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Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice
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Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice

Fourth Edition
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December 2016 | 360 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

“A key strength of the Bachman & Schutt text is that multiple learning style models are incorporated in the book that advances the learning needs of students.”

Deborah Baskin, Loyola University Chicago

 

Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Fourth Edition introduces students to the multifaceted subject of research methods and shows them why research is important in the field of criminology and criminal justice. This brief version of Bachman and Schutt’s successful textbook (The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice) simplifies complex concepts with real-world research examples found in everyday experiences in the criminology and criminal justice professions.

 

The thoroughly updated Fourth Edition of this bestseller reflects the most recent developments in research methods, including the use of big data, increased coverage of crime mapping, evidence-based and web-based research, along with the most current research examples impacting the field. This is an excellent introductory text for undergraduate research courses, and is ideal for students who want to understand how and why criminal justice research is done to become critical consumers of research.

 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
1. Science, Society, and Criminological Research
What Do We Have in Mind?

 
Reasoning About the Social World

 
How the Scientific Approach Is Different

 
Social Research Philosophies

 
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

 
Specific Types of Research Methods

 
Strengths and Limitations of Social Research

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
2. The Process and Problems of Criminological Research
What Do We Have in Mind?

 
Criminological Research Questions

 
The Role of Theory

 
Social Research Strategies

 
A History of Investigating the Effects of Arrest for Intimate Partner Violence: The Research Circle in Action

 
Guidelines for Criminologists

 
Social Research Standards

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
3. Research Ethics
What Do We Have in Mind?

 
Historical Background

 
Ethical Principles

 
Research Involving Special Populations: Children and Prisoners

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
4. Conceptualization and Measurement
What Do We Have in Mind?

 
Concepts

 
Concepts and Variables

 
How Will We Know When We’ve Found It?

 
How Much Information Do We Really Have?

 
Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
5. Sampling
What Do We Have in Mind?

 
Sample Planning

 
Sampling Methods

 
Units of Analysis and Errors in Causal Reasoning

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
6. Causation and Experimentation
What Do We Mean by Causation?

 
Causal Explanation

 
Criteria for Nomothetic Causal Explanations

 
Why Experiment?

 
What If a True Experiment Isn’t Possible?

 
What Are the Threats to Internal Validity and Generalizability in Experiments?

 
The Element of Time in Research

 
Causality in Nonexperimental Designs

 
How Do Experimenters Protect Their Subjects?

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
7. Survey Research
Survey Research in Action: Measuring Victimization

 
What Is a Survey?

 
Questionnaire Development and Assessment

 
Writing Survey Questions: More Difficult Than You Think!

 
Organization Matters

 
Survey Designs

 
Ethical Issues in Survey Research

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
8. Qualitative Methods and Data Analysis
What Do We Mean by Qualitative Methods?

 
Fundamentals of Qualitative Methods

 
Participant Observation

 
Systematic Observation

 
Intensive Interviewing

 
Focus Groups

 
Analyzing Qualitative Data

 
Techniques of Qualitative Data Analysis

 
Alternatives in Qualitative Data Analysis

 
Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis

 
Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research

 
Who Owns the Qualitative Data?

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
9. Analyzing Content: Secondary Data Analysis, Comparative Methods, Content Analysis, Crime Mapping, and Big Data
What Are Secondary Data?

 
Comparative Methods

 
Content Analysis

 
Crime Mapping

 
Big Data

 
Methodological Issues When Using Secondary Data

 
Ethical Issues When Analyzing Available Data and Content

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
10. Evaluation and Policy Analysis
A Brief History of Evaluation Research

 
Evaluation Basics

 
Evaluation Alternatives

 
Design Decisions

 
Evaluation in Action

 
Strengths of Randomized Experimental Designs in Impact Evaluations

 
When Experiments Are Not Feasible

 
Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

 
Ethics in Evaluation

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
11. Mixing and Comparing Methods
What We Have in Mind

 
What Are Mixed Methods?

 
Strengths and Limitations of Mixed Methods

 
Comparing Results Across Studies

 
Ethics and Mixed Methods

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
12. Reporting Research Results
Research Report Goals

 
Types of Research Reports

 
Curbing the Frustrations of Writing

 
Displaying Data

 
Some Final Thoughts on Reporting Quantitative and Qualitative Research

 
Ethics, Politics, and Reporting Research

 
Communicating With the Public

 
Plagiarism

 
Conclusion

 
Key Terms

 
Highlights

 
Exercises

 
 
Appendix A. Conducting Literature Reviews and Finding Information
 
Appendix B. How to Read a Research Article
 
Appendix C. How to Use a Statistical Package: SPSS
 
Appendix D. How to Use a Qualitative Analysis Package
 
Appendix E. How to Use a Data Spreadsheet: Excel
 
Appendix F. Conducting Descriptive Quantitative Data Analysis
 
Appendix G. Data Sets
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site
SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.
  • A Microsoft® Word® test bank is available, containing multiple choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
  • Lecture notes summarize key concepts by chapter to ease preparation for lectures and class discussions
  • Chapter-specific discussion questions to help launch classroom interaction by prompting students to engage with the material and by reinforcing important content
  • Lively and stimulating class assignments to reinforce active learning. The assignments apply to individual or group projects.
  • Tables and figures from the book are provided for your courses
  • Video, audio, and website links which appeals to students with different learning styles
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically.
  • Web exercises guide creative activities to extend and reinforce learning or allow for further research on important chapter topics.
  • Datasets
  • Appendices 
Student Study Site
SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. SAGE edge content is open access and available on demand. Learning and teaching has never been easier!

SAGE edge for Students
 provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.
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    • A customized online action plan includes tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience
    • Learning objectives reinforce the most important material
    • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material
    • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
    • Video, audio, and website links which appeals to students with different learning styles
    • EXCLUSIVE! access to SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically.
    • Datasets
    • Appendices 
  • “A lot of interactive features, such as web-based supporting materials.”

    Dr. Yongsok Kim
    Bemidji State University

    “Covers the most important concepts/themes in basis research methods in a very thorough fashion.”

    Matthew Larson
    Wayne State University

     “A key strength of the Bachman & Schutt text is that multiple learning style models are incorporated in the book that advances the learning needs of students.”

    Deborah Baskin
    Loyola University Chicago

    "Provides a comprehensive understanding of research methods in criminology and criminal justice."

    Gabriel Paez

    I use this text in Introduction to Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. It is a very user-friendly text, and has excellent examples to keep students engaged. Students find it easy to use and interact with the information in it, which brings it to life for them.

    Professor Terri Watson
    Criminal Justice Division, California St Univ-Sacramento
    October 5, 2016

    Sample Materials & Chapters

    Chapter 1

    Chapter 6


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