# Essentials of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society

Fourth Edition

- Anna Leon-Guerrero - Pacific Lutheran University
- Chava Frankfort-Nachmias - University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA
- Georgiann Davis - University of New Mexico, USA

September 2020 | 456 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

**Essentials of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society**is a briefer version of the successful

*Social Statistics for a Diverse Society*, and as in the parent text, the use of real data about contemporary social issues sets this book apart from others in the field. The text explains how to compute and interpret basic descriptive and inferential statistics while teaching and reinforcing important sociological concepts. In every chapter, the authors demonstrate how statistics is an important tool for studying and understanding the role of race, class, gender, and other statuses in a pluralistic society like the United States.

**Included with this title:**

**offers access to all text-specific resources, including a test bank and editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides. Learn more.**

The password-protected Instructor Resource Site (formally known as Sage Edge)

The password-protected Instructor Resource Site (formally known as Sage Edge)

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Authors

Chapter 1: The What and the Why of Statistics

The Research Process

Asking Research Questions

The Role of Theory

Formulating the Hypotheses

Collecting Data

Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses

Examining a Diverse Society

Chapter 2: The Organization and Graphic Presentation of Data

Frequency Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Percentage Distributions

The Construction of Frequency Distributions

Cumulative Distributions

Rates

Bivariate Tables

How to Construct a Bivariate Table

How to Compute Percentages in a Bivariate Table

Graphic Presentation of Data

The Pie Chart

The Bar Graph

The Histogram

The Line Graph

The Time-Series Chart

Statistics in Practice: Foreign-Born Population 65 Years and Over

Chapter 3: Measures of Central Tendency and Variability

Measures of Central Tendency

Measures of Variability

Chapter 4: The Normal Distribution

Properties of the Normal Distribution

An Application of the Normal Curve

The Standard Normal Distribution

The Standard Normal Table

Reading the Research Literature: Child Health and Academic Achievement

Chapter 5: Sampling and Sampling Distributions

Aims of Sampling

Basic Probability Principles

Probability Sampling

The Concept of the Sampling Distribution

The Sampling Distribution of the Mean

The Central Limit Theorem

Statistics in Practice: The 2016 U.S. Presidential Election

Chapter 6: Estimation

Point and Interval Estimation

Confidence Intervals for Means

Statistics in Practice: Hispanic Migration and Earnings

Confidence Intervals for Proportions

Reading the Research Literature: Women Victims of Intimate Violence

Chapter 7: Testing Hypotheses

Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing

Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses

Probability Values and Alpha

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Testing With One Sample and Population Variance Unknown

Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Means

The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary

Statistics in Practice: Vape Use Among Teens

Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Proportions

Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Hypothesis Testing

Chapter 8: The Chi-Square Test and Measures of Association

The Concept of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test

The Concept of Statistical Independence

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With Chi-Square

Statistics in Practice: Respondent and Mother Education

Proportional Reduction of Error

Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Cramer’s V: A Chi-Square-Related Measure of Association for Nominal Variables

Gamma and Kendall’s Tau-b: Symmetrical Measures of Association for Ordinal Variables

Reading the Research Literature: India’s Internet-Using Population

Chapter 9: Analysis of Variance

Understanding Analysis of Variance

The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA

The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary

Statistics in Practice: The Ethical Consumer

Reading the Research Literature: College Satisfaction Among Latino Students

Chapter 10: Regression and Correlation

The Scatter Diagram

Linear Relationships and Prediction Rules

A Negative Relationship: Age and Internet Hours per Week

Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions

Testing the Significance of r2 Using ANOVA

Statistics in Practice: Multiple Regression and ANOVA

Reading the Research Literature: Academic Intentions and Support

Appendix A. Table of Random Numbers

Appendix B. The Standard Normal Table

Appendix C. Distribution of t

Appendix D. Distribution of Chi-Square

Appendix E. Distribution of F

Appendix F. Basic Math Review (on the website*)

Learning Check Solutions

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

Glossary

Notes

Index

### Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

The open-access Student Study Site makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime. It offers flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, as well as learning objectives that reinforce the most important material.

**edge.sagepub.com/ssdsess4e**The open-access Student Study Site makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime. It offers flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, as well as learning objectives that reinforce the most important material.

*For additional information, custom options, or to request a personalized walkthrough of these resources, please contact your sales representative.*Student Study Site

The open-access Student Study Site makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime. It offers flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, as well as learning objectives that reinforce the most important material.

**edge.sagepub.com/ssdsess4e**The open-access Student Study Site makes it easy for students to maximize their study time, anywhere, anytime. It offers flashcards that strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts, as well as learning objectives that reinforce the most important material.

*For additional information, custom options, or to request a personalized walkthrough of these resources, please contact your sales representative.*### Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1: The What and the Why of Statistics

Chapter 2: The Organization and Graphic Presentation of Data