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Pulmonary Circulation

Pulmonary Circulation

Published in Association with Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute

eISSN: 20458940 | ISSN: 20458940 | Current volume: 11 | Current issue: 3
- Articles online within 48 hours of acceptance
- Global dissemination of articles
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- Impact Factor is 2.283 in our second year

Pulmonary Circulation (PC) is a peer-reviewed open access journal which focuses on increasing survival rates for pulmonary hypertension and other pulmonary vascular diseases worldwide, and developing new therapeutic approaches for the diseases. Please see the Aims and Scope tab for further information.

This journal is an official journal of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI), and is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Submission information
Submit your manuscript today at Please see the Submission Guidelines tab for more information on how to submit your article to the journal.

Open access article processing charge (APC) information
Publication in the journal is subject to payment of an article processing charge (APC). The APC serves to support the journal and ensures that articles are freely accessible online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons licence. The APC for this journal is currently $2,000 USD. The article processing charge (APC) is payable when a manuscript is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Please see further details here.

Please direct any queries to

Pulmonary Circulation, an official journal of the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute, is a peer-reviewed medical research journal focused on publishing original research articles, review articles, case reports, guidelines and consensus articles exclusively in the fields of pulmonary circulation and pulmonary vascular disease.

Pulmonary Circulation provides a unique venue to publish novel findings and advanced discoveries in basic, translational and clinical research on lung vascular biology, pulmonary vascular disease, lung injury and right heart failure, with the ultimate goal of increasing survival rates for pulmonary hypertension and other cardiopulmonary and vascular diseases worldwide, and developing new therapeutic approaches for the diseases.
Jason X. -J. Yuan University of California, San Diego, USA
Nicholas W. Morrell University of Cambridge, UK
Deputy Editors
Kurt R. Stenmark University of Colorado, USA
Irene M. Lang Medical University of Vienna, Austria
Senior Associate Editor
Ghazwan Butrous University of Kent, UK
Associate Editors
Stephen L. Archer Queen’s University, Canada
Paul Corris Freeman Hospital, Newcastle, UK
Candice D. Fike University of Utah, USA
Joe G.N. "Skip" Garcia University of Arizona, USA
Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani University of Giessen, Germany
Mark T. Gladwin University of Pittsburgh, USA
Anna R. Hemnes Vanderbilt University, USA
Antonio Augusto Lopes University of São Paulo, Brazil
Evangelos D. Michelakis University of Alberta, Canada
Qadar Pasha Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, India
Marlene Rabinovitch Stanford University, USA
Stuart Rich Northwestern University, USA
Werner Seeger University of Giessen, Germany
Patricia A. Thistlethwaite University of California, San Diego, USA
Chen Wang Peking Union Medical College, China
Martin R. Wilkins Imperial College London, UK
Editorial Board Members
Steven H. Abman Children's Hospital Colorado, USA
Ian Thomas Kassam Adatia University of Alberta, Canada
Serge Adnot INSERM, France
Micheala Aldred Indiana University, USA
Diego F. Alvarez University of South Alabama, USA
Eric D. Austin Vanderbilt University, USA
Michael A. Bettmann Wake Forest University, USA
Jahar Bhattacharya Columbia University Medical Center, USA
Konstantin G. Birukov University of Maryland, USA
Stephen M. Black University of Arizona, USA
Sébastien Bonnet Centre de recherche de IUCPQ, Canada
Stephen Chan The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA
Navdeep S. Chandel Northwestern University, USA
Richard N. Channick University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Shampa Chatterjee University of Pennsylvania, USA
Xiansheng Cheng Peking Union Medical College, China
Naomi C. Chesler University of Wisconsin, USA
