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Journal of Travel Research

Journal of Travel Research

Published in Association with: Travel and Tourism Research Association

eISSN: 15526763 | ISSN: 00472875 | Current volume: 63 | Current issue: 5 Frequency: 8 Times/Year

The Journal of Travel Research (JTR) is the premier, peer-reviewed research journal focusing on the business of travel and tourism development, management, marketing, economics and behavior. JTR provides researchers, educators, and professionals with up-to-date, high quality research on behavioral trends and management theory for one of the most influential and dynamic industries. Founded in 1961, JTR is the oldest of the world’s top-ranked scholarly journals focused exclusively on travel and tourism, reflecting the worldwide importance of tourism, both economically and socially.

Published by SAGE, an international leader in social science and business publishing, JTR publishes the most current and influential scholarship on travel and tourism.

The Journal of Travel Research publishes state-of-the-art research on the most important trends and issues in travel and tourism. JTR offers an international and multidisciplinary perspective on the best development and management practices by publishing research which enhances knowledge of important travel and tourism phenomena. JTR thereby contributes to the development of theory which enables improvements in tourism development policy and strategy; managerial practice; economic, social and environmental outcomes; and education and training programs.

All manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Travel Research are double-blind, peer-reviewed by leading tourism scholars. The JTR editorial review board includes top tourism scholars identified on the basis of their current research and scholarly contributions.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The mission of the Journal of Travel Research is to be the premier, peer-reviewed research journal focused on the business of travel and tourism development, management, marketing, economics and behavior. Given the multifaceted, multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder character of the tourism economy, this focus implies a concern for both the public and private sector spheres of interest as well as economic, socio-cultural, political, environmental, legal, technological, and demographic issues. Specific goals are to be international in scope with geographic diversity, to be multidisciplinary with diversity in research topics and methodologies, and to be germane to the needs of the travel and tourism industry and its stakeholders.

All manuscripts published in the Journal of Travel Research are double-blind, peer-reviewed by accomplished scholars in the topical area. The standard for publication in the Journal of Travel Research is that a paper must make a substantive contribution, either theoretically or methodologically, to the travel and tourism research literature. Additionally, a paper should specify its contribution to pragmatic tourism management concerns and practice.

Published manuscripts must be on research of the highest standards, on topics of major significance and widespread interest, and relevant to the progress of this important global sector.

