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Understanding Homeland Security
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Understanding Homeland Security

Second Edition
  • Gus Martin - California State University, Dominguez Hills, USA


© 2017 | 456 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

“An excellent introductory text to homeland security, it provides a thorough and informative overview of the topic that is appropriate for undergraduate courses on homeland security.”

Mark Feulner, Florida State University

 

Dr. Gus Martin’s Understanding Homeland Security, Second Edition is a thoroughly updated textbook offering much-needed insight into the complex nature of issues addressed by the homeland security enterprise. This comprehensive textbook addresses such subject areas as emergency management, terrorism, criminal justice administration, intelligence, armed conflict, and social environments. Martin’s pedagogical approach is designed to stimulate critical thinking in readers, allowing them to not only comprehend the fundamentals, but also evolve with the very dynamic nature of homeland security. 

 

The Second Edition introduces readers to homeland security in the modern era, focusing particularly on the post–September 11, 2001 world. Reviewing theories, agency missions, laws and regulations governing the homeland security enterprise, this book keeps readers on the forefront of homeland security.   

 
Acknowledgments
 
Introduction and Rationale
 
Part I. Foundations of Homeland Security
 
Chapter 1. History and Policy: Defining Homeland Security
The Past as Prologue: The Historical Context of Homeland Security  
External Threats to the Early Republic  
Domestic Threats to the Early Republic  
Modern Precursors to Homeland Security  
Defining an Era: What Is Homeland Security?  
Chapter Perspective 1.1: The Death of Osama bin Laden  
The Modern Era of Homeland Security  
Chapter Perspective 1.2: Homeland Security Presidential Directives  
Conceptual Foundation: Central Attributes of Homeland Security  
The Homeland Security Environment: A Dynamic Construct  
A New Focus: The Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report  
Domestic Security and Threats to the Homeland: Policy Options  
Chapter Perspective 1.3: The Symbolism of Targets: Terrorist Attacks Against the United States  
Domestic Policy Options  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Chapter 2. Homeland Security and the All-Hazards Umbrella
The Terrorism Nexus: Conventional and Unconventional Hazards  
Conventional Weapons  
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive Hazards  
The All-Hazards Nexus: Nonterrorist Threats  
Background: Recent Difficulties in Disaster Relief  
All-Hazards Emergency Management: Core Concepts  
Case in Point: Nonterrorist Mass Shootings  
Chapter Perspective 2.1: Mass Shootings in the United States from Columbine to Sandy Hook  
Natural Hazards  
Tropical Cyclonic Storms  
Chapter Perspective 2.2: Reporting Hurricane Intensity: The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Intensity Scale  
Case in Point: Superstorm Sandy’s Swath of Destruction  
Earthquakes  
Chapter Perspective 2.3: Reporting Earthquake Intensity: The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale  
Tornadoes  
Floods  
Wildland Fires  
Technological Scenarios  
Grid Infrastructure Malfunctions  
Hazardous Material Accidents  
Non-Wildland Fires  
Global Perspective: Disaster in Japan: Tsunami and the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster  
Global Perspective: Disaster in Japan: Tsunami and the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Chapter 3. The Legal Foundations of Homeland Security
Background: Legal Precedent and Homeland Security  
International and Domestic Law: Policy Challenges  
The Historical Context: State Sponsorship of International Terrorism  
Legitimizing Legal Authority: Classifying State Sponsors and Foreign Terrorist Organizations  
Chapter Perspective 3.1: Foreign Terrorist Organizations  
International Law and Counterterrorist Cooperation by the World Community  
Chapter Perspective 3.2: The Benghazi Attack  
Chapter Perspective 3.3: The Black September Crisis: Case Study and Historical Context  
Homeland Security: Statutory Authority  
The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996  
The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001  
The Department of Homeland Security Act of 2002  
The USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005  
The USA FREEDOM Act of 2015  
In Perspective: Homeland Security, Counterterrorism, and the Law  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Chapter 4. Civil Liberties and Securing the Homeland
Security and Liberty: The Historical Context  
The Early Republic and Civil War  
Communism and the Red Scares  
Wartime Internment Camps  
Achieving Security  
Practical Considerations: Civil Liberty and Government Responses  
Chapter Perspective 4.1: National Security, Reporting Terrorism, and Regulating the Media  
Case in Point: Data Mining by the National Security Agency  
Chapter Perspective 4.2: Carnivore: The Dawn of Internet Surveillance  
Civil Liberty and Countering Extremism Through Reform  
Case in Point: Cultural Shifts, Inclusion, and Civil Liberty in the United States  
Balancing Civil Liberties and Homeland Security  
Terrorist Profiling  
The Problem of Labeling the Enemy  
Civil Liberties and Detainees  
The Ker-Frisbie Rule and Extraordinary Renditions  
Case in Point: The Torture Debate  
Global Perspective: Wrongful Prosecution in the United Kingdom  
Global Perspective: Wrongful Prosecution in the United Kingdom  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Chapter 5. Agencies and Missions: Homeland Security at the Federal Level
The Scope of the Homeland Security Bureaucracy  
Conceptual Background: The Bureaucratic Context  
The Federal Bureaucracy Prior to September 11, 2001  
Case in Point: The Problem of Interagency Disconnect  
Bureaucratic Transformation After September 11, 2001  
The Department of Homeland Security  
The Office of the Secretary  
Department of Homeland Security Administrative Centers  
The Homeland Security Missions of Other Federal Agencies  
The Department of Agriculture  
The Department of Defense  
The Department of Energy  
The Department of Health and Human Services  
The Department of the Interior  
The Department of the Treasury  
The Environmental Protection Agency  
The Intelligence Community  
Background: Intelligence Collection and Jurisdiction  
The U.S. Intelligence Community: Members and Mission  
Case in Point: The Early Warning Role of Intelligence  
Chapter Perspective 5.1: Sources of Actionable Intelligence  
The U.S. Intelligence Community: Challenges  
Case in Point: Intelligence Miscalculation and the Iraq Case  
Case in Point: Successful International Intelligence Cooperation  
The Role of the Military  
The Homeland Defense Mission of the Department of Defense  
Case in Point: The Posse Comitatus Act  
Waging War in the Era of the New Terrorism  
War in the Shadows  
Overt Conflict: The Deployment of Military Assets  
Global Perspective: Actionable Intelligence: Israel and the Hunt for “The Engineer”  
Global Perspective: Actionable Intelligence: Israel and the Hunt for “The Engineer”  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Chapter 6. Agencies and Missions: Homeland Security at the State and Local Levels
State-Level Homeland Security Systems  
State Government and Homeland Security: Principal Roles  
Chapter Perspective 6.1: Governors and the Politics of Crisis Intervention  
State Government and Emergency Management: Configuration of Services  
National Collaboration: The National Emergency Management Association  
The National Homeland Security Consortium  
Regional Collaboration: Networking and Assistance Across Jurisdictions  
Local Homeland Security Networking Initiatives  
The National Association of Counties  
The National League of Cities  
The U.S. Conference of Mayors  
Case in Point: The Challenge of Funding Initiatives  
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Agencies  
The Police Mission in Homeland Security Environments  
The Internal Security Imperatives of Law Enforcement Agencies  
The Operational Impact of Terrorism: Adaptations by Law Enforcement Agencies  
Case in Point: Joint Terrorism Task Forces  
Case in Point: Militarization of the Police  
Global Perspective: Paramilitary Deployment of Police Units  
Global Perspective: Paramilitary Deployment of Police Units by Western Democracies  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Part II. Threats and Vulnerabilities
 
Chapter 7. Sea Change: The New Terrorism and Homeland Security
Defining Terrorism: An Ongoing Debate  
Case in Point: The Political Violence Matrix  
Combatants, Noncombatants, and the Use of Force  
Historical Context: The “Old Terrorism” Prior to September 11, 2001  
The Pre–September 11 Terrorist Environment  
Chapter Perspective 7.1: Cold War Terrorist-Networking Theory  
September 11, 2001, and the New Terrorism  
Chapter Perspective 7.2: The Ideology of Al Qaeda  
Religion and Terrorism in the Modern Era  
Chapter Perspective 7.3: Jihad: Struggling in the Way of God  
The New Terrorism and Globalization  
Plausible Scenarios: The New Terrorism and New Modes of Warfare  
Asymmetrical Warfare  
Case in Point: Asymmetrical Warfare in Paris and Brussels  
The Paris Attacks  
The Brussels Attacks  
Chapter Perspective 7.4: The Appeal of Asymmetrical Warfare  
Maximum Casualties and the New Terrorism  
Netwar: A New Organizational Theory  
Policy Options  
Countering Extremism  
Countering the New Terrorism  
Chapter Perspective 7.5: The Utility of Monitoring Social Networking Media  
Global Perspective: Digital, Video, and Audio Terrorism  
Global Perspective: Tactical Horror: Digital, Video, and Audio Terrorism  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Chapter 8. The Threat at Home: Terrorism in the United States
Extremism in America  
Chapter Perspective 8.1: Understanding Extremism  
Left-Wing Extremism in the United States  
Right-Wing Extremism in the United States  
Chapter Perspective 8.2: Are Hate Crimes Acts of Terrorism?  
Sources of International Terrorism in the United States  
Case in Point: Conspiracy Theories on the American Right  
Left-Wing Terrorism in the United States  
Generational Rebellion: New Left Terrorism  
Civil Strife: Ethnonationalist Terrorism on the Left  
The Revolution Continues: Leftist Hard Cores  
Case in Point: The United Freedom Front  
Single-Issue Violence on the Left  
Right-Wing Terrorism in the United States  
The Past as Prologue: The Historical Legacy of the Ku Klux Klan  
Racial Mysticism: Neo-Nazi Terrorism  
Chapter Perspective 8.3: Race and the Bible: The Christian Identity Creation Myth  
Patriot Threats  
Chapter Perspective 8.4: The Oklahoma City Bombing  
Case in Point: Moralist Terrorism  
The New Terrorism in the United States  
Jihad in America  
September 11, 2001  
Case in Point: The Threat from Homegrown Jihadists  
Case in Point: The Orlando Mass Shooting—Jihadist Terrorism and Hate Crime  
Lone-Wolf Terrorism in the United States  
Racial and Anti-Government Lone Wolves  
Jihadist Lone Wolves  
Global Perspective: Lone-Wolf Terror in Norway  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Chapter 9. Porous Nodes: Specific Vulnerabilities
Cybersecurity  
Understanding Threats to Cybersecurity  
Malicious Use of Cyber Technology: Examples  
Cyberattacks: Potential Targets  
Cyberterror: Feasibility and Likelihood  
Aviation Security  
Symbolic Value: Airline Attacks and Maximum Propaganda Effect  
Historical Context: The PFLP and the Dawn of Modern Aviation Terrorism  
The Complexity of Aviation Security  
Implementing Aviation Security Priorities  
Case in Point: The Chemical Plot  
Border Security  
Undocumented Immigration and Homeland Security  
Plausible Scenarios: Crime and Insecurity on the Southern Border  
Case in Point: The Tri-Border Area of South America  
Case in Point: The Mexican Drug War  
Port Security  
Understanding the Terrorist Threat to Ports and Maritime Targets  
Chapter Perspective 9.1: The Contagion Effect  
Case in Point: Maritime Cargo Containers  
Port Security Initiatives and Priorities  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Part III. Preparedness, Response, Recovery
 
Chapter 10. Always Vigilant: Hardening the Target
Information Security: Cyberwar and Hardening Cyberspace  
Cyberwar as an Antiterrorist Option  
Modern Surveillance Technologies  
Chapter Perspective 10.1: The Utility of Monitoring Social Networking Media  
Case in Point: The Echelon Satellite Surveillance Network  
Hardening Critical Infrastructure  
Securing Critical Infrastructure: Background and Context  
Federal Guidance: The DHS Building and Infrastructure Protection Series  
Case in Point: BIPS 06/FEMA 426  
Options for Critical Infrastructure Security and Target Hardening  
Border Control: Securing National Entry Points  
Security Considerations and Patrolling the Border  
Historical Context: The Evolution of the U.S. Border Patrol  
Hardening the Border: Three Agencies  
Transportation Security  
A Complex Arrangement: Components of the Transportation System  
The Transportation Security Administration  
Global Perspective: International Law Enforcement Consortia  
Global Perspective: The Role of the “International Police”  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Chapter 11. Critical Resources: Preparedness and Planning
The Role of Proper Planning  
Foundational Concept: The National Incident Management System  
Local Planning: The Private Sector  
Local Planning: Emerging Roles at the Local Government Level  
Case in Point: Health and Medical Preparedness Strategies  
Prevention and Mitigation Planning  
Components of the Prevention and Mitigation Process  
Federal Mitigation Assistance  
Chemical and Biological Hazard Planning  
A Complex Dilemma: Mitigating Chemical and Biological Incidents  
Chapter Perspective 11.1: Case Study: The Tokyo Subway Nerve Gas Attack and Aftermath  
Case in Point: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines  
Radiological and Nuclear Hazard Planning  
Coordinating Nuclear Security: The Role of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission  
Case in Point: Weaponization of Radiological Agents Revisited  
Global Perspective: The European Approach to Homeland Security  
Global Perspective: The European Approach to Homeland Security Preparedness  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Chapter 12. Critical Outcomes: Response and Recovery
National Response and Recovery: Fostering Administrative Coordination  
The Problem of Reactive Planning  
Federal National Planning Frameworks and the National Preparedness Goal  
The Incident Command System  
Case in Point: Presidential Declarations  
Federal Response and Recovery Coordination  
Background: The Progression of Federal Response Planning  
Case in Point: Implementing the National Response Framework  
State and Local Response and Recovery Planning  
Response and Recovery Planning by State Authorities  
Response and Recovery Planning by Local Authorities  
Final Consideration: Despite Best Efforts, Is Terrorism Effective?  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Recommended Websites  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Part IV. Homeland Security: An Evolving Concept
 
Chapter 13. The Future of Homeland Security
Near-Term Projections  
Adaptive Measures: Theoretical and Practical Considerations  
Controlling Terrorism: Understanding Fundamental Challenges  
Chapter Perspective 13.1:The Continued Utility of Force  
Case in Point: International Collaboration on Law Enforcement and Intelligence  
Threat Environments in the Twenty-First Century  
Defending the Homeland: Ongoing Patterns of Political Violence  
The Threat From Ideological Terrorism  
The Threat From International Terrorism  
Chapter Perspective 13.2: The Changing Environment of International Terrorism  
Chapter Summary  
Key Terms and Concepts  
On Your Own  
Web Exercise  
Recommended Readings  
 
Homeland Security Timeline
 
Appendix A. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2011. “Terrorism.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 80, No. 9.
 
Appendix B. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2015. National Preparedness Goal. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security.
 
Glossary
 
Notes
 
Index
 
About the Author

Supplements

Instructor Teaching Site
SAGE offers an exceptionally robust set of offerings for both student and instructor resources, all accessible from each title’s companion website. The Student Study Site is completely open access, making it as easy as possible for your students to use. The Instructor Teaching Site is verified and password-protected, offering you both peace of mind and a wealth of support for your courses.

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Instructor Resources include the following:
    • Microsoft® Word® test bank, is available containing multiple choice, short answer, and essay questions for each chapter. The test bank provides you with a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity for editing any question and/or inserting your own personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
    • Editable, chapter-specific Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides offer you complete flexibility in easily creating a multimedia presentation for your course. Highlight essential content and features.
    • Sample course syllabi provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabi for your courses.
    • Documentaries and dramatic films list to enhance the understanding of the theories and perspectives discussed in the text and to stimulate further discussion
    • Tables and figures from the printed book available in an easily-downloadable format for use in papers, hand-outs, and presentations
    • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
    • Recommended readings list provide a jumping-off point for course assignments, papers, research, group work, and class discussion.
    • Video resources include links to appropriate outlets that appeal to students with different learning styles.
    • Web resources direct both instructors and students to additional materials for further research on important chapter topics.
    • Web exercises guide both instructors and students to useful and current web sites along with creative activities to extend and reinforce learning or allow for further research on important chapter topics. 
    • Appendices to download and reference on important topics covered in the text.
    • Author videos present interviews with the author to provide contemporary examples that relate back to chapter content.

Student Study Site
Use the Student Study Site to get the most out of your course!
Our Student Study Site is completely open-access and offers a wide range of additional features.

The open-access
 Student Study Site includes the following:
    • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards reinforce understanding of key terms and concepts that have been outlined in the chapters.
    • EXCLUSIVE! Access to certain full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected for each chapter. Each article supports and expands on the concepts presented in the chapter. This feature also provides questions to focus and guide student interpretation. Combine cutting-edge academic journal scholarship with the topics in your course for a robust classroom experience.
    • Recommended readings list provide a jumping-off point for course assignments, papers, research, group work, and class discussion.
    • Video resources include links to appropriate outlets that appeal to students with different learning styles.
    • Web resources direct both instructors and students to additional materials for further research on important chapter topics.
    • Web exercises guide both instructors and students to useful and current web sites along with creative activities to extend and reinforce learning or allow for further research on important chapter topics. 
    • Appendices to download and reference on important topics covered in the text.
    • Author videos present interviews with the author to provide contemporary examples that relate back to chapter content.

“An excellent introductory text to homeland security, it provides a thorough and informative overview of the topic that is appropriate for undergraduate courses on homeland security.”

Mark Feulner
Florida State University

“By far, the textbook by Gus Martin is one of the best written, illustrative and interactive learning methodologies that will engage students in the topics of homeland security and terrorism.”

Denise R. Womer
Kaplan University

“If you want to obtain a solid basic background of Homeland Security, begin with Gus Martin’s book.”

Irmak Renda-Tanali
University of Maryland University College

“It is well written; the author has a strong positive writer’s voice that I believe my students can benefit from. Understanding Homeland Security by Gus Martin is a modern homeland practitioners must read book.”

Pietro Savo
Daniel Webster College

“An excellent book for class and a great resource”

Dennis W. McLean
Keiser University

“Great book for an introduction to Homeland Security”

Oluponmile Olonilua
Texas Southern University

“Excellent text that is essential for student learning and teaching.”

Terry Campbell
Kaplan University

“The textbook thoroughly addresses the significant issues associated with homeland security. It is concise, focuses on the important concepts and issues associated with homeland security. The pedagogical features of the book will assist in student learning and facilitate the manner in which I address my teaching.”

Darren Gil
Southern University at New Orleans

“An up-to-date, well-organized, well-written, much needed, interesting and attractive book!”

Naim Kapucu
University of Central Florida

“This essential text is an in-depth look into homeland security, similar to that of a handbook, utterly complete in all respects, which can serve as a guide and reference throughout a student’s educational program.”

Holli Vah Seliskar
Kaplan University

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 4

Chapter 5


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