Augustine Choi Cornell University, USA
Hyung D. Chun Yale University, USA
John Gerry Coghlan Royal Free Hospital, UK
David N. Cornfield Stanford University, USA
Michael J. Cuttica Northwestern University, USA
Hiroshi Date Kyoto University, Japan
Regina M. Day Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, USA
Vinicio De Jesus Perez Stanford University, USA
Vera D. Aiello, MD, PhD Instituto do Coracao-HC FMUSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Ankit A. Desai Indiana University, USA
Steven M. Dudek University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Raed A. Dweik Cleveland Clinic, USA
Jeffrey D. Edelman University of Washington, USA
Oliver Eickelberg Helmholtz-Zentrum, Munich, Germany
Gregory C. Elliott Intermountain Medical Center, Utah, USA
Serpil Erzurum Cleveland Clinic, USA
Karen A. Fagan University of South Alabama, USA
Harrison W. Farber Boston University School of Medicine, USA
Jeffrey A. Feinstein Stanford University, USA
Jeffrey Fineman University of California, San Francisco , USA
Amy L. Ryan University of Southern California, USA
Sonia C. Flores University of Colorado, USA
Paul R. Forfia Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, USA
Robert Frantz Mayo Clinic, USA
Henning Gall Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany
Patricia M. George University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Montefiore Hospital, USA
Mark W. Geraci Indiana University School of Medicine, USA
Mario Gerges Mario Gerges, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
Stefano Ghio University of Pavia, Italy
Mark N. Gillespie University of South Alabama, USA
Reda Girgis Spectrum Health, USA
Mardi Gomberg-Maitland Inova Fairfax Heart and Vascular Institute, USA
Brian B. Graham University of Colorado, USA
Alison M. Gurney University of Manchester, UK
Georg Hansmann Hannover Medical School, Germany
Elizabeth O. Harrington Brown University, USA
Michael C. Hart Emory University, USA
Paul M. Hassoun Johns Hopkins University, USA
Akiko Hata University of California, San Francisco, USA
Jianguo He Peking Union Medical College, China
Nicholas S. Hill Tufts University, USA
Katsuya Hirano Kagawa University, Japan
Eric A. Hoffman University of Iowa Health Care, USA
Luke Howard Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, UK
Yuji Imaizumi Nagoya City University, Japan
Dunbar Ivy University of Colorado School of Medicine, USA
Jeffrey R. Jacobson University of Illinois, USA
Roger A. Johns Johns Hopkins University, USA
Peter L. Jones Thomas Jefferson University, USA
Naftali Kaminski Yale University, USA
Steven M. Kawut University of Pennsylvania, USA
Paul Kemp University of Cardiff, UK
Anne M. Keogh St. Vincent's Hospital, Australia
Zain Khalpey University of Arizona, USA
David Kiely University of Sheffield, UK
Nick H. Kim University of California, San Diego, USA
Sung Joon Kim Seoul National University, Korea
James R. Klinger Rhode Island Hospital, USA
Stella Kourembanas Boston Children's Hospital, USA
Michael J. Krowka Mayo Clinic, USA
Wolfgang Kuebler University of Toronto, Canada
Thomas J. Kulik Boston Children's Hospital, USA
David Langleben Jewish General Hospital, Canada
Allan Lawrie University of Sheffield, UK
Timothy D. Le Cras Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, USA
Normand LeBlanc University of Nevada Reno, USA
Fabiola Leon-Velarde Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru
Jose Lopez-Barneo University of Seville, Spain
Wenju Lu The National Key Lab of Respiratory Diseases, China
Roberto Machado Indiana University School of Medicine, USA
Margaret R. MacLean University of Glasgow, Scotland
Michael M. Madani University of California, San Diego, USA
Susan Majka Vanderbilt University Medical Center, USA
Ayako Makino University of California, San Diego, USA
Asrar B. Malik University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Jess Mandel University of California, San Diego, USA
Hiromi Matsubara National Hospital Okayama Medical Center, Japan
Marco Matucci-Cerinic Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Paul McLoughlin Conway Institute of Biomolecular & Biomedical Research, Ireland
Ivan F. McMurtry University of South Alabama, USA
Dolly Mehta University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Barbara O. Meyrick Vanderbilt University, USA
Omar A. Minai Cleveland Clinic, USA
