Sports Health

Sports Health

A Multidisciplinary Approach

Edward M. Wojtys, MD Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

eISSN: 19410921 | ISSN: 19417381 | Current volume: 9 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Bi-monthly

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Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach
is an indispensable resource for all medical professionals involved in the training and care of the competitive or recreational athlete, including primary care physicians, orthopaedic surgeons, physical therapists, athletic trainers and other medical and health care professionals.

Published bimonthly, Sports Health is a collaborative publication from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM), the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), the National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA), and the Sports Physical Therapy Section (SPTS).

The journal publishes review articles, original research articles, case studies, images, short updates, legal briefs, editorials, and letters to the editor.

Topics include:

  • Sports Injury and Treatment
  • Care of the Athlete
  • Athlete Rehabilitation
  • Medical Issues in the Athlete
  • Surgical Techniques in Sports Medicine
  • Case Studies in Sports Medicine
  • Images in Sports Medicine
  • Legal Issues
  • Pediatric Athletes
  • General Sports Trauma
  • Sports Psychology

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). 


Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach takes its title from the desire to provide sports medicine clinicians the science and clinical data for a comprehensive diagnosis and treatment algorithm for sports medicine injuries and conditions in all age groups from pediatrics to geriatrics. Covering a broad range of sports medicine topics from all levels of training and competition, the Journal will publish clinical reviews, didactic features, and original research in a format that promotes an evidence-based multidisciplinary approach to sports medicine.

Executive Editor
Bruce Reider, MD Chicago, Illinois
Editor-in- Chief
Edward M. Wojtys, MD Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Associate Editors
Irfan M. Asif, MD Vice Chair, Academics and Research; Director, Sports Medicine Fellowship; Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, Greenville Health System; University of South Carolina Greenville SOM; Clemson University School of Health Res.; Greenville, SC
George J. Davies, DPT, ATC, CSCS Professor of Physical Therapy, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA, Professor-Emeritus of Physical Therapy, University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse Graduate Physical Therapy Program, LaCrosse, WI
Riann Palmieri-Smith, PhD, ATC Assistant Professor in Athletic Training, Movement Science and Orthopaedics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
Associate Editor for Imaging
Hollis G. Potter, MD Chief, Division of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY
Editorial Board
Chad Asplund, MD, MPH, FACSM Director, Student Health and Sports Medicine, Georgia Regents University Augusta, GA
Gül Yasar Baltaci, PT, PhD, FACSM Coordinator of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Private Ankara Guven Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
David T. Bernhardt, MD Departments of Pediatrics and Orthopedics, Division of Sports Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI
Chris Bradshaw, MD Team Physician, Collingwood Football Club, Melbourne, Australia
Sean T. Bryan, MD, FAAFP Chair, Department of Family Medicine, Greenville Health System, Greenville, SC
Cindy J. Chang, MD, FACSM Associate Clinical Professor, Departments of Orthopedics and Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA
William G. Clancy Jr, MD Professor Emeritus, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI
Andrew J. Cosgarea, MD Director, Division of Sports Medicine,Professor, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
Mahmut N. Doral, MD Professor and Chair, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
Todd S. Ellenbecker, DPT, MS, SCS, OCS, CSCS Clinic Director, Physiotherapy Associates Scottsdale Sports Clinic, National Director of Clinical Research - Physiotherapy Associates, Vice President Medical Services - ATP World Tour, Scottsdale, AZ
Reed Ferber, PhD, CAT, ATC Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
J. Parry Gerber, PhD, PT, ATC, SCS Department of Physical Therapy, Fort Bragg, NC
Kevin Guskiewicz, PhD, ATC Chair, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Director, Sports Medicine Research Laboratory, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, NC
Thomas W. Hash, II, MD Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC
Tricia J. Hubbard-Turner, PhD, ATC Athletic Training Program Director, Department of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina Charlotte, Charlotte, NC
James J. Irrgang, PT, PhD, ATC, FAPTA Professor and Director of Clinical Research, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA
Simon Kemp, MD Rugby Football Union, UK
Cynthia LaBella, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Medical director, Institute for Sports Medicine at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, IL
James Linklater, MD Castlereagh Imaging, St Leonards, NSW, Australia
Robert B. Litchfield, MD, FRCSC Medical Director, Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
Scott A. Lynch, MD Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Penn State College of Medicine, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania
Tokifumi Majima, MD, PhD Professor and the Head, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, International University of Health and Welfare Hospital Nasushiobara, Japan
Terry R. Malone, PT, EdD, ATC Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
Claude T. Moorman, III, MD Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC
Frank R. Noyes, MD President and Medical Director, Cincinnati Sports Medicine Research and Education Foundation, Noyes Knee Institute, Cincinnati, OH
David Olson, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health
Dinshaw Pardiwala, MS (Orth), DNB (Orth), FCPS Head, Centre for Sports Medicine, Director, Arthroscopy Service, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, India
Anthony A. Romeo, MD Professor, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Section Head, Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL
Tönu Saartok, MD, PhD Department of Orthopedics, Visby Hospital, Visby, Sweden
Sandra J. Shultz, PhD, ATC, FNATA, FACSM Professor and Co-Director of the Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory, Greensboro, North Carolina
Robert Smigielski, MD Carolina Medical Center, Warsaw, Poland
Timothy L. Uhl, PhD, ATC, PT Director, Musculoskeletal Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
Pierre Viviers, MD, FACSM Institute of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Stefano Zaffagnini Il Orthopaedic Clinic, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
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  • Instructions for Authors