Nancy G. McGehee Virginia Tech, USA
James F. Petrick Texas A&M University, USA
Past Editors
Geoffrey I. Crouch La Trobe University, Australia
Charles R. Goeldner University of Colorado, USA
Richard R. Perdue Virginia Tech University, USA
Editorial Policy Board
Kathleen L. Andereck Arizona State University West, USA
Richard R. Perdue Virginia Tech University, USA
Muzaffer Uysal University of Massachusetts, USA
Editorial Review Board
karen Pei-Sze Tan Middle Tennessee State, USA
Graziano Abrate University of Piemonte Orientale, Italy
Issahaku Adam University of Cape Coast, Ghana, Africa
Jorge Araña Universidad de Las palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Albert Assaf University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Guy Assaker Lebanese American University, Lebanon
George Athanasopoulos Monash University, Australia
Carla Barbieri North Carolina State University, USA
Giovanni Bella University of Cagliari, Italy
Pierre Benckendorff University of Queensland, Australia
Stefanie Benjamin University of Tennessee, USA
Pietro Beritelli University of St Gallen, Switzerland
Bynum Boley University of Georgia, USA
Soyoung Boo Georgia State University, USA
Kelly Bricker Arizona State University, USA
Daniela Buzova University of Valencia, Spain
Wenjie Cai University of Greenwich, UK
Robin Chark University of Macau, Macau SAR, China
Chun-Chu "Bamboo" Chen Washington State University, USA
Ganghua Chen Sun Yat-sen University, China
Jason Chen University of Surrey, UK
Nan Chen Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Choongbeom Choi University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Scott Cohen University of Surrey, UK
Antónia Correia Universidade Europeia, Portugal
John Crotts College of Charleston, USA
Glauber Eduardo de Oliveira Santos University of São Paulo, Brazil
Giacomo Del Chiappa University of Sassari, Italy
Ning Deng Bejing International Studies University, China
Astrid Dickinger MODUL University, Austria
Alana Dillette San Diego State University, USA
Tarik Dogru Florida State University, USA
Yuksel Ekinci University of Portsmouth, UK
Youngjoon Choi Ewha Ewha Womans University, Korea
David Fennell Brock University, Canada
Paolo Figini University of Bologna, Italy
Raffaele Filieri Audencia Business School, France
Isabelle Frochot Universite de Savoie, France
Jennifer Frost Latrobe University, Australia
Rachel Fu University of Florida, USA
Matthias Fuchs Mid-Sweden University, Sweden
Jie Gao San Jose State University, USA
Sarah Gardiner Griffith University, Australia
Ulrike Gretzel University of Southern California, USA
Daniel Guttentag College of Charleston, USA
Kirstin Hallmann German Sport University Cologne, Germany
Jin-Xing Hao Beihang University, China
Zeya He Shandong University, China
Juan Maria Hernandez University of Las Palmas, Spain
Sameer Hosany Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Yuansi Hou University of Macau, China
Cathy H. C. Hsu Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Songshan (Sam) Huang Edith Cowan University, Australia
Kam Hung Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Twan Huybers University of New South Wales, Australia
Muhammad Ismail Hossain University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Guoqiong Ivanka Huang Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Evan Jordan Indiana University, USA
Alexander Josiassen Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Marion Karl University of Surrey, UK
Dae-Young Kim University of Missouri, USA
Hany Kim Pusan National University, South Korea
Jae-Eun Kim University of Auckland, New Zealand
Jungkeun Kim Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Myungja Kim Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Peter Kim Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Seongseop "Sam" Kim Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Andrei Kirilenko University of Florida, USA
Whitney Knollenburg North Carolina State University, USA
Florian Kock Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Nada Kulendran Victoria University, Australia
Patrick L'Espoir Decosta Australian National University, Australia
Christian Laesser University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Kun Lai Sun Yat-sen University, China
Rob Law University of Macau, China
Jenny (Jiyeon) Lee University of New South Wales, Australia
Seoki Lee Pennsylvania State University, USA
Timothy Lee University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia
Patrick Legohérel University of Angers, France
Laura Lesar Flinders University, Australia
Xi Yu Leung University of North Texas, USA
Michael Lever University of Guelph, Canada
Maria Lexhagen Mittuniversitetet, Sweden
Gang Li Deakin University, Australia
Gang Li University of Surrey, UK
Hengyun Li Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Mimi Li Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Xiang (Robert) Li Temple University, USA
Shanshan Lin Zhejiang University, China
Nathan Line Florida State University, USA
Stephen W. Litvin College of Charleston, USA
Hongbo Liu University of Surrey, UK
Judith Mair University of Queensland, Australia
Marcello Mariani University of Reading, UK
Lorenzo Masiero University of Bologna, Italy
Carla Massidda University of Cagliari, Italy
Anna Mattila Pennsylvania State University, USA
Fang Meng University of South Carolina, USA
Tanja Mihalic University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Birgit Muskat Australian National University, Australia
Sarah Nicholls Swansea University, UK
Juan Luis Nicolau Virginia Tech, USA
Robin Nunkoo University of Mauritius, Mauritius
Hossein Olya University of Sheffield, UK
Irem Önder MODUL University, Austria
Harmen Oppewal Monash University, Austalia
Bing Pan The Pennsylvania State University, USA
Sangwon Park Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Mike Peters University of Innsbruck, Austria
Nicolas Peypoch University of Perpignan Via Domitia, France
Christoff Pforr Curtin University, Australia
Girish Prayag University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Nina Katrine Prebensen University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway
Elisabetta Raguseo Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon University of South Australia, Australia
Arie Reichel Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Stephan Reinhold Linnaeus University, Sweden
Manuel Alector Ribeiro University of Surrey, UK
Brent Ritchie University of Queensland, Australia
Shrabani Saha Lincoln University, New Zealand
Neelu Seetaram Leeds Beckett University, UK
Tina Šegota University of Greenwich, UK
Mojtaba Shahvali Breda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Abhinav Sharma Florida State University, USA
Hakseung Shin Hanyang University, Korea
Mariana Sigala University of New Castle, Australia
Wayne Smith Ryerson University, Canada
Kevin Kam Fung So Oklahoma State University, USA
Haiyan Song Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Joelle Soulard University of Illinois, USA
Svetlana Stepchenkova University of Florida, USA
Jason Stienmetz MODUL University, Austria
Courtney Suess-Raeisinafchi Texas A&M University, USA
Babak Taheri Texas A&M University, USA
David Tan American University of the Middle East, Kuwait and Macquarie University, Australia
Dewi Tojib Monash Business School, Australia
Serene TSE Ningbo University-University of Angers, China
Charis Tucker University of Illinois, USA
Vincent Tung Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Natan Uriely Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Giampaolo Viglia University of Portsmouth, UK
Huy Quan Vu Deakin University, Australia
Gabrielle Walters University of Queensland, Australia
Dan Wang Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Yichuan Wang Sheffield University Management School, UK
Ying Wang The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
Yuan Wang East China Normal University, China
Philipp Wassler University of Bergamo, Italy
John Williams University of Otago, New Zealand
IpKin Anthony Wong University of Macau, China
Emma Wood Leeds Beckett University, UK
Kyle Woosnam University of Georgia, USA
Doris Chenguang Wu Sun Yat-sen University, China
Laurie Wu Temple University, USA
Mao-Ying Wu Zhejiang University, China
Zheng Xiang Virginia Tech, USA
Honggen Xiao Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Alan Xiling Xiong Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, China
Fiona Yang University of Macao, China
Wan Yang California Polytechnic Pomona, USA
Yang Yang Temple University, USA
Emily Yeager East Carolina University, USA
Florian Zach Virginia Tech, USA
Bozana Zekan MODUL University, Austria
Honglei Zhang Nanjing University, China
Ye Zhang Florida Atlantic University, USA
Yingsha Zhang Sun Yat-sen University, China
Qilou Zou Jiangsu Second Normal University, China
Suiwen Zou University of Illinois, USA
Bing Zuo Sun Yat-sen University, China
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  • The Journal of Travel Research publishes articles examining the business of travel and tourism development, management, marketing, economics and behavior. Its purpose is to serve as a medium through which those with research interests can exchange ideas and keep abreast of the latest theoretical, methodological and best practices research.

