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The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care

The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care

eISSN: 26350114 | ISSN: 26350106 | Current volume: 50 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Bi-monthly

The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care is a peer-reviewed bi-monthly journal that serves as the official research publication of the Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists. The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care publishes papers on aspects of patient education; professional education; population, cardiometabolic and public health; and technology-based needs while serving as a reference for the art and science of diabetes self-management education and support. This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care is the official publication of the Association of Di­abetes Care and Education Specialists. Its primary purpose is to publish papers on aspects of patient education, professional education, and serve as a reference for the science and art of diabetes management. The journal publishes original research, perspectives in practice, and application in such areas as nutrition, pharmacy, psychosocial aspects of diabetes, and health care policy. Subscription to The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care is a benefit to members of the ADCES.

James Fain, PhD, RN, BC-ADM, FAAN, FADCES Professor of Nursing, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Graduate School of Nursing, USA
Associate Editor
Susan Sullivan- Bolyai DNSc, RN, CNS, FAAN Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts Chan Medical School, Tan Chingfen Graduate School of Nursing, Worcester, MA.
Editorial Advisory Board
Eunseok Cha PhD, MPH, CDCES, FAHA Professor, Chungnam National University, College of Nursing, Daejeon, South Korea
Susan Cornell, PharmD, CDCES, FAPhA, FADCES Midwestern University College of Pharmacy, Downers Groves, IL, USA
Sybil Crawford, PhD University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Division of Preventative & Behavioral Medicine, Worcester, MA, USA
Perry Gee, PhD, RN Dignity Health, Nursing Research and Analytics, Phoenix, AZ, USA
Kathryn Godley, FNP-BC, CDCES Albany Medical College, Division of Endocrinology, Albany, NY, USA
Stephanie Griggs PhD, RN, FAAN Assistant Professor, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.
Evan M. Sisson, PharmD Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
Arlene Smaldone, PhD, CPNP, CDCES Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, NY, USA
Jing Wang, PhD, RN, MPH, FN, FAAN University of Texas Health, San Antonio School of Nursing, San Antonio, TX, USA
Jane K. Dickinson, RN, PhD, CDCES Teachers College Columbia University
Immediate Past President
Corporate Secretary
Matthew Hornberger, MBA, CAE ADCES CEO, Chicago, IL, USA
Ex Officio Members
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  • Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal's submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please submit manuscripts electronically in the Sage Track system at Authors will be required to set up an online account.


    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article Categories
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Contributors Listed in Acknowledgments
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.7 Clinical trials
      2.8 Reporting guidelines
      2.9 Research Data
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Author Guidelines
      4.3 Terminology
      4.4 Laboratory Data
      4.5 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.6 Supplemental material
      4.7 Reference style
      4.8 English language editing services
      4.9 Manuscript Submission Checklist
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Sage Policy Regarding NIH Compliance
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information
      7.1 Appealing the publication decision


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care is the official journal of the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists (ADCES). It is a peer-reviewed research journal intended to serve as a reference source for the science of self-management related to diabetes and co-morbid conditions and for the growing body of knowledge related to technology, population health and public health.

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care does not publish articles that relate to basic science, animal studies, medication trials or clinical treatment of diabetes.

    The Editors and Editorial Advisory Board of The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care journal are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds. International contributions on global topics consistent with the aims and scope of the journal are welcome providing there is relevance to the largely United States readership.

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care is published in both print and electronic formats and publishes OnlineFirst which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication.

    1.2 Article Categories


    All feature articles must include a structured abstract of 250 words. Feature articles include: Original Research; Meta-analysis, Systematic Reviews and Integrative Reviews and ADCES Position/Consensus Statements.

    There is no limit on the number of references allowed for Original Features.

    Original Research

    This type of feature reports original investigations that are relevant to the aims and scope of the journal. Research papers should be 12-14 double-spaced pages, excluding tables, figures, and references. The following elements should be included in reports of original research: (1) structured abstract; (2) introduction with statement of the purpose of the study; (3) complete description of the methods (eg, design, sample, evaluation instruments, procedures, statistical analyses); (4) clear report of the results; and  (5) conclusions/discussion of the findings.