    Now in MEDLINE!

    Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach is an official publication of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine in collaboration with the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, the National Athletic Trainers' Association, and the Sports Physical Therapy Section. Sports Health welcomes the submission of articles related to sports medicine from all countries and various disciplines.

    The Editor-in-Chief of Sports Health, Edward Wojtys, MD, can be contacted at

    Manuscripts should be submitted electronically at

    Manuscripts cannot be under simultaneous consideration by any other publication during the peer-review process. Authors must include an exclusive license agreement (copyright) form and ICMJE Disclosure form (please access the ICMJE form using Internet Explorer) with their submission. The forms can be uploaded with the manuscript or emailed or FAXed to the Sports Health editorial office. All conflicting interests from all authors must be provided so that each author supplies his/her own ICMJE Disclosure form. When making a declaration, the disclosure information must be specific and include any financial relationship that all authors of the article has with any sponsoring organization and the for-profit interests the organization represents, and with any for-profit product discussed or implied in the text of the article. Any commercial or financial involvements that might represent an appearance of a conflict of interest need to be additionally disclosed in the cover letter accompanying your article to assist the Editor-in-Chief in evaluating whether sufficient disclosure has been made. These forms must be in our possession before the manuscript can be reviewed. With exclusive license, authors in Sports Health are allowed to: post their original manuscript online immediately with no permission needed; post on any non-commercial repository or website the accepted/peer-reviewed version online 12 months after print publication; distribute on a not-for-profit basis photocopies of the published Contribution for teaching purposes or to research colleagues; and re-publish the whole or any part of their work without permission as long as they cite the original source 12 months after print publication. Articles, tables, and figures that have been published in Sports Health may not be published elsewhere by anyone other than the authors without written permission from the exclusive license holder. Authors are responsible for ordering reprints of their articles, which can be done online at

    Please make sure prior to submission that all author names are spelled correctly and consistent with authors’ other publications. This will ensure that articles will index correctly in PubMed. We are unable to makes changes for author order/name inconsistency after final proofs are reviewed and accepted.

    This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). All papers reporting animal and human studies must include whether written consent was obtained from the local Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee and an Ethics Committee reference number.

    We accept manuscripts that report human and/or animal studies for publication only if it is made clear that investigations were carried out to a high ethical standard. Studies in humans that might be interpreted as experimental (eg, controlled trials) should conform to the Declaration of Helsinki, and manuscripts must include a statement that the research protocol was approved by the appropriate ethical committee. In line with the Declaration of Helsinki 1975, revised Hong Kong 1989, we encourage authors to register their clinical trials (at or other suitable databases identified by the ICMJE, If your trial has been registered, please state this.

    Patient Consent
    Authors are required to ensure the following guidelines are followed, as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication.

    Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. When informed consent has been obtained it should be indicated in the submitted article.

    Authorship and Acknowledgments
    Submission of a manuscript implies that all authors have contributed substantially to the work and know and approve the content of the submitted manuscript. Please refer to the ICMJE Authorship guidelines. Our policy discourages the inclusion of more than five authors on an article. If more than five authors are listed, the contribution of each author to the work should be explained in the cover letter. Any person who contributed to the work but does not qualify for authorship should be included in the "Acknowledgments" section. Type acknowledgments in the box provided on the submission page. Please briefly describe the contributions made by acknowledged persons.

    Manuscript Format
    Manuscript pages should be typed double-spaced with the pages and lines numbered. Generally, manuscripts should be 4,500 words or less. Manuscripts will be converted to a PDF file that reviewers download. It is important that NO identifying material is in the submitted manuscript.

    Article Type
    Sports Health publishes Meta-analyses, Systematic Reviews, Clinical Reviews, Original Research articles (Clinical and Basic Science), and Imaging Features. For an in-depth definition of each article type, please click here.

    An abstract which summarizes the content of the article in 300 words or fewer is required for a manuscript submission. Please include the abstract in the manuscript text file when it is uploaded. Please include 3-5 keywords at the end of all abstracts.

    Abstracts for Meta-analyses/Systematic Reviews should include the headings context, objective, data sources, study selection, study design, level of evidence, data extraction, results, and conclusions.

    Example: A method for systematically combining pertinent qualitative and quantitative study data from several selected studies to develop a single conclusion that has greater statistical power. This conclusion is statistically stronger than the analysis of any single study, due to increased numbers of subjects, greater diversity among subjects, or accumulated effects and results.

    Abstracts for Clinical Reviews should include the headings context, evidence acquisition, study design, level of evidence, results, conclusions, and Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT).

    Example: A way to provide a clear, up-to-date account of the topic. The review should include a broad update of recent developments (from the past 1-2 years) and their likely clinical applications in primary and secondary care. The article should also try to highlight the bridge between primary and secondary care and offer specific information on what general practitioners should know about the condition.

    Abstracts for Clinical Research should include the headings background, hypothesis, study design, level of evidence, methods, results, conclusions, and clinical relevance.

    Example: A scientific study of how a new medicine or treatment works in people. Through clinical studies, doctors find new and better ways to prevent, detect, diagnose, control, and treat illnesses.

    **Please note, Level of Evidence should be based on this scale (

    Abstracts for Case Reports may be unstructured, but should be sufficiently detailed to summarize work and its importance.

    Example: An article that describes and interprets an individual case, often written in the form of a detailed story.

    Abstracts for Translational and Basic Science Research should follow the same format described for Clinical Research abstract guidelines above.

    Maximum recommended text length is usually 8 pages, or 4,500 words. Sports Health follows the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style. Use generic names of drugs. If a particular brand was used in a study, insert the brand name along with the name and location of the manufacturer in parentheses after the generic name. The name and location of equipment manufacturers also should be included in parentheses behind the name of the product.

    Units of measure following a number are abbreviated (such as kg, cm). Use metric units in measurements (that is, centimeter vs inch, kilogram vs pound). Limit use of abbreviations; abbreviated terms not used frequently can be spelled out. When uncommon abbreviations are used, give the full term followed by the abbreviation in parentheses the first time it is mentioned in the text, such as femur-ACL-tibia complex (FATC).

    Reports on surgery, except in rare instances, require a minimum follow-up of two years.

    P values should be reported in 3 digits, such as 0.05, < 0.01, 0.25, etc. P values reported differently will be edited to this format.

    Any material that is submitted with an article (eg, tables and figures) that has been reproduced in another source must conform to the current copyright regulations. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission for reproduction of copyrighted material and to provide that documentation to the editorial office before publication. Download a permission form here.

    The author is responsible for all statements made in the work, including copy editor changes.

    Clinical Recommendations
    At the end of each clinical paper, recommendations should be included. These will be highlighted for the reader. The Strength-of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) is required for all clinical recommendations (see below). Use SORT to rate the recommendation based on the strength of the scientific or clinical evidence available to support it.

    The Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) is required for all clinical recommendations. (American Family Physician, July 1, 2006; Vol. 74, Number 1.)

    Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) Grades

    Strength of Recommendation Basis for Recommendation 
    A Consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence.*
    B Inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence.*
    C Consensus, disease-oriented evidence,* usual practice,
    expert opinion, or case series for studies of diagnosis,
    treatment, prevention, or screening.
    * Patient-oriented evidence measures outcomes that matter to patients: morbidity, mortality, symptoms improvement, cost reduction, and quality of life. Disease-oriented evidence measures intermediate, physiologic, or surrogate end points that may or may not reflect improvements in patient outcomes (e.g., blood pressure, blood chemistry, physiologic function, pathologic findings).

    Reprinted with permission. American Family Physician. Copyright 2004. American Academy of Family Physicians. All rights reserved.

    References should be typed double-spaced in alphabetical order and numbered according to the alphabetical listing. If references are not in alphabetical order, the uploaded file will be returned to the corresponding author for correction and resubmission in the correct form. When author entries are the same, alphabetize by the first word of the title. In general, use the Index Medicus form for abbreviating journal titles and the AMA Manual of Style for format.

    References must be retrievable. Do not include in the reference list presentations from meetings that have not been published. Data such as presentations and articles that have been submitted for publication but have not been accepted must be put in the text as unpublished data immediately after mention of the information (for example, "Smith and Jones (unpublished data, 2000) noted in their study ...").

    References will be linked to Medline citations for the reviewers. Authors can include articles that are in Publish-Ahead-of-Print mode. These articles are cited in Medline. To ensure that the references are linked correctly, please provide the PMID number from Medline at the end of the reference. For example: Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH. Injury Rates, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Injury in Minor Hockey. Am J Sports Med. 2006 Jul 21; [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 16861577

    It is imperative that authors double-check their references and assure that they are correct and complete!

    For tables, the system accepts most common word processing formats, but WORD and PDF are preferred. Tables should be included at the end of the manuscript text file so that they are included in the PDF used by reviewers. Tables should be numbered consecutively and have a title. Please be sure the title describes the content and purpose of the table. Tables should enhance, not duplicate, information in the text. Simple tables that repeat textual material will be deleted. It is the author's responsibility to submit permission to reproduce any tables that have been published previously. Download a permission form here.

    Figures (Illustrations)
    Figures for papers accepted for publication must meet the requirements of the publisher, Sage Publications. Files for line drawings should be created at 1200 dpi, for color photographs at 600 dpi, and for black and white photographs at 300 dpi. Please remember that many image formats are not acceptable for reproduction. Please ensure the quality of your figures match the guidelines provided.

    Figures should be submitted in the original form created. Images embedded in Word or PowerPoint files are not acceptable. Glossy prints can be sent to the journal once the paper is accepted if you cannot meet the digital art requirements for publication. Color images are preferred for photographs and bar graphs/charts. Be sure all symbols or arrows are described in the legend. If figure parts (such as A, B) are provided, the legend must explain each part of the figure. Terms used for labels and in the legend must be consistent with those in the text.

    Examine all figures carefully to ensure that the data are presented with the greatest possible clarity. Likewise, determine if a figure would communicate the information more effectively than lengthy narrative. It is the author's responsibility to obtain and submit signed permission to reproduce any copyrighted figures that have been published previously. Download a permission form here.

    All photographs of patients must conceal their identity unless it is necessary not to. If the patient’s identity is not concealed, a signed release must accompany the submission. Download an audio-visual likeness release here. If this is not provided, the patient's eyes must be occluded to prevent recognition.

    The backgrounds of photographs should be as simple and free of distractions as possible. Authors may be asked to provide new images if the photos have “busy backgrounds.”

    **If an identifier is needed on an image with multiple parts (eg, a, b, c), please provide the image with a lowercase letter (NO PARENTHESES) on the bottom right corner in size 10 pt font. Identifiers are only used when there is a grouped legend. If the image can be presented by itself (has its own legend) no identifier is needed on the image. In addition, any other text used on the image (including arrows, asterisks, etc) should be provided in a separate layer from the base image.

    **Charts/graphs should have axes labeled using title capitalization (eg, Mean Follow-up for Athletes). In addition, units should be provided for all axes when necessary and set aside from the table in parentheses.

    Other Formatting Guidelines

    Videos may be submitted with a manuscript to be posted online. Please see the Video Format Guide for format requirements. For copyright/permissions information, view the Video Permission and Fair Use Quick Guide. Identifiable subjects in video will need to sign the Audio-Visual Likeness Release form. It is the author's responsibility to submit forms for each video.

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