Preface

Acknowledgements

About the Authors

Part I Yippee! I’m in Statistics

Chapter 1. Statistics or Sadistics? It’s Up to You

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

A 5-Minute History of Statistics

Statistics: What it is and Isn’t

What am I doing in a Statistics Class?

Ten Ways to Use this Book (and Learn Statistics at the Same Time)

Part II Welcome to the Interesting, Flexible, Useful, Fun and (Very) Deep Worlds of R and RStudio

Chapter 2. Here’s Why We Love R and How to Get Started

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

A Very Short History of R

Where to Find and Download R

Where to Find RStudio and How to Install It

Chapter 3. Using RStudio: Much Easier Than You Think

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Why RStudio (and Why Not Just R?)

The Grand Tour and All About Those Four Panes

Showing Your Stuff – Working With Menus and Tabs and A Sample Data Analysis Using RStudio

Next Step: Using and Importing Datasets

Reading in Established Datasets

Computing Some Statistics

Part III Sigma Freud and Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 4. Means to an End: Computing and Understanding Averages

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

What You Will Learn in This Chapter Computing the Mean

When to Use What Measure of Central Tendency (and All You Need to Know About Scales of Measurement for Now)

Using the Computer to Compute Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 5. Understanding Variability: Vive la Différence

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Why Understanding Variability is Important

Computing the Standard Deviation

Using R to Compute Measures of Variability

Chapter 6. Creating Graphs: A Picture Really Is Worth a Thousand Words

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

Ten Ways to a Great Graphic

First Things First: Creating a Frequency Distribution

The Plot Thickens: Creating a Histogram

The Next Step: A Frequency Polygon

Other Cool Ways to Chart Data

Using the Computer (R, That Is) to Illustrate Data

Chapter 7. Computing Correlation Coefficients: Ice Cream and Crime

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

What are Correlations All About?

Computing a Simple Correlation Coefficient

Understanding What the Correlation Coefficient Means

A Determined Effort: Squaring the Correlation Coefficient

Parting Ways: A Bit About Partial Correlations

Chapter 8: Understanding Reliability and Validity: Just the Truth

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

An Introduction to Reliability and Validity

Reliability: Doing it Again Until You Get it Right

Different Types of Reliability

How Big is Big? Finally: Interpreting Reliability Coefficients

Validity: Whoa! What is the Truth?

Validity and Reliability: Really Close Cousins

Part IV Taking Chances for Fun and Profit

Chapter 9. Hypotheticals and You: Testing Your Questions

What You Will Learn in This Chapter

So You Want to Be a Scientist

What Makes a Good Hypothesis?

Chapter 10. Probability and Why It Counts: Fun with a Bell-Shaped Curve

What You’ll Learn About in this Chapter

The Normal Curve (A.K.A The Bell-Shaped Curve)

Our Favorite Standard Score

Fat and Skinny Frequency Distributions

Part IV Significantly Different: Using Inferential Statistics

Chapter 11. Significantly Significant: What It Means for You and Me

What You’ll Learn About in this Chapter

The Concept of Significance

Significance Versus Meaningfulness

An Introduction to Inferential Statistics

An Introduction to Tests of Significance

12. The One-Sample Z-Test: Only the Lonely

What You’ll Learn About in this Chapter

Introduction to the One-Sample Z-Test

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Computing the Z-Test Statistic

Using R to Perform a Z-Test

Special Effects: Are Those Differences for Real?

Chapter 13. t(ea) for Two: Tests Between the Means of Different Groups

What You’ll Learn About in This Chapter

Introduction to the t-test for Independent Samples

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Computing the t-Test Statistic

Using R to Perform a t-Test

14. t(ea) for Two (Again): Tests Between the Means of Related Groups

What You’ll Learn About in This Chapter

Introduction of the t-Test for Dependent Samples

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Computing the t-Test Statistic

Using R to Perform a t-Test

The Effect Size for t(ea) for Two (Again)

Chapter 15. Two Groups Too Many? Try Analysis of Variance

Introduction to Analysis of Variance

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Different Flavors of ANOVA

Computing the F-test Statistic

Using R to Compute the F Ratio

The Effect Size for One-Way ANOVA

But Where is the Difference?

Chapter 16. Two Too Many Factors: Factorial Analysis of Variance—A Brief Introduction

What You’ll Learn About in This Chapter

Introduction to Factorial Analysis of Variance

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Even More Interesting Interaction Effects

Using R to Compute the F Ratio

Computing the Effect Size for Factorial ANOVA

Chapter 17. Testing Relationships Using the Correlation Coefficient: Cousins or Just Good Friends?

What You’ll Learn About in This Chapter

Introduction to Testing the Correlation Coefficient

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge

Computing the Test Statistic

Using R to Compute a Correlation Coefficient (Again)

18. Using Linear Regression: Predicting the Future

What You’ll Learn About in this Chapter

Introduction to Linear Regression

What is Prediction All About?

Drawing the World’s Best Line (for Your Data)

How Good is Your Prediction?

Using R to Compute the Regression Line

The More Predictors the Better? Maybe

Part VI More Statistics! More Tools! More Fun!

Chapter 19. Chi-Square and Some Other Nonparametric Tests: What to Do When You’re Not Normal

What You’ll Learn About in this Chapter

Introduction toe Nonparametric Statistics

Introduction to the Goodness of Fit (One-Sample) Chi-Square

Computing the Goodness of Fit Chi-Square Test Statistic

Introduction to the Test of Independence Chi-Square

Computing the Test of Independence Chi-Square Test Statistic

Using R to Perform Chi-Square Tests

20. Some Other (Important) Statistical Procedures You Should Know About: A Statistical Software Sampler

What You’ll Learn About in this Chapter

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance

Structural Equation Modeling

Appendix A: More Fun Stuff with R and RStudio

Appendix B: Tables

Appendix C: Data Sets

Appendix D: Answers to Practice Questions

Appendix E: Math: Just the Basics

Appendix F: The Ten (or More) Best (and Most Fun) Internet Sites for Statistics Stuff

Appendix G: The Ten Commandments of Data Collection

Appendix H: Glossary

Appendix I: The Reward

Index