Kamal Mubarak IHA Pulmonary, Critial Care & Sleep Consultants, USA
Srinivas Murali Allegheny General Hospital, USA
Fiona Murray University of Aberdeen, UK
Robert Naeije Erasme University Hospital, Belgium
Jayasri Nanduri The University of Chicago, USA
John H. Newman Vanderbilt University Medical Center, USA
Andrea Olschewski Medical University Graz, Austria
Horst Olschewski Medical University Graz, Austria
Stylianos Orfanos Attikon Hospital, Greece
Ronald J. Oudiz David Geffen School of Medicine, USA
Harold Palevsky Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, USA
Lisa A. Palmer University of Virginia School of Medicine, USA
Andrew J. Peacock Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow, UK
Joanna Pepke-Zaba Papworth Hospital, UK
Nicola Petrosillo Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive, Italy
Bruce R. Pitt University of Pittsburgh, USA
Nanduri Prabhakar The University of Chicago, USA
Ioana R. Preston Tufts Medical Center, USA
Laura Price Royal Brompton Hospital, UK
Tomas Pulido Ignacio Chavez National Heart Institute, Mexico
Soni S. Pullamsetti Max-Planck-Institute, Germany
Rozenn Quarck University of Leuven, Belgium
Usha J. Raj University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Amer Rana Addenbrooke's Hospital, UK
Daniela Riccardi Cardiff University, UK
Franz Rischard University of Arizona, USA
Sharon I. Rounds Brown University, USA
Nancy J. Rusch University of Arkansas, USA
Tarek Safwat Ain Shams University, Egypt
Dr. Sandeep Sahay Houston Methodist Hospital, USA
Julio Sandoval Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico
Maria Virginia T. Santana Ignacio Chavez National Heart Institute, Brazil
B. K. S. Sastry Care Hospital, India
Jean-Pierre Savineau University Bordeaux Segalen, France
Ralph T. Schermuly Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany
Paul T. Schumacker Northwestern University, USA
Nicholas Screaton Papworth Hospital, UK
Pravin B. Sehgal New York Medical College, USA
Marc J. Semigran Massachusetts General Hospital, USA
Karen Sheares Papworth Hospital, UK
Larissa A. Shimoda Johns Hopkins University, USA
Elaine Soon University of Cambridge, UK
Robin H. Steinhorn University of California, San Diego, USA
Troy Stevens University of South Alabama, USA
Duncan J. Stewart Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Canada
Yunchao Su Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, USA
Yuichiro Suzuki Georgetown University, USA
Haiyang Tang University of Arizona, USA
Victor F. Tapson Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, USA
Merryn H. Tawhai Auckland Bioengineering Institute, New Zealand
Dick Tibboel Erasmus University Medical Center – Sophia Children's Hospital, Netherlands
Mark Toshner Papworth Hospital, UK
Mary I. Townsley University of South Alabama, USA
Richard Trembath King’s College London, UK
Rubin M. Tuder University of Colorado, USA
Robert Tulloh University of Bristol, UK
Paul Upton Addenbrooke's Hospital, UK
Rebecca R. Vanderpool University of Arizona, USA
Carmine D. Vizza University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy
Norbert F. Voelkel Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf Institute for Cardiovascular Research VU, Netherlands
Wiltz W. Wagner University of South Alabama, USA
Jian Wang Guangzhou Medical University, China
Jian-Ying Wang University of Maryland, USA
Yong-Xiao Wang Albany Medical College, USA
Jeremy P.T. Ward King's College London, UK
Aaron B. Waxman Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA
Norbert Weissmann Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
David Welsh Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow, UK
James D. West Vanderbilt University, USA
James R. White University of Rochester Medical Center, USA
Sean M. Wilson Loma Linda University, USA
Michael S. Wolin New York Medical College, USA
John S. Wort Imperial College London, UK
Tianyi Wu High Altitude Medical Research Institute, China
Michael E. Yeager University of Colorado, USA
Paul B. Yu Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA
Lan Zhao Hammersmith Hospital, UK
Nanshan Zhong Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, China
Brian S. Zuckerbraun University of Pittsburgh, USA
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  •  Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Pulmonary Circulation