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned or rejected.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of the Journal of Travel Research will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 6.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to the Journal of Travel Research, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article types

    Three types of manuscripts can be submitted to the Journal of Travel Research.

    1.2.1 Empirical Research Articles

    The Journal of Travel Research encourages data-based articles which describe, explain, or predict a tourism phenomenon. Articles using quantitative, qualitative or mixed-methods data are encouraged. These articles should be “problem based”, focusing on a practical tourism development, management, marketing or economics problem. The standard for acceptance is that a paper must make a substantive theoretical and/or methodological contribution to the tourism research literature.

    1.2.2 Foundations of Tourism Research Conceptual Articles


    The Journal of Travel Research encourages the development of high-quality articles which are broadly conceptual with the goal of building theory and/or reviewing and evaluating the body of research in a substantive and important area. The goals of these papers should be improved conceptual clarity, holistic review of the current research, theory building and expansion, and innovation with forward looking outcomes that propose new opportunities and ideas. These articles may be wholly conceptual or conceptual/empirical with meta-analytic data. Authors of such articles must be invited, or commissioned by the Editor. Lead authors will be internationally leading experts in the field. Researchers who feel they may be in a position and have an interest in writing such an article must first contact the Editor directly with a detailed proposal (not a manuscript at this stage) including a detailed case as author demonstrating a leading international reputation and expertise to be able to write such an article. If the proposed article potentially meets the above goals and the author demonstrates a clear capacity to produce the article, the Editor will then invite the author(s) to proceed. Articles in this series will nevertheless be evaluated through the normal double-anonymize review process.

    1.2.3 Letters to the Editor

    The Journal of Travel Research encourages conversation. The purpose of these letters will be to provoke conversation, review our research endeavors, and commentary on our research problems, assumptions, methodologies and evaluation. Also included are comments about our publication process and expectations. Finally, constructive commentary concerning research publications is encouraged.

    All Empirical Research Articles and Foundations of Tourism Research Conceptual Articles submitted to the Journal of Travel Research are first assessed by the Editor to determine their suitability for potential publication in JTR. Subsequently, selected manuscripts are then double-anonymize, peer reviewed by accomplished scholars in the topical area. Acceptance of Letters to the Editor will be the prerogative of the Editor. In all cases, the standard for publication in the Journal of Travel Research is that a paper must make a substantive theoretical and/or methodological contribution to the tourism research literature.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

    1.4 Coronavirus (COVID-19) requirements for manuscripts

    COVID-19 has fundamentally affected travel and tourism and therefore impacted the way in which travel and tourism research is conducted and reported. Consequently, manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Travel Research must acknowledge the effect of COVID-19. For this reason, JTR has introduced some additional manuscript submission requirements. Please carefully read the following requirements and ensure you have addressed these appropriately:

    1. The relevance and usefulness of research conducted pre-COVID-19 will, in general, have declined and in some cases may now be obsolete. How we make use of pre-COVID-19 research to inform post-COVID-19 research design must recognize this reality. A thorough review of the relevant literature is still required, but authors must now acknowledge and discuss the relevance and usefulness of this earlier research in light of COVID-19 developments.
    2. Researchers who have already collected or used pre-COVID-19 primary data (on or before January 31, 2020) but are yet to finalize their analysis and complete the writing of their manuscript must consider how they may need to address the effect of COVID-19 on their interpretations and conclusions.
    3. For research involving the collection of data, in part or in whole, after January 31, 2020, during dramatically changing circumstances, will be difficult to analyse and interpret leading to potentially false assumptions and erroneous conclusions. For example, research dealing with tourism consumer behavior cannot ignore how tourism consumers are seeing the world differently. The design, analysis and writing of such research must not ignore this seismic change. Because research topics and circumstances vary so widely, it is not possible to provide prescriptive advice on how researchers must address these challenges; suffice to say that manuscript reviewers will want to clearly see and understand that authors have convincingly addressed such issues in their manuscripts.
    4. We are of course seeing a large influx of COVID-19-related travel and tourism research. Descriptive research which simply confirms what is already largely known does not meet JTR publication requirements. Hence, when researchers are thinking about potential post-COVID-19 research topics, it would be most helpful if they reflected on this likelihood so that: a) certain topics are not over-researched, and b) the research is not merely descriptive (the what) but is also explanatory (the why) and prescriptive (the how) thereby contributing to theory..

    2. Editorial Policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    •  The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors

    •  The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper

    •  The author has recommended the reviewer

    •  The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution). 

    2.2 Review criteria

    As a leading journal in travel and tourism research, the standards for publication in JTR are very high. There are five primary criteria which determine whether a manuscript is suitable for publication, as follows:

    1. Relevant - the manuscript must be directly relevant to the stated aims and scope of the journal.
    2. Significant - the subject and outcomes of the research must make a significant, important, and valuable contribution to travel and tourism knowledge and theory.
    3. Original - the research must be original, new, and leading-edge such that it adds new knowledge to a topic of importance to JTR readership.
    4. Rigorous - the research design and methodology must be of a very high standard.
    5. Articulate - the manuscript must achieve a very high standard of English grammar and expression and must communicate all important aspects of the research in a very clear manner.

    JTR receives several hundred submissions per year. The page budget for the journal permits us to publish only a small portion of these (around 114 articles per year currently). Hence, the competition for a publication slot is quite high. JTR is therefore unable to publish many of the manuscripts it receives. So, to provide authors with some further guidance on the factors which have the greatest impact on manuscript acceptance/rejection, the following additional points may be helpful as a general guide. JTR is not primarily a hospitality/hotel management, leisure and recreation management, or even management research journal. Yet, JTR does publish some research which blends into these fields of research providing the focus of the research has a strong travel and tourism aim.

    • JTR publishes papers which are on the ‘leading edge of the wave’ or are breaking new and important ground that will become the foundation for interest in tourism research into the future. JTR seeks to lead travel and tourism research and to help shape the tourism research agenda rather than serving merely as a follower. Many studies are undertaken on topics for which there is already a major body of literature. JTR welcomes further research on these well-established research issues providing they lead to important, new results. This might occur if the research advances findings further into new important situations or helps to fill important gaps. It might also occur if the findings challenge orthodox assumptions and paradigms, or revolutionize knowledge on the issue. But if work on already heavily-researched issues simply adds yet one further similar study to the mix, JTR is unlikely to be interested in publishing the manuscript.
    • JTR does not have a bias towards or away from any particular methodologies. What matters is whether the research is designed and executed well, and the research topic is of significant interest. It is important to explain and justify why the selected methodology is the most appropriate from among the various approaches available, given the research aims and objectives.
    • Many studies are undertaken with a focus on addressing a particular local situation or context. The results from such studies need to have broader relevance and the context itself should be of widespread interest. The findings may indeed be of great interest and relevance to the local tourism sector, but if findings cannot be generalized to other populations, JTR is probably not the right target journal.
    • Minor English grammar and expression problems can be potentially addressed by the author through the manuscript review process, but major problems will result in rejection. Only manuscripts with a high standard of English in the final manuscript version are publishable. It is always the author’s responsibility to ensure a high English standard.
    • Finally, every manuscript is competing for a limited number of publications slots per year. So sometimes very good research can miss out on a place in JTR simply because there are other more deserving manuscripts.

    Reviewers are asked to consider and assess each manuscript on a 5-point scale for each of the following 14 items:

    1. Is the topic directly relevant to the stated aims and scope of JTR?
    2. Does the research make a valuable contribution to travel and tourism knowledge and theory?
    3. Is the research substantially original and leading-edge for publication in JTR?
    4. Is the research design rigorous, methodologically sound, and of a high standard?
    5. Is the manuscript highly articulate and clear? Does it contain a high standard of English grammar and expression?
    6. Is the literature review appropriate up-to-date?
    7. Is there a significant theoretical contribution to the literature?
    8. Is there a significant methodological contribution to the literature?
    9. Is the methodology sufficiently explained for future research to follow/replicate?
    10. Are there clearly stated and significant practical and applied contributions in the conclusions of the manuscript?
    11. Are there clearly stated and significant theoretical contributions in the conclusions of the manuscript?
    12. Are there clearly stated and significant methodological contributions in the conclusions of the manuscript?
    13. Are there clearly stated and exhaustive limitations in the conclusions of the manuscript?
    14. Are conclusions warranted?

    2.3 Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    2.3.1 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements for writing assistance separately to the main text on the title page only to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.4 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support. Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text and only as part of the title page to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    2.4.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.5 Funding

    The Journal of Travel Research requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Funding details should be added to the title page only in order to facilitate the anonymous review process.

    2.6 Declaration of conflicting interests

    The Journal of Travel Research encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the Sage Journal Author Gateway.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.


    3. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    3.1 Online submission system

    Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure you carefully read and adhere to all the guidelines and instructions to authors provided herein. The Journal of Travel Research (JTR) is hosted on SageTRACK: a web-based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Please read the guidelines below, and then simply visit to login and submit your article online.

    Important note: If you are submitting to your journal via Sage Track, please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online, please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    3.2 File formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    Manuscripts are submitted as two or more files. The first file is the title page containing the manuscript title, author names, affiliations, any acknowledgments and declarations, and both postal and e-mail addresses. The other file(s) should contain no information which might reveal the identity of the authors. These files provide the body of the article including the title, abstract, text body, and references. Tables and figures may also be included in this file on separate pages at the end of the manuscript or uploaded as separate files.

    3.3 Manuscript preparation

    To be considered for publication in the Journal of Travel Research, manuscripts must meet the following standards:

    • Everything is double spaced.
    • Everything is left justified, with a ragged right-hand margin (no full justification)
    • Format is one inch margins on all sides. Minimum print size is 12 point, except in tables and figures where 10 pt may be used.
    • Manuscripts are submitted as two files: The cover page and the manuscript body.
    • The cover page should include the manuscript title, ALL authors’ name, position, affiliation, address, telephone numbers, fax numbers, e-mail addresses, and any acknowledgements. Please use title case when entering the article title into the submission form.
    • The manuscript file should contain the title, abstract, 4 to 5 keywords, text, appendices, notes, references, each table, and each figure.
    • Authors’ names are to appear only on the cover page. There should be nothing in the manuscript file that identifies the authors either by name or institution.
    • Tables and figures are not to be embedded in the manuscript – each table and figure should be provided as a separate page at the end of the manuscript. Tags should be inserted in the manuscript indicating approximately where tables and figures should be located.
    • Within the manuscript file, Title, Abstract and keywords should be on one page. After that, each section is to begin with a new page.
    • Abstract is to be 150 words or less
    • Manuscripts must be 10,000 words or less. This 10,000 word limit includes everything in the manuscript except the title, abstract, keywords, tables, figures and references. Due to page limitations and the desire to accommodate as many authors as possible, this should be considered a hard limit.
    • Acronyms are only allowed in the following circumstances: where they represent universally recognised organisations, e.g. UNWTO, NATO, or internationally recognised classifications such as ISO, GDP, or for well recognised scientific methodological terms such as ANOVA, LISREL, PLS and so on. Acronyms are not allowed for field specific terms in any circumstances.
    • American English spellings are used in all sections except references. Sage Publications requires English translations of all reference citations.
    • Endnotes are to be grouped on a separate page. There are to be no footnotes.
    • All in-text citations should be included in the reference list, and all references should have in-text citations.

    3.4 Reference style

    The Journal of Travel Research uses APA 7th edition formatting. Information on APA reference examples can be found here:

    3.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    3.6 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines 

    Figures supplied in color will appear in color online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For specifically requested color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    Figures are to be camera ready – they must appear exactly as they should in the journal. The Journal of Travel Research is published in black and white. Figures should be black and white with gray and pattern shading if necessary. Any color requirements for the printed manuscript version will incur a charge to the author(s).

    Tables should not have cells or lines dividing the different elements. Preferably, each element should be separated by a tab.

    3.7 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files

    3.8 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    3.9 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    3.10 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.


    4. Manuscript revision requirements

    To enable you to revise your manuscript so as to give it the best chances of reaching a successful outcome, please carefully read these guidelines and follow them meticulously. It is essential that you understand that the invitation to revise and resubmit a paper is not a commitment on the part of the Journal of Travel Research to eventually accept and publish the paper. Even if the author addresses the concerns raised in the initial review, the further review of the revised manuscript must determine whether the paper then meets the standards required for publication in JTR.

    As you revise your paper for resubmission to the Journal of Travel Research, please make sure it meets the following guidelines. If the paper is ultimately accepted, you will receive the list of formatting requirements again with a “it must meet…” statement. It is critical that you take care to ensure you meet these requirements as it can save a great deal of your time and our time at the typesetting stage.

    Please submit your revised paper via the Journal of Travel Research Manuscript Central process. It is important that the paper be submitted as a revision of your first submission. Specifically, this means it would be submitted under the same manuscript number and be treated both by Manuscript Central and by the Editorial Office as a revised paper. This will result in a much faster review process.

    Include with your submission a supplementary file indicating how the paper has been revised relative to the substantive comments made by the reviewers of the original version as well as any additional comments or requirements indicated by the Editor as contained in the decision email. It is important that this file be submitted together with the revised manuscript so that it can be forwarded it to the reviewers. This paper must explain how the authors have addressed the concerns raised in the initial review. Subsequent reviews focus specifically on this response. When you finish with your resubmission, you can review a pdf file of the complete submission – make sure the supplementary file is included. Also, since it is potentially going back to the reviewers, please be sure not to include your name or identity in the supplementary file.

    To create this supplementary file you should:

    1. Cut and paste all comments by each reviewer, as well any requirements indicated by the Editor in the decision email.
    2. For each substantive comment, provide a detailed explanation and justification of your response.
    3. Your response to each comment should clearly indicate whether or not a change has occurred in the manuscript and, if so, what that change is and precisely where it can be found.
    4. If you are in disagreement with the reviewer comments or suggestions, or prefer an alternative approach to address an issue they have raised, this is quite acceptable. However, in such cases, you need to discuss and explain your views and justify your preferred approach either not to change the manuscript, or to change it in a different manner. Again, any change should be clearly explained and its location in the manuscript specified.

    Attending to these points adequately will significantly benefit the further review of revised manuscripts.

    In addition to responding to the reviewer comments, it is important to make sure the paper is current in its review of the literature. Often the manuscript process, from inception to completion, can take many months. It is important that, during each revision process, you update the review of literature, including, as appropriate, how this paper fits within the related papers published in the tourism literature and JTR over the past few years. Please also make sure to check for relevant manuscripts in the JTR Online First ( listing as that is the most current papers that will be published in advance of your paper.


    5. On acceptance and publication

    5.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    5.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    5.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    5.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. 


    6. Publishing Policies

    6.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway

    6.1.1 Plagiarism

    The Journal of Travel Research and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    6.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    6.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway

    6.3 Open access and author archiving

    The Journal of Travel Research offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.


    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Co-Editors Nancy Gard McGehee at or James Petrick at

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