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School Climate 2.0
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School Climate 2.0
Preventing Cyberbullying and Sexting One Classroom at a Time



May 2012 | 216 pages | Corwin
Bullying is not new, but its venues have expanded to include social media and mobile phones. When students receive hurtful, threatening, or sexually explicit electronic messages, it affects their ability to concentrate on schoolwork. Renowned cyberbullying experts Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin connect the off-campus, high-tech behaviors of teens to the school environment and provide educators with a road map for developing a positive school climate that counteracts cyberbullying and sexting. School Climate 2.0 differentiates cyberbullying from traditional bullying and offers specific strategies for improving school climate, including

Building a sense of community

Peer mentoring

Social norming

Data-driven action plans

Youth grassroots campaigns

Multi-pronged policy and programming approaches by adults

Included are anecdotes, stories, and high-profile case examples that illustrate the research. The book's companion website features a Twitter feed and Facebook Fan Page with regular PreventionPoints you can put into action quickly, downloadable activities and worksheets, questions to facilitate staff and student discussions, and emerging best practices in school climate research and evaluation—powerful tools for bully-proofing your school.

 
Preface
Important Features of the Book

 
Breakdown of Chapters

 
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Authors
 
1. Teens, Technology, and Trouble
The Story of Sam

 
What Would Happen to Sam Today?

 
Teens and Technology

 
Technology in Schools

 
Breakout Box: Delete Day

 
Why Schools Must Respond to Cyberbullying and Sexting

 
Technology Isn’t the Problem

 
The Power of a Positive School Climate

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
2. School Climate: Where It Begins and Ends
What Exactly Is School Climate?

 
Assessing Your School’s Climate

 
Breakout Box: A Positive School Climate Makes Everything Possible

 
Our School Climate Measure

 
School Climate and Behaviors at School

 
The Social Bond

 
Breakout Box: School Climate and Its Effect on School Social Issues

 
School Climate and Bullying

 
Breakout Bok: The Benefits of a Positive School Climate

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
3. Adolescent Mistreatment in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Cyberbullying
Bullying at School

 
Consequences of Bullying

 
What Is Cyberbullying?

 
Breakout Box: A Teenaged Target’s Cry for Help

 
The Cyberbullied

 
The Cyberbully

 
Where Does Cyberbullying Occur?

 
Correlates of Cyberbullying

 
Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem

 
Cyberbullying and Suicide

 
Cyberbullying and School-Related Delinquency and Violence

 
Unique Features of Cyberbullying

 
Breakout Box: Decoding your Digital Footprint

 
Breakout Box: Unique Characteristics of Cyberbullying

 
The Relationship Between Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
4. Adolescent Relationships in the 21st Century: An Introduction to Sexting
Sexting in the News

 
High Profile Incidents

 
Breakout Box: Adolescent Anger Lands Teen on the Sex Offender Registry

 
Why do Teens Engage in Sexting?

 
Sexting Images Go Viral

 
How Many Teens Really Participate in Sexting?

 
National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy

 
Cox Communications

 
MTV/AP

 
Pew Internet & American Life Project

 
Crimes Against Children Research Center

 
Our Own Survey

 
Sexting: A Continuum of Behaviors

 
Crimes Against Children Research Center Typology

 
Sexting and the Law

 
Breakout Box: Selected State Sexting Bills

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
5. School Climate and Online Misbehaviors
Breakout Box: School Climate and Cyberbullying

 
School Climate and Behaviors Online

 
Our Research

 
Educators' Efforts Matter

 
Whom Do Targets Tell About Their Experiences With Cyberbullying?

 
Expectation of Discipline

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
6. Strategies for Improving Your School Climate
Top-Down Approach

 
Know Their Names

 
Community Building

 
Small Teacher-Student Ratios

 
Stay in the Loop

 
Clearly Define What Is “Not Cool”

 
Breakout Box: Staying in the Loop: What I’ve Learned by Listening and Understanding

 
Monitor Behaviors and Respond Fairly and Consistently to Problems

 
Encourage Active Student Participation in Decision Making

 
Student-Teacher Evaluations

 
Encourage Reporting of Any Inappropriate Behavior

 
Cultivate Hope

 
The Important Role of School Counselors

 
Breakout Box: School Counselors Can Help

 
Inform and Involve the Community

 
Continue to Lay the Groundwork

 
Use Resources Available to You

 
Breakout Box: What YOU Can Do to Spark Climate Change in Your School

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
7. It Takes a Village: Social Norms, Bystanders, and Peer Mentoring
Social Norming

 
An Overview of Social Norms Theory

 
Social Norms Theory and Traditional Bullying

 
Using Social Norming to Prevent Cyberbullying and Sexting

 
Coordinate a Student Play

 
Breakout Box: Using Stage Productions to Enhance School Climate

 
Role-Playing

 
Solidarity Walk or March

 
Four Corners

 
Breakout Box: Canadian Initiatives: Students Making a Difference Against Bullying

 
Pledges

 
Stop Standing By and Start Standing Up!

 
Breakout Box: Minnesota Twins

 
Peer Mentoring

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
8. Prevention Through Assessment: Taking the Pulse of Your School and Students
Survey Your Students

 
Breakout Box: Talking Points: How to Conduct Research Among Your Students

 
Sampling

 
Breakout Box: Use Data to Guide Your Climate Improvement Efforts

 
Survey Development

 
Survey Administration

 
Breakout Box: Assessment Leads to Better Understanding

 
Don’t Forget About the Adults!

 
Focus Groups

 
Breakout Box: Sample Focus Group Questions

 
Confidentiality, Consent, and Ethical Issues

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
Appendix A: Our Survey Questions

 
Appendix B: Psychometric Properties for Cyberbullying Scale

 
 
9. Effective Prevention Requires Effective Response
Can Schools Respond to Behaviors That Occur Away From Campus?

 
Just Say No to “Zero Tolerance”: Utilize Informal Responses When Appropriate

 
Natural and Logical Consequences

 
Breakout Box: What Schools Should Do When Made Aware of a Cyberbullying Incident

 
When Can Educators Search the Contents of Student Cell Phones?

 
Special Considerations When Responding to Sexting Incidents

 
Breakout Box: What Schools Should Do When Made Aware of a Sexting Incident

 
Policy Issues

 
Cyberbullying

 
Breakout Box: Elements of a Cyberbullying Policy

 
Sexting

 
Breakout Box: Elements of a School Sexting Policy

 
When to Get Law Enforcement Involved

 
Educate Students About the Consequences Before the Behavior

 
Breakout Box: One School’s Response to Social Networking Drama

 
A Call for Education and Outreach

 
Summary

 
Discussion Questions

 
 
Index

"Amidst the hysteria surrounding cyberbullying and sexting, Hinduja and Patchin represent a sane, sensible voice that helps us all better understand these phenomena and what is really happening here. This book is filled with useful information and practical tips for those who seek to create positive school climates where bullying of all kinds is minimized. Every educator should buy it and read it.”

Kevin Jennings, Former Assistant Deputy Secretary of Education for Safe and Drug Free Schools

“It is critical that educators, school administrators, parents, and technology companies work together to promote positive behavior – online and off. This practical guide provides important information, backed up by careful research, about the ways that adults can help build constructive dialogues and relationships with students.”

Joe Sullivan, Chief Security Officer
Facebook

“Working with schools around the country, I know firsthand how much pressure there is to find an “answer” to bullying in schools, whether because of recent laws mandating programs and training or the community demanding answers. It’s hard to know what resource is best. It’s especially confusing because a bullying-prevention industry has bloomed to take advantage of this need but so many of these programs lack content based on a realistic analysis. I’m not at all surprised that Justin Patchin and Sameer Hinduja have created the resource all schools should use in School Climate 2.0, either to meet the new legal requirements or truly do the hard and comprehensive work of creating a culture of dignity in a school. From understanding the true dynamics of cyberbullying, to outlining a commonsense strategic plan for educators that will work with their individual community, School Climate 2.0 to my mind is really the most important resource currently available. I will more than strongly advise every school I work with to use this book. Say it this way: if I could make School Climate 2.0 mandatory reading for every school administrator in the country, I would.”

Rosalind Wiseman, Author of Queen Bees and Wannabes

"A rarely seen compendium of school strategies that have worked, School Climate 2.0 moves past the headlines to offer a textured discussion of what we really need to strengthen school culture and improve teens’ and schools’ relationships to social media."

Rachel Simmons, Author of "Odd Girl Out"

"Blaming technology is easy. Addressing the socio-cultural dynamics that shape young people’s lives is hard. Yet, to address hard problems like bullying and sexting, this is precisely what we need to do. In School Climate 2.0 Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin flesh out the relationship between technologically mediated issues and school climate before offering valuable strategies for educators and community members to address problems in their schools. Both grounded and practical, this is a must-read for all who are scratching their heads about how to prevent bullying and sexting."

Danah Boyd, Senior Researcher
Microsoft Research

"Finally, a book that takes a holistic approach to the cyberbullying problem! There is no dividing line between school and home when it comes to the ways members of this generation relate to one another. A positive school climate can only help create a more positive home environment, and vice versa. This book gives readers specific guidance regarding how to prevent cyberbullying, sexting, and other problematic online behaviors."

John Halligan
Ryan’s Story Presentation LTD

"School Climate 2.0 is a wise and practically helpful book. The authors are national leaders in cyberbullying. They present a helpful overview to the problem and most importantly a series of concrete suggestions about how we can make our schools safer, more supportive and engaging. In addition, the book is filled with “voices from the field”, prevention points, discussion questions at the end of the chapter which all serve to make this volume practically helpful to educators. I highly recommend it!"

Jonathan Cohen, President
National School Climate Center

"By cutting through all the media hype and speculation, Hinduja and Patchin present an accurate and helpful analysis of issues related to young people’s use of technology. By pointing out that the vast majority of youth are using technology safely and responsibly, they’re able to focus on the real issues, the real problems, and the kids who need our help. By basing their advice on rigorous research, they are able to come up with strategies that are effective and appropriate. I’m especially pleased that the authors focus on social norms and school climate by sharing insights into how the overall climate of a school affects the behavior of everyone in it."

Larry Magid, Technology Journalist and Internet Safety Advocate

"This is an immensely helpful and well-sourced book. It gives a thorough introduction to adolescents’ use of new technologies and sexting and cyberbullying. It makes a strong case that school climate is a vital factor in regulating these abuses. There are excellent chapters on how practical intervention strategies can be implemented in schools. It will be a great resource for teachers, educators, and parents."

Peter K. Smith, Emeritus Professor
Unit for School and Family Studies, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK

"While Sameer Hinduja and Justin Patchin have a history of providing leadership in solid research and effective outreach on issues of youth risk in a digital age, in this book they have massively outdone their past excellence. Grounded in the understanding that the majority of young people make good choices online and effectively handle the negative situations that do occur, but that a minority of young people are at higher risk, Hinduja and Patchin craft recommendations for a positive school climate approach to help all young people learn to make good choices and assist their peers."

Nancy Willard
Center for Safe and Responsible Internet Use

Sample Materials & Chapters

Preface

Chapter 1: Teens, Technology, and Trouble


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