    All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file.

    Meta-analysis, Systematic Reviews, and Integrative Reviews

    Meta-analysis manuscripts are systematic, critical assessments of literature and data sources.

    Integrative and Systematic reviews address a specific question or issue that is relevant for clinical practice and provide an evidence-based, balanced, patient-oriented review on a focused topic. Authors are responsible to check if a paper used in a systematic review or meta-analysis has been retracted.

    Reviews should include the clinical question or issue and its importance for diabetes care and education, description of how the relevant evidence was identified, assessed for quality, and selected for inclusion; synthesis of the available evidence such that the best-quality evidence (eg, well-conducted clinical trials, meta-analyses, and prospective cohort studies) should receive the greatest emphasis; and discussion of controversial aspects and unresolved issues. The specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention and outcomes should be described for each article or data source. Grading of scientific evidence of studies along with a description of the grading system used should be included in the table. Authors should submit the 2020 PRISMA flow diagram and checklist. A structured abstract is required.

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care journal publishes reviews using a scientific method and does not publish comprehensive literature reviews, nor scoping reviews.

    Position Statements/Consensus Statements of the ADCES

    Official position statements or consensus statements of The Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists are published in The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care.

    Letters to the Editor

    These letters provide a forum for commenting on articles published in The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care. The length should not exceed 800 words of text with a minimal number of references. One table or figure may be included, if necessary. Any comments regarding a specific article must include the title, author(s), and date of publication. Letters that contain questions or criticisms in response to a previously published paper will be forwarded to the author(s) of that article for a reply. The sharing of ideas, experiences, opinions, and alternative views is encouraged. The editor-in-chief reserves the right to accept, reject, or excerpt letters for clarity and appropriateness of content, and to accommodate space requirements.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care is a peer-reviewed journal. The Editors review manuscripts that have been submitted and assign them to selected peers for additional review. The review process is double-anonymized. The review decision is sent to the corresponding author; additional information and/or clarification may be required before a manuscript is accepted for publication.

    Periodically, authors may be asked to provide the names of peers who specialize in a narrow field and could be called upon to review the manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    You may also be asked to nominate peers who you do not wish to review your manuscript (opposed reviewers).

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite/reject any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published

    Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship/contributorship defined above, and editors will ask these individuals to complete journal-specific author and conflict-of-interest disclosure forms. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Other members of the group are listed in the Acknowledgments.

    Authors should determine the order of authorship among themselves and should settle any disagreements before submitting their manuscript. Please refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) flow charts regarding addition and removal of authors before and after publication.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.



    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section included on the Title Page. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chairperson who provided general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.

    Groups of persons who have contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged under such headings as “clinical investigators” or “participating investigators,” and their function or contribution should be described—for example, “served as scientific advisors,” “critically reviewed the study proposal,” “collected data,” or “provided and cared for study patients.” Because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions, these persons must give written permission to be acknowledged.

    2.3.1 Acknowledgment of a Medical Writer

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care editorial board and Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists recognize the valuable contributions of medical writers to the publication team. Individuals who provided writing or editing assistance, eg, from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgments section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance—including the individual’s name, company, and level of input—and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    2.3.2 Personal Acknowledgments

    Please supply any personal acknowledgments on the Title Page (not in the main document) to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care journal to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a “Declaration of Conflicting Interests” statement is included on your Title Page. If no conflict exists, please state that “The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest.” For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    2.7 Clinical trials

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care journal endorses the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment. However, consistent with the AllTrials campaign, retrospectively registered trials will be considered if the justification for late registration is acceptable. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care journal supports fairness, equity, consistency and clarity in use and reporting of race and ethnicity. Guidance on reporting race and ethnicity can be found in the Inclusive Language section of the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors subsection 11.2.3, Race and Ethnicity.

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives

    2.9 Research data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics. The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    Manuscripts must not be under simultaneous consideration by any other publication, before or during the peer-review process and cannot be uploaded to any preprint server.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgment, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author’s institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Multiple Publications From One Study

    Authors usually publish one comprehensive article from a large data set. However, there may be reasons why authors publish several articles from the same data set or study. These include the following: (a) each submitted manuscript has a very distinct and clear purpose that addresses a different research question or hypothesis from the originally published study, and (b) an additional manuscript makes an independent and significant discovery of new information or insights into knowledge and practice. The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care requires that authors submitting manuscripts from one data set or study include the following information within the body of the manuscript: (a) information about the originally published study, including an appropriate reference to the originally published paper; (b) extent of overlap in method, variables, and data analyses from the originally published paper; (c) description of participants; and (d) clear indication about the discovery of new information and how the current study differs from other publications. A clear and comprehensive disclosure about the originally published study will facilitate the editorial decision-making process and avoid duplicate or salami publishing

    3.1.3 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    Manuscripts based on papers that have been presented at conferences may be considered for publication as long as they have not been published and provided that the author(s) still retain the rights to the manuscript. The Editor-in-Chief may review whether the version of your article considered for publication is materially different from the work you presented at a conference and/or whether publication in the journal will enable you to reach an audience that the conference paper did not previously reach.

    Prior publication of an abstract or poster presented at a conference will generally not impact the manuscript’s eligibility for publication.

    If material in a manuscript has been presented at a conference or professional meeting, this needs to be noted in the Acknowledgments section. For example, “This study was presented in part at the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists (ADCES 2020) Annual Conference; August 14, 2020; Atlanta, Georgia.”

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive license agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. Word templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    Manuscripts should be prepared in Word format and in accordance with the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 11th ed. Oxford University Press; 2019. All accepted manuscripts will be edited according to the AMA Manual of Style. 11th ed. In consultation with the author(s), the journal reserves the right to edit manuscripts for clarity, length, readability, and consistency with the style of the journal.

    Manuscripts must be typed double-spaced throughout including references. Use margins of at least 1 inch on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. Nothing should be typed in all upper case letters. Number pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, beginning with the title page, and provide a running head (not exceeding 50 characters) at the top of each page.

    The manuscript should be organized in the following manner:

    1. Title Page (including Acknowledgments)
    2. Structured Abstract
    3. Introduction (no heading)
    4. Research Design, Methodology, Results, Conclusions (for features)
    5. Text Divided into Logical Headings and Subheadings as Appropriate
    6. References
    7. Tables, Figures, Legends, and Illustrations/photos on Separate Pages

    Upload each of the following separately: Title page, Main document (abstract, body of manuscript and references), each table, each figure.

    Title Page

    The title page should include (1) title of the manuscript; (2) suggested running head; (3) full name and academic degree(s) for each author. Do not include fellowships such as FADCES or FAND; (4) institutional affiliation, including department name and city/state; (5) complete mailing address, with daytime telephone and fax numbers, and email address for corresponding author; (6) acknowledgment of financial and/or other support; and (7) any acknowledgments. The title page is the only place in the manuscript where the author(s) should be identified by name. The title should be written in a brief, concise manner that accurately reflects the main idea of the paper. The running head is a shortened version of the title that should not contain the names or initials of any authors.

    Structured Abstract

    All original feature articles must include a structured abstract of no more than 250 words using the following headings:

    a. Purpose (Begin this section with the sentence: The purpose of this study is to. . . . Include the rationale for the study, hypotheses, objectives)
    b. Methods (study design, setting, characteristics of the sample, intervention, data collection procedures, evaluation measures)
    c. Results (key findings only, no details or statistics)
    d. Conclusions (information supported by the data, implications)

    In general, the abstract should be written in a brief, concise style that provides an overview of the information in the article and allows the reader to survey the contents. Use simple, concrete words and short sentences that provide factual information rather than describing what information will appear in the article.

    4.2 Author Guidelines

    • Throughout the manuscript, avoid using the personal pronouns I or we.
    • Employ nonsexist language.
    • Spell out abbreviations and acronyms on first mention followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Limit the overall use of abbreviations in the text.
    • Avoid jargon. For example, instead of the patient was on insulin use the patient was taking insulin or injecting insulin.
    • In general, authors should use the active voice. If the subject is mentioned in the sentence, the active voice is preferred over the passive voice. For example, Passive voice: The definition of target blood glucose range used in the survey was taken from previous studies. Active voice: The authors used previous definitions of the target blood glucose range in the survey.
    • Throughout the text, use generic, nonproprietary names for medications and devices.
    • Use brief headings and subheadings to divide the text into logical sections and enhance readability. Indicate placement of tables, figures, illustrations, and photos in the text by referring to the graphic with the appropriate designation in parentheses (eg, Table 1, Figure 1) following the referent sentence.

    4.3 Terminology

    • The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care journal supports person-first language. Do not use the word diabetic.  For a list of language to avoid (such as blood glucose control, medication adherence or compliance) and suggested substitutions, please refer to:
      Dickinson JK, Guzman SJ, Marynuik MD, et al. The use of language in diabetes care and education. Diabetes Educ. 2017; 43(6):551-564.
      doi: 10.1177/0145721717735535
    • Use blood glucose monitoring (not blood sugar monitoring), blood glucose check not test, and blood glucose not blood sugar.
    • Use type 1 (Arabic numeral) diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Do not use Type I or II nor IDDM or NIDDM.
    • T1DM and T2DM are acceptable abbreviations for type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
    • A1C (not A1c or HbA1c) should be used.
    • Low income” and “no income” preferred over “the poor” or “the unemployed”.
    • “First world/third world” and “developed/developing” not recommended for descriptors for countries/regions.
    • The term diabetes educator has been replaced by diabetes care and education specialist.

    4.4 Laboratory Data

    All clinical laboratory data including A1C should be given in traditional units followed in parentheses by units in the metric system according to the Systéme International d’Unités (SI units). Use the NGSP’s A1C converter at to calculate A1C values as both percent and mmol/mol. For example, a blood glucose level should be stated in the following manner: 80 mg/dL (4.44 mmol/L). Abbreviate units of measure in the text only when accompanied by numbers; units of measure should be abbreviated in tables.

    4.5 Artwork, Figures and Other Graphics

    Figures should be presented as simply and clearly as possible. It is the author's responsibility to provide original, high-resolution images (a minimum of 300 dpi [dots per inch]) for all figures, photos and illustrations. Low resolution is 72 dpi, and this is too low for good print quality. Images should be about 1200 x 1800 (4 x 6 prints) pixels or 2400 x 3000 pixels (8 x 10 prints).

    • Save images that do not include text or graphs as TIF or JPG files.
    • Save charts, graphs and line art as EPS files. In addition, they can be submitted as Microsoft PowerPoint (PPTX), Word (DOC) or Excel (XLSX) files.

    Each figure file name should include the lead author's last name and the figure number (e.g. Smith Fig 1, Smith Fig 2, Smith Fig 3, etc.).

    There is no charge for images that appear in black and white. Authors who wish to publish color images may do so for a fee to subsidize additional printing expenses. Color charges are $800 for the first color page and $200 for each color page thereafter. Otherwise, figures will print in black and white free of charge and they will appear in color online only. If authors choose the color option for print, an invoice will be sent later in the production process.

    4.6 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    4.7 Reference style

    Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of all reference citations. Format the reference list according to the style shown in the AMA Manual of Style 11th ed. Reference numbers should be typed in Arabic superscript numerals in the text, outside periods and commas and inside colons and semicolons. A hyphen should be used to join a series of references. For example, As supported by previous research,1,5-8,23

    The reference list should be typed double-spaced and start on a separate sheet immediately following the end of the text. Number references consecutively in the order they appear in the text, including references cited in tables, figures, and other graphics. All references included on the reference list must be cited at least once in the text. Abbreviate journal names and italicize. Search for journal title abbreviations.

    If you use reference management software, such as EndNote, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript as the codes interfere with the production process. Always make a copy of your document before removing any codes. Do not use the footnote function in Microsoft Word for references.

    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cites. All journal articles must include the doi in the following format: doi:10. 111/1234567 (no period at the end).

    Inclusive page numbers must be provided (eg, 281-288) for all print references.

    References to personal communication (including email) may be cited parenthetically in the text but not in the reference list; include the name of the person, the email address, and the date of the communication. Material that has been accepted for publication but not yet published may be cited in the reference list with the journal name followed by “Forthcoming and the year.” In press is no longer used. Un-published material may not be cited. Electronic forms of documents may be included in the reference list and should be cited according to the style for each type of electronic source.

    Following are some examples of correct forms of references:

    Journal Article

    List all authors if six or less; for more than six, list only first three authors followed by “et al.”

    Davis J, Fischl AH, Beck J, Browning L, Carter A, et al. 2022 National standards for diabetes self-management education and support. Sci Diabetes Self Manag Care. 2022;48(1):44-59. doi:10.1177%2F26350106211072203

    Powers MA, Bardsley JK, Cypress M, et al. Diabetes self-management education and support in adults with type 2 diabetes: a consensus report of the American Diabetes Association, the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pas, the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, and the American Pharmacists Association. Diabetes Educ. 2020;46(4): 350-369. doi:10.1177/0145721720930959

    Book With Editor(s)

    Cornell S, Halstenson C, Miller DK, eds. The Art and Science of Diabetes Care and Education.  5th ed. Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists; 2021.

    Electronic Citations

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes statistics report, 2020: estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States. Accessed month, date year.

    4.8 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    4.9 Manuscript Submission Checklist

    • Review and follow The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care manuscript submission guidelines.
    • Designate a corresponding author. Please note The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care contributorship policy.
    • Provide an abstract for all manuscripts.
    • Double-space manuscript and references.
    • Check all references for accuracy and completeness. Follow the reference style of the AMA Manual of Style.11th ed. Italicize and abbreviate journal names according to National Library of Medicine’s abbreviations.
    • Include a title for each table and figure and explanatory legend including abbreviations used as needed.
    • Upload the title page, main document including references, and each table and figure separately.
    • Include research or project support/funding on the title page.
    • Include permission agreements for use of third party material requiring permission.
    • If appropriate, include information on institutional review board/ethics committee approval or waiver and informed consent.
    • For clinical trials, add the clinical trial identification number and the URL of the registration site.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit http://mc.manuscript to log in and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. A preliminary version of your manuscript is called a proof and a PDF will be sent to the corresponding author for review before publication. The production editor may include specific questions for the author to address. Substantial changes are not accepted at the proof stage of production. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence, and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication

    OnlineFirst allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Sage Policy Regarding NIH Compliance

    Sage Publications fully understands the shifting demands on authors whose work is funded by bodies such as the NIH and Wellcome Trust among others. Sage allows authors the right to post the final accepted, prepublished version of their manuscript (not the final PDF) on an institutional repository or national database, such as PubMedCentral, with the understanding that the article will not be made available until 12 months after the official date of publication.

    If an author is funded by NIH and chooses to pay the Sage Choice fee for open access, Sage will deposit the manuscript on the author’s behalf and make the article freely available immediately on publication. Please see more information about this option at

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. 

    Sage and the Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists utilize social media sites, including blogs and discipline-specific Twitter pages, to promote journal content. Share article links and journal news with your network of contacts. You can find The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care content on Twitter at @ADCESdiabetes and @SageHealthInfo.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the editorial office as follows:

    James A. Fain, PhD, RN, BC-ADM, FADCES, FAAN
    University of Massachusetts Medical School
    Graduate School of Nursing
    55 Lake Ave. North
    Worcester, MA 01655
    508-856-5801 (O)

    7.1 Appealing the publication decision

    Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at

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