    1. Open Access
    2. Article processing charge (APC)
    3. Article Types
    4. Editorial policies
      4.1 Peer Review Policy
      4.2 Authorship
      4.3 Acknowledgements
      4.4 Funding
      4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      4.7 Clinical Trials
      4.8 Reporting guidelines
      4.9 Data
    5. Publishing policies
      5.1 Publication ethics
      5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
    6. Preparing your manuscript
      6.1 Word processing formats
      6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      6.3 Supplementary material
      6.4 Reference style
      6.5 English language editing services
    7. Submitting your manuscript
      7.1 ORCID
      7.2 Information required for completing your submission
      7.3 Corresponding author contact details
      7.4 Permissions
    8. On acceptance and publication
      8.1 SAGE Production
      8.2 Continuous publication
      8.3 Promoting your article
    9. Further information

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Pulmonary Circulation will be reviewed.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.


    1. Open Access

    Pulmonary Circulation is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution or author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.

    For general information on open access at SAGE please visit the Open Access page or view our Open Access FAQs.

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    2. Article processing charge (APC)

    If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons licence.

    The APC is $2,000 for Original Research Articles, unsolicited Reviews, Leading Edge Science, Guidelines and Conference Reports.

    Case Reports, Letters to the Editor, Research Letters and Consensus reports will be charged at $1,000. There will be no charge for Editorials

    *If the paying party is based in the European Union, to comply with European law, value added tax (VAT) must be added to the APC. Providing a VAT registration number will allow an institution to be exempt from paying this tax, except for UK institutions.

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    3. Article types

    Original research article: Original research, controlled trials, case studies, feasibility and pilot studies, qualitative and quantitative studies. Abstract no more than 250 words, text no more than 9,000 words. No more than 8 tables and figures, no more than 80 references. 

    • Pulmonary Circulation considers all types of original research articles, including clinical and basic research conducted in human subjects and laboratory animals and in vitro, randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, case-control series, and surveys with high response rates. Article components are abstract, keywords, introduction, methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments, references, figures, and tables.
    • Selection and description of participants: Clearly describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls), including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population.
    • Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer’s name and city in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (

    Review article: Pulmonary Circulation publishes comprehensive reviews on topics related to the pulmonary circulation, pulmonary vascular disease, and lung injury. Abstract no more than 250 words, text of 15,000 – 20,000 words. Up to 15 figures and 5 tables, no more than 200 references. Review articles usually are invited by the editors, and unsolicited manuscripts will generally not be considered for publication. It is expected that these articles will be written by individuals who have done substantial work on the subject or are considered experts in the field. Components are abstract, keywords, discussion (main text), summary (including conclusions and future directions), acknowledgments, references, figures (at least 3 and up to 15 schematic diagrams, color images of representative data, flow charts, etc.), figure legends, and tables. Color figures are encouraged.

    Leading Edge Science: This category of article serves as a forum to disseminate new and original lines of thinking in pulmonary hypertension. These articles go beyond the scope of invited reviews and should present new and exciting ideas in research and clinical practice. Some Leading Edge Science manuscripts may challenge current dogma and will be considered for publication based on the scientific merit of the argument presented. Leading Edge Science manuscripts will be subject to peer review. Most articles will be invited, but unsolicited articles are welcome. Leading Edge Science manuscripts must be authored by experts in the field under discussion, such expertise having been demonstrated by original research published by the author(s) in peer-reviewed journals. In all cases, determining whether a proposed Leading Edge Science manuscript is within scope and acceptable for publication is at the discretion of the editors. Manuscripts should include an abstract no more than 250 words, text no more than 3,000 words, no more than 3 figures, and no more than 75 references. Color figures are encouraged.

    Case report: A case report may include a single case study or a case series in pulmonary vascular medicine. They should be based on an interesting observation or on an intervention in a unique clinical case.  Case reports should be no more than 1,000 words, and include no more than 1 table or figure, and no more than 10 references.

    Letter to the Editor: Readers' letters to the Editor-in-Chief are welcomed and should address issues raised by published articles or report significant new findings that merit rapid dissemination. The decision to publish is made by the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that all letters are copyedited prior to publication.

    Research letter: A research letter is a short basic or translational research paper that describes extremely novel results, or a short clinical research paper that describes the novel observations from a small cohort of patients. The research letter should be no more than 1,500 words including an abstract of no more than 50 words, no more than 1 table or figure, and no more than 20 references.

