– The ‘unclean’ occupations open to them
– The double burden of Dalit women, who suffer both gender and caste discrimination
– The upper-caste violence with which any Dalit self-assertion is met
The authors also describe Dalit efforts to overcome deeply entrenched caste hierarchies and assert their right to live with dignity. While the evidence presented here suggests that the more blatant and extreme forms of untouchability appear to have declined, discrimination continues and is most prevalent in the religious and personal spheres. The authors show that the notion of untouchability continues to pervade the public sphere, including a host of state institutions and the interactions that occur within them.