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Toxicology Research and Application

Other Titles in:
Toxicology | Toxicology (Clinical)

eISSN: 23978473 | ISSN: 23978473 | Current volume: 6 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Yearly

Toxicology Research and Application (TOR) is a peer-reviewed, open access journal which focusses on original research in toxicology with a particular emphasis on safety and risk assessment. The journal provides a unique forum for the dissemination of high quality content applicable to researchers, clinicians and allied health practitioners, patients and scientists. Please see the Aims and Scopes tab for further information.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Why publish in Toxicology Research and Application?

  • Rigorous peer review of your research
  • Multidisciplinary audience
  • Open access format, driving high visibility and global exposure
  • Prompt online publication

Open access article processing charge (APC) information

The APC for this journal is currently 2000 USD.

The article processing charge (APC) is payable when a manuscript is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Please see further details here.

Submission information

Submit your manuscript today at

Please see the Submission Guidelines tab for more information on how to submit your article to the journal.


Please direct any queries to


Toxicology Research and Application is an international peer reviewed, open access journal publishing original scientific research and comprehensive, timely reviews in the broad field of toxicology. Although the scope is deliberately broad, including biomarker, modes/mechanisms of toxicity, systems toxicity and nanotoxicity, emphasis is placed on safety and risk assessment, including application to practical problems confronting the human population. Toxicology Research and Application publishes timely articles of relevance to animals and humans pertaining to the pathophysiology and/or action of chemicals, including drugs and agricultural chemicals of natural or man-made origin. Emphasis will be placed on toxic observations and modes/mechanism observed at relevant exposures which have a direct impact on safety evaluation and risk assessment.

Consideration will be given to original research that addresses mechanistic approaches to physiological, pharmacologic, biochemical, cellular, or molecular understanding of toxicologic/pathologic lesions and to methods used to describe these responses. Regulatory Safety articles, papers concerned with the 3 Rs and alternatives to the use of experimental animals, and papers reporting negative results are encouraged. Authors must clearly identify chemically the material tested and briefly explain what novel toxic effect(s) or toxic mechanism(s) of the chemical are being reported and why these are significant.


A Wallace Hayes, PhD, DABT, FATS, ERT Michigan State University and University of South Florida, USA
Associate Editor
Tetyana Kobets, MD, MSPH New York Medical College, USA
Editorial Board
Hiroaki Aogama, PhD The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Japan
Anne Marie Api, PhD Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, USA
Matthew Blais, PhD Southwest Research Institute, USA
Matthew S. Bogdanffy, PhD Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, USA
Florence Burleson, PhD Burleson Research Technologies, Inc. (BRT), USA
Alexander Cartus, PhD Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Germany
Tian Chen, MD Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China
Roger A. Clemens, DPH University of Southern California School of Pharmacy, USA
Emmanuela Corsini, PhD University of Milan, Italy
Aleksandra Buha Djordjevic, PhD, ERT University of Belgrade, Serbia
Jiabin Guo, PhD Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, China
Shim-mo Hayashi, DVM, PhD Osaka Prefecture University, Japan
Norbert Kaminski, PhD Michigan State University, USA
Byung-Mu Lee, PhD Sungkyunkwan University, Korea
Benjamin M. Liu Children’s National Hospital, USA
Robert R. Maronpot, DVM, MS, MPH Maronpot Consulting, LLC, USA
Abraham Nyska, DVM Tel Aviv University, Israel
Thomas Ong, PharmD, PhD University of São Paulo, Brazil
Peter Pressman, MD The Daedalus Foundation, USA
K. S. Rao, DVM, PhD Rao Toxicology Foundation, USA
Matthias Rinke, DVM Toxicologic Veterinary Pathologist, Germany
Robert Roy, PhD Northland Toxicology Consultants, LLC Minnesota, USA
Saura C. Sahu, PhD Food and Drug Administration, USA
Dieter Schrenk, MD, PhD University of Kaiserslautern, Germany
Daniel Smart, PhD Philip Morris International, Switzerland
Benjamin Smith, PhD Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore
Engin Tutkun, MD, PhD Ankara University, Turkey
Tao Wang, MD, PhD Coherus BioSciences, Redwood City, CA, USA
Gary Williams, MD New York Medical College, USA
Cody Wilson, PhD The Coca-Cola Company, USA
Maria Lucia Zaidan Degli, DVM, PhD University of São Paulo, Brazil
Leshuai Zhang, PhD, DABT, ERT Soochow University, China
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Toxicology Research and Application

This journal has ceased publication and is not accepting new submissions.

  1. Open Access
  2. Article processing charge (APC)
  3. Article Types
  4. Editorial policies
    4.1 Peer Review Policy
    4.2 Authorship
    4.3 Acknowledgements
    4.4 Funding
    4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
    4.7 Clinical Trials
    4.8 Reporting guidelines
    4.9 Data
  5. Publishing policies
    5.1 Publication ethics
    5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
  6. Preparing your manuscript
    6.1 Word processing formats
    6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    6.3 Supplementary material
    6.4 Reference style
    6.5 English language editing services
  7. Submitting your manuscript
    7.1 ORCID
    7.2 Information required for completing your submission
    7.3 Corresponding author contact details
    7.4 Permissions
  8. On acceptance and publication
    8.1 SAGE Production
    8.2 Continuous publication
    8.3 Promoting your article
  9. Further information

This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Please read the guidelines below then visit the journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Toxicology Research and Application will be reviewed.

As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

1. Open Access

Toxicology Research and Application is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution or author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.

For general information on open access at SAGE please visit the Open Access page or view our Open Access FAQs.

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2. Article processing charge (APC)

If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time Article processing charge (APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons licence.

The APC for this journal is $2,000 USD.

The article processing charge (APC) is payable when a manuscript is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Tax-exempt status can be indicated by providing appropriate registration numbers when payment is requested. Please see further details here.

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3. Article types

The journal publishes original research and review articles in the field of toxicology.

Authors must clearly identify chemically the material tested and briefly explain what novel toxic effect(s) or toxic mechanism (s) of the chemical is being reported and why this is significant.

Original articles Abstract should be a maximum of 500 words and should be structured appropriately.  The Introduction should not exceed 1,500 words and the Discussion 2,500 words.There is no word limit on Methods and Results; however, the manuscript’s readability may suffer if these sections are excessively long.  There is no limit to the amount of references.

Review articles The editors invite review articles on relevant and current topics in toxicology. Each review should contain a summary, an introduction to the topic, a careful review of the relevant literature, conclusions of the reviewed literature and recommendations, if applicable. Reviews must contain no more than 10,000 words.

The journal will publish both mini-reviews (about 10 typewritten, double-spaced pages) and full-length, more thorough reviews (not to exceed 50 typewritten, double-spaced pages).

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4. Editorial policies

4.1 Peer review policy

SAGE does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. 
Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

•  The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors
•  The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper
•  The author has recommended the reviewer
•  The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution). 

4.1.1 Declarations

**Please note that all manuscripts should be accompanied by a separate document entitled 'Declarations'.

Please read the Declarations guidelines for authors, available here, carefully before submitting your Declarations document.

This should be submitted under the file designation ‘Declarations’. This must include each of the below headings with the corresponding information. Please note that manuscripts which do not include these Declarations will be returned. These headings will be published at the end of every accepted manuscript, where one of these headings is not applicable please indicate as such under the heading.


1. Conflicting interests

2. Funding

3. Informed consent

4. Ethical approval

5. Author contributions

6. Acknowledgements

7. Availability of data

Example of a completed Declarations document:


Conflicting interests: MS is an employee of XXX. BF has received grants from XXX.

Funding: This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number XXX] Informed consent: Written informed consent was obtained from the patient(s) for their anonymized information to be published in this article.

Ethical approval: Ethical approval for this study was obtained from *NAME OF ETHICS COMMITTEE OR INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (APPROVAL NUMBER/ID)*.

Author contributions: BF and NP researched literature and conceived the study. MS was involved in protocol development, gaining ethical approval, patient recruitment and data analysis. BF wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors reviewed and edited the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Acknowledgements: We would like to thank XXX XXXX for his assistance and guidance in this research.

Availability of data: The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available from [e.g. repository or corresponding author].

Please read the following information carefully for additional information regarding these declarations.

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4.2 Authorship

Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published,
    4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

         Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

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4.3 Acknowledgements

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

4.3.1 Third party submissions

Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

  • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
  • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
  • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

4.3.2 Writing assistance

Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services

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4.4 Funding

Toxicology Research and Application requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

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4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests                  

It is the policy of Toxicology Research and Application to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

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4.6 Research ethics and patient consent

Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the ARRIVE guidelines.

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4.7 Clinical trials

Toxicology Research and Application conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

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4.8 Reporting guidelines

The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

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4.9 Data

SAGE acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process for academic journal articles.

Toxicology Research and Application requests all authors submitting any primary data used in their research articles alongside their article submissions to be published in the online version of the journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The editor may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data. The editor can also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations. For further information, please contact the editorial office at

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5. Publishing policies

5.1 Publication ethics

SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

5.1.1 Plagiarism

Toxicology Research and Application and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

5.1.2 Prior publication

If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

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5.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement

Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement.  Toxicology Research and Application publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) , which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit SAGE's OA licenses page.

Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.

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6. Preparing your manuscript

6.1 Word processing formats

The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

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6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.

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6.3 Supplementary material

This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

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6.4 Reference style

Toxicology Research and Application adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference style. Please review the guidelines on SAGE Vancouver to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Vancouver output file here.

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6.5 English language editing services

Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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7. Submitting your manuscript

Toxicology Research and Application is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.


As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

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7.2 Information required for completing your submission

You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

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7.3 Corresponding author contact details

Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.

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7.4 Permissions                                                                                            

Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway

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8. On acceptance and publication

If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the contributor’s publishing agreement. Once your manuscript files have been check for SAGE Production, the corresponding author will be asked to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link. Once the APC has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and can appear online within an average of 20 days. Please note that no production work will occur on your paper until the APC has been received.

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8.1 SAGE Production

Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit, or by email to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. 

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8.2 Online publication

One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.

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8.3 Promoting your article

Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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9. Further information

Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Toxicology Research and Application editorial office as follows:

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