    Guidelines or consensus article and Conference papers: guidelines and conference papers are usually invited by the editors, and unsolicited manuscripts will generally not be considered for publication. It is expected that these articles will be written by individuals who have done substantial work on the subject or are considered experts in the field. 
    These articles should include: abstract, keywords, discussion (main text), summary (including conclusions and future directions), acknowledgments, references, figures (at least 3 and up to 15 schematic diagrams, color images of representative data, flow charts, etc.), figure legends, and tables. Abstract no more than 250 words, text no more than 15,000 words. No more than 15 tables or figures, no more than 200 references.

    Covering letter
    The covering letter is important. To help the Editors in their preliminary evaluation, please indicate why you think the paper suitable for publication.

    Manuscript preparation
    Authors are encouraged to follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (; this is the format used in PubMed and MEDLINE. Authors should strive for a concise article that is unencumbered by excessive detail. Authors who are not fluent in English should have their manuscript checked by a native speaker of English and or an editing service that provides such assistance. Manuscripts that do not follow the required format or are poorly prepared may be rejected for that reason.

    Double space the entire manuscript, including title page, abstract, body, references, tables, and figure legends. Use left justification only, so that the right margin is ragged; the first line of each paragraph should be indented. Use a standard font (such as Times New Roman or Helvetica) and set the font size to 12 points (for tables as well as text). Each component of the article should begin on a separate page, in this order: title page, abstract, body text, acknowledgments (including sources of support and conflicts of interest), references, appendixes, figure legends, and tables. Use the page numbering feature, and number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page and continuing through all pages for tables and figure legends; all of this should be in the same file, and there should be no attempt to conform to the appearance of the typeset journal in any of these elements. Submit each figure as a separate file (see below).

    • Title Page: The title page of the manuscript should include only the following information:
      • total number of manuscript pages;
      • total number of figures;
      • word count for the body of the text;
      • type of contribution (original article, review article, case report, letter to editor, etc.);
      • article title and running head (short title or header);
      • names of all authors, with names in the order in which they should appear in the article;
      • affiliations (departments) and or institutions to which the work should be credited (these should be keyed to the individual authors via symbols or may appear with each author’s name);
      • the corresponding author’s name, including highest academic degree, and contact information (mailing address, including postal code; e-mail address; and telephone number);
      • three to five keywords that describe the content of the manuscript but that are not included in the title of the manuscript.
    • Abstract: A succinct description, in a single paragraph, of the article’s main points, the abstract should not be redundant of the author’s introduction in the main text. The abstract must not exceed 200 or 250 words in length; see “Article Types.”
    • Subheadings: The main sections and subdivisions of the body text should be indicated by side heads flush with the left margin and two lines above the text. (Do not attempt to replicate the appearance of subheadings you see in the journal.) A section should have more than one subdivision if it is subdivided at all.
      • Original research articles: The introductory section must be untitled. Must have “Methods,” “Results,” and “Discussion” sections, with those headings. Conclusions and the like can be a subdivision of the discussion but not a separate section.
      • Review and consensus or guideline articles, and conference papers: The introductory section must be untitled. Authors can use any section titles they like after that, but the last section should be titled “Summary,” “Conclusions,” or the like.
      • Case reports: Must begin with a “Case description” section, which can be subdivided if more than one case is reported. A “Discussion” section is permitted but not required.
    • Body Text
      • Methods, Results, Discussion: Keep methods, results, and discussion distinct and separate. The methods section should provide detail sufficient to allow others to recreate your experiment. Methods may not be described or restated in figure legends or table notes but must be all together in the methods section. The results section contains the previously unpublished data derived by this application of your methods, without commentary (beyond the minimum that might be necessary to ensure intelligibility to the reader). The discussion section contains your interpretation of the reported data and comments on its meaning. There should be no separate section labeled “Conclusion.”
      • Avoid duplicating in the text data that have been provided in tables or figures (minimal duplication, for emphasis or clarity, is acceptable). Also avoid duplication within the text; for example, the discussion section should not restate all the findings that have been presented in results and or in tables and figures.
      • Clinical Trials: The Editor requests that authors reporting the results of clinical trials describe clearly the following: (1) eligibility criteria; (2) whether subjects were admitted before allocation to one of the study groups; (3) the method of randomization; (4) whether the study was “masked,” what specific information was masