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An Introduction to Statistics
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An Introduction to Statistics
An Active Learning Approach

Third Edition


March 2021 | 512 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
This updated and reorganized Third Edition of this textbook takes a workbook-style approach that encourages an active approach to learning statistics. Carefully placed reading questions throughout each chapter allow students to apply their knowledge right away, while in-depth activities based on current behavioral science scenarios, each with problem sets and quiz questions, give students the opportunity to assess their understanding of concepts while reading detailed explanations of more complex statistical concepts. Additional practice problems further solidify student learning. Most activities are self-correcting, so if a concept is misunderstood, this misunderstanding is corrected early in the learning process. After working through each chapter, students are far more likely to understand the material than when they only read the material.
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
Part 1: Descriptive Statistics and Sampling Error
 
Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics and Frequency Distributions
How to Be Successful in This Course

 
Math Skills Required in This Course

 
Statistical Software Options

 
Why Do You Have to Take Statistics?

 
The Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

 
Populations and Samples

 
Independent and Dependent Variables

 
Identify How a Variable Is Measured

 
Graphing Data

 
Shapes of Distributions

 
Frequency Distribution Tables

 
 
Chapter 2: Central Tendency and Variability
Frequency Distribution Graphs and Tables

 
Central Tendency: Choosing Mean, Median, or Mode

 
Computing Measures of Central Tendency

 
Variability: Range or Standard Deviation

 
Steps in Computing a Population’s Standard Deviation

 
Steps in Computing a Sample’s Standard Deviation

 
Constructing a Scientific Conclusion

 
 
Chapter 3: z scores
Computing and Interpreting z for a Raw Score

 
Finding Raw Score “Cut Lines”

 
Finding the Probability of z Scores Using the Standard Normal Curve

 
Positive z Score Example

 
Negative z Score Example

 
Proportion Between Two z Scores Example

 
 
Chapter 4: Sampling Error and Confidence Intervals with z and t Distributions
Sampling and Sampling Error

 
The Central Limit Theorem and the Standard Error of the Mean (SEM)

 
Applying the SEM to Find Statistical Evidence

 
 
Part 2: Applying the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning to Mean Differences
 
Chapter 5: Single sample t, effect sizes, and confidence intervals
Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

 
Apply the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

 
Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

 
 
Chapter 6: Related samples t, effect sizes, and confidence intervals
Related Samples t Test

 
Logic of the Single Sample and Related Samples t Tests

 
Apply the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

 
Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

 
 
Chapter 7: Independent samples t, effect sizes, and confidence intervals
When to Use the Three t Tests

 
The t Test Logic and the Independent Samples t Formula

 
Apply the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

 
Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

 
How to Interpret High p Values

 
 
Chapter 8: One-way ANOVA, effect sizes, and confidence intervals
Independent Samples One-Way ANOVA

 
Logic of the ANOVA

 
Apply Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

 
 
Chapter 9: Two-way ANOVA, effect sizes, and confidence intervals
Purpose of Two-Way ANOVA

 
Logic of Two-Way ANOVA

 
Apply Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

 
 
Part 3: Applying the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning to Associations
 
Chapter 10: Correlations, effect sizes, and confidence intervals
When to Use Correlations

 
The Logic of Correlation

 
Interpreting Correlation Coefficients

 
Spearman’s (rs) Correlation

 
Correlation Does Not Equal Causation: True but Misleading

 
Apply the Four Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

 
Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

 
 
Chapter 11: Chi square and effect sizes
When to Use X2 Statistics

 
Logic of the X2 Test

 
Apply the Pillars of Scientific Reasoning

 
Construct a Well-Supported Scientific Conclusion

 
Apply the Pillars of Scientific Reasoning: X2 for Independence

 
Appendices

 
References

 
Index

 

Supplements

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LMS cartridge included with this title for use in Blackboard, Canvas, Brightspace by Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle

The LMS cartridge makes it easy to import this title’s instructor resources into your learning management system (LMS). These resources include:
  • Test bank
  • Editable chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides
  • Answers to the textbook’s Reading Questions
  • Answers to the textbook’s Activity Questions
  • Additional Practice Tests and Answers
  • All tables and figures from the textbook
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