlon Michigan State University, USA
Brian Connelly Auburn University, USA
Kevin Corley Arizona State University, USA
Jose M. Cortina George Mason University, USA
Jacqueline Coyle-Shapiro London School of Economics and Political Science, UK
Wayne Crawford New Mexico State University, USA
Jonathan Crawshaw Aston University, UK
T. Russell Crook University of Tennessee, USA
Craig Crossland University of Notre Dame, USA
Reeshad S. Dalal George Mason University, USA
Kevin Daniels University of East Anglia, UK
Parthiban David American University, USA
David V. Day Claremont McKenna College, USA
John Delery University of Arkansas, USA
Deanne N. den Hartog University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Richard P. DeShon Michigan State University, USA
Brian Dineen Purdue University, USA
Katharina Dittrich University of Zurich, Switzerland
Jonathan Doh Villanova University, USA
Fritz Drasgow University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Michelle Duffy University of Minnesota USA
Marion Eberly University of Washington, USA
Berrin Erdogan Portland State University, USA
Doris Fay University of Potsdam, Germany
Teppo Felin University of Oxford, UK
Jie Feng Rutgers University, USA
Lisa M. Finkelstein Northern Illinois University, USA
Robert G. Folger University of Central Florida, USA
Franco Fraccaroli University of Trento, Italy
Charlotte Fritz Portland State University, USA
Mel Fugate University of South Australia, Australia
Ingrid Fulmer Rutgers University, USA
Vibha Gaba INSEAD, Singapore
Allison S. Gabriel University of Arizona, USA
Ravi S. Gajendran Florida International University, USA
Massimo Garbuio University of Sydney, Australia
Tim Gardner Utah State University, USA
K. Matthew Gilley St. Mary's University, USA
Lucy L. Gilson University of Connecticut, USA
Barry M. Goldman University of Arizona, USA
Yaping Gong Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China
Vicente González-Romá University of Valencia, Spain
Maria Goranova University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA
Gary Greguras Singapore Management University, Singapore
Rodger Griffeth Ohio University, USA
Markus Groth The University of New South Wales, Australia
David E. Guest King’s College London, UK
Michael Hadani Saint Mary's College of California, USA
Tobias Hahn ESADE, Spain
Jonathon Halbesleben University of Alabama, USA
Joo Hun Han Rutgers University, USA
Jared Harris University of Virginia, USA
Thomas (Brad) Harris Texas Christian University, USA
Donald Hatfield Virginia Tech University, USA
Mikki R. Hebl Rice University, USA
Paul Hempel City University of Hong Kong, China
Ivona Hideg Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada
Aaron Hill University of Florida, USA
Tim R. Holcomb Miami University, USA
John R. Hollenbeck Michigan State University, USA
R. Michael Holmes Jr. Florida State University, USA
Brooks Holtom Georgetown University, USA
Peter W. Hom Arizona State University, USA
Kim Hoque University of Warwick, UK
Jia (Jasmine) Hu The Ohio State University, USA
Zhi Huang University of Kentucky, USA
Chun Hui University of Hong Kong, China
Steven T. Hunt SuccessFactors, an SAP Company, USA
Gazi Islam Grenoble École de Management, France
Karen Jansen University of Reading, UK
Kaifeng Jiang Ohio State University, USA
Scott Johnson Iowa State University, USA
David A. Jones University of Vermont, USA
Kristen Jones University of Memphis, USA
K. Michele Kacmar Texas State University, USA
Arturs Kalnins Cornell University, USA
Nadine Kammerlander WHU-Otto Beisheim School of Management, Germany
Sung-Choon Kang Seoul National University, South Korea
Seth Kaplan George Mason University, USA
Amit Karna Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, India
Franz W. Kellermanns University of North Carolina, Charlotte, USA
Hicheon Kim Korea University, South Korea
Tae-Yeol Kim China Europe International Business School, China
David R. King Florida State University, USA
Jennifer Kish-Gephart University of Arkansas, USA
Geoffrey Kistruck York University, Canada
Brian S. Klaas University of Missouri, Kansas City, USA
Patricia Klarner Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany
Anthony Klotz Oregon State University, USA
Donald H. Kluemper University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Dejun Tony Kong University of South Florida - Tampa, USA
M. Audrey Korsgaard University of South Carolina, USA
Steven W. J. Kozlowski Michigan State University, USA
Kurt Kraiger Colorado State University, USA
Markus Kreutzer EBS University, Germany
David Kryscynski Brigham Young University, USA
Tomi Laamanen University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Jamie Ladge Northeastern University, USA
Nandini Lahiri Temple University, USA
Catherine K. Lam City University of Hong Kong, China
Ronald S. Landis Illinois Institute of Technology, USA
Gary P. Latham University of Toronto, Canada
Sergio G. Lazzarini Insper Institute of Education and Research, Brazil
James M. LeBreton Pennsylvania State University, USA
Yih-teen Lee University of Navarra, Spain
Edward Levitas University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA
Roy J. Lewicki Ohio State University, USA
Andrew Li West Texas A&M University, USA
Jiatao T. Li Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, China
Julie Li City University of Hong Kong, China
Ming Lily Li University of Liverpool, UK
Sali Li University of South Carolina, USA
Robert Liden University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Elizabeth Lim Georgia State University, USA
Hao-Chieh Lin National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan
Songqi Liu Georgia State University, USA
Edwin A. Locke University of Maryland, USA
Manuel London State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA
Kevin B. Lowe University of Sydney, Australia
Sean Lux University of South Florida, USA
Brent Lyons York University, UK
Ty B. Mackey Clarkson University, USA
Peter M. Madsen Brigham Young University, USA
Carl Maertz Saint Louis University, USA
Juan P. Maicas University of Zaragoza, Spain
Debra A. Major Old Dominion University, USA
Massimo Maoret University of Navarra, Spain
Catherine Maritan Syracuse University, USA
Gideon D. Markman Colorado State University, USA
Janet H. Marler State University of New York at Albany, USA
Sarah J. Marsh Northern Illinois University, USA
Luis Martins University of Texas at Austin, USA
Todd Maurer Georgia State University, USA
Roger C. Mayer North Carolina State University, USA
Dean B. McFarlin Duquesne University, USA
Alexander McKelvie Syracuse University, USA
Aaron McKenny University of Central Florida, USA
Markus Menz University of Geneva, Switzerland
Dana Minbaeva Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Robert Moorman Elon University, USA
Shad Morris Brigham Young University, USA
Timothy P. Munyon University of Tennessee, USA
Kevin Murphy University of Limerick, Ireland
Donald O. Neubaum Florida Atlantic University, USA
Thomas Ng University of Hong Kong, China
Charlene Nicholls-Nixon Ryerson University, Canada
Bo B. Nielsen University of Sydney, Australia
Raymond Noe Ohio State University, USA
Anthony Nyberg University of South Carolina, USA
Anne M. O'Leary-Kelly University of Arkansas, USA
Jane O'Reilly University of Ottawa, Canada
In-Sue Oh Temple University, USA
Desiree Pacheco Portland State University, USA
Sotirios Paroutis University of Warwick, UK
Pankaj Patel Villanova University, USA
Seemantini Pathak University of Missouri–St. Louis, USA
Malcolm Patterson University of Sheffield, UK
Samantha Paustian-Underdahl Florida International University, USA
G. Tyge Payne Texas Tech University, USA
Riccardo Peccei King's College London, UK
Olga Petricevic University of Calgary, Canada
Jean Phillips Pennsylvania State University, USA
Jenna Pieper University of Nebraska - Lincoln, USA
Charles A. Pierce University of Memphis, USA
Richard Posthuma University of Texas at El Paso, USA
Gary N. Powell University of Connecticut, USA
John E. Prescott University of Pittsburgh, USA
S. Douglas Pugh Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Dan J. Putka HumRRO, USA
Cuili Qian University of Texas at Dallas, USA
James Campbell Quick University of Texas at Arlington, USA
Miguel A. Quiñones Southern Methodist University, USA
Alannah E. Rafferty Griffith University, Australia
Roberto Ragozzino University of Tennessee, USA
Annette Ranft University of Tennessee, USA
Davide Ravasi University College London, UK
Elizabeth C. Ravlin University of South Carolina, USA
Jochen Reb Singapore Management University, Singapore
Charlie L. Reeve University of North Carolina, Charlotte, USA
B. Sebastian Reiche University of Navarra, Spain
Maija Renko University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Simon Lloyd Restubog University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Doug Reynolds Development Dimensions International, USA
Hettie Richardson Texas Christian University, USA
Ansgar Richter University of Surrey, UK
Neal Roese Northwestern University, USA
Steven G. Rogelberg University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA
Kristie Rogers Marquette University, USA
Deborah E. Rupp Purdue University, USA
Alan Saks University of Toronto, Canada
Eduardo Salas Rice University, USA
Rommel Salvador California State University, Fullerton, USA
William R. Sandberg University of South Carolina, USA
Donald Schepker University of South Carolina, USA
Oliver Schilke University of Arizona, USA
Minet Schindehutte Syracuse University, USA
Deidra J. Schleicher Texas A&M University, USA
Marshall Schminke University of Central Florida, USA
Gavin M. Schwarz University of New South Wales, Australia
Rosalind Searle Coventry University, UK
Jennifer Sexton West Virginia University, USA
Ruodan Shao York University, Canada
Debra L. Shapiro University of Maryland, USA
Barton Sharp Northern Illinois University, USA
Jason Shaw The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Taekjin Shin San Diego State University, USA
Abbie J. Shipp Texas Christian University, USA
Christopher L. Shook University of Montana, USA
Lynn M. Shore Colorado State University, USA
Jeremy Short University of Oklahoma, USA
Lauren Simon University of Arkansas, USA
Daniel P. Skarlicki Sauder School of Business, Canada
David Sluss Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
Deepak Somaya University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA
David Souder University of Connecticut, USA
André Spicer City University London, UK
Kannan Srikanth Singapore Management University, Singapore
Manish Srivastava Michigan Technological University, USA
Dirk D. Steiner University Côte d'Azur, France
Cynthia K. Stevens University of Maryland, USA
Greg L. Stewart University of Iowa, USA
J. L. Stimpert DePauw University, USA
Susan Storrud-Barnes Cleveland State University, USA
Karoline Strauss ESSEC Business School, France
Michael Sturman Rutgers University, USA
Sherry Sullivan Bowling Green State University, USA
Riki Takeuchi Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
Danchi Tan National Chengchi University, Taiwan
Hwee Hoon Tan Singapore Management University, Singapore
Louis Tay Purdue University, USA
Shannon Taylor University of Central Florida, USA
Sherry Thatcher University of South Carolina, USA
Stefan Thau INSEAD, France
Pamela Tierney Portland State University, USA
Charlie Trevor University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Thomas M. Tripp Washington State University, USA
Donald M. Truxillo University of Limerick, Ireland
Scott Turner University of South Carolina, USA
Daniel Tzabbar Drexel University, USA
Krista L. Uggerslev Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, Canada
Abhijeet Vadera Indian School of Business, India
Giovanni Valentini Universidad de Navarra IESE, Spain
Karina van de Voorde Tilburg University, Netherlands
Chad Van Iddikinge Florida State University, USA
Danielle van Jaarsveld University of British Columbia, Canada
Daan van Knippenberg Drexel University, USA
James Vardaman University of Memphis, USA
Sabrina D. Volpone University of Colorado Boulder, USA
John Wagner Michigan State University, USA
H. Jack Walker Auburn University, USA
Judith Walls Nanyang Business School, NTU, Singapore
Kate Walsh Cornell University, USA
Jorge Walter George Washington University, USA
Mo Wang University of Florida, USA
Sean Way Monash University, Australia
Sandy J. Wayne University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Justin W. Webb University of North Carolina, Charlotte, USA
Steve M. Werner University of Houston, USA
Curtis Wesley II University of Houston, USA
Jennifer Whyte Imperial College London, UK
Charles Williams Bocconi University, Italy
Margaret L. Williams Texas Tech University, USA
Melissa Williams Emory University, USA
Kelly Schwind Wilson Purdue University, USA
Elaine Wong University of California-Riverside, USA
Sang Eun Woo Purdue University, USA
Stephen Wood University of Leicester, UK
Patrick M. Wright University of South Carolina, USA
Thomas A. Wright Wright Institute of Organizational Learning, USA
Robert Wuebker Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
Yoshio Yanadori University of South Australia Business School
Michele E. Yoder University of Michigan - Dearborn, USA
Thomas Zagenczyk Clemson University, USA
Yan Zhang Peking University, China
Jing Zhou Rice University, USA
Michael J. Zickar Bowling Green State University, USA
Fabio Zona University of Trento, Italy
Michael Zyphur The University of Melbourne, Australia
Founding Editor
Dennis F. Ray, 1975-1977 Mississippi State University, USA
Past Editors
Arthur G. Bedeian, 1978-1979 Auburn University, USA
H. K. Downey, 1980-1982 Oklahoma State University, USA
J. G. Hunt, 1983-1986 Texas Tech University, USA
David D. Van Fleet, 1987-1989 Texas A&M University, USA
Ricky W. Griffin, 1990-1992 Texas A&M University, USA
Dan R. Dalton, 1992-1995 Indiana University, USA
Robert P. Vecchio, 1995-1999 University of Notre Dame, USA
K. M. Kacmar, 1999-2002 Florida State University, USA
Daniel C. Feldman, 2002-2005 University of Georgia, USA
Russell Cropanzano, 2005-2008 University of Arizona, USA
Talya N. Bauer, 2008-2011 Portland State University, USA
Deborah E. Rupp, 2011-2014 Purdue University, USA
Patrick M. Wright, 2014-2017 University of South Carolina, USA
  • Business ASAP - Gale
  • Business and Company Resource Center - Gale
  • EBSCO: Business Source - Main Edition
  • Emerald Management Reviews
  • Expanded Academic Index - Gale
  • LexisNexis
  • PAIS International
  • ProQuest: CSA Sociological Abstracts
  • ProQuest: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
  • PsycINFO
  • Scopus
  • Social SciSearch
  • Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science)
  • VINITI Abstracts Journal
  • Wilson Business Periodicals Index/Wilson Business Abstracts
  • Overview of Review Process

    Instructions for Authors

    The Journal of Management (JOM) publishes scholarly empirical, theoretical, and review articles dealing with management. Manuscripts that are suitable for publication in the journal cover areas such as business strategy and policy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational theory, and research methods.
    The following brief checklist provides a quick reference for you to follow during your submission and manuscript review process.

    • Papers submitted should not be under concurrent consideration at another journal.
    • Any actual or potential data overlap with previous studies should be noted and described in the letter to the Editor. In order to maintain masked review, provide an anonymized data transparency table describing actual or potential data overlap. 
    • All new manuscripts should be submitted electronically. Electronic submissions should be uploaded to the Journal of Management by accessing
    • Files should be submitted in Microsoft Word format.
    • All manuscripts must adhere to the JOM Style Guide.
    • All authors of quantitative manuscripts will attest that their submission meets the respective data reporting requirements as specified on the Journal’s homepage.
    • Papers that violate the spirit of the guidelines (e.g., papers that are single-spaced, papers that use footnotes rather than conventional referencing formats, papers that greatly exceed 50 pages), or which do not clearly fit the mission of the journal will be immediately returned to authors without being reviewed.
    • Authors should keep in mind that papers are evaluated on a page-to-contribution ratio.
    • We encourage you to have a colleague peer review any paper prior to submission to the Journal of Management. To maintain masked review, please acknowledge your peer reviewer(s) and include other author notes in the letter to the Editor.
    • During the review process, including at the Conditional Accept stage, manuscripts may be subject to additional methodological screening that may require the submission of additional information (e.g. analysis code; analysis output; original data). 
    • Accepted papers must fully adhere to the guidelines.
    • Published papers will use the affiliations of each author at the time of the original submission. No changes can be made at any stage in the review/publication process.
    • Changes in authorship (e.g. addition; subtraction; change in order) during a revision process must be clearly explained in a letter to the Editor.

    Points of Interest

    • Submissions will be acknowledged via email upon receipt. We strive to make an editorial decision in under 90 days, but circumstances beyond our control occasionally dictate a longer cycle.
    • Each paper is typically reviewed by at least two reviewers and is also read by the action editor (either the Editor or an Associate Editor). Results of our decision, along with copies of the reviews, will be forwarded to the contact author as quickly as possible.
    • If authors are invited to prepare a revision for further consideration, our letters of invitation will outline the key issues to be resolved and an assessment of the likelihood of success.
    • Authors are normally given three to six months from the date of the invitation to prepare a revision. Our policy is to strive to make a final publication decision after one or two revisions (of course, further work may also be requested to resolve any remaining issues).
    • Papers accepted to the Journal of Management become part of the OnlineFirst system, which provides immediate access to finalized manuscripts prior to their physical printing. Relatively few articles can be printed in any given issue of the Journal of Management, so there is some time lag between online and in-print publication; nevertheless articles published OnlineFirst are published. OnlineFirst allows researchers and others in the field to read and cite the most current information available. Please go to to view in press articles.
    • As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

      The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

      If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    Thank you for considering the Journal of Management as a publication outlet. We look forward to reviewing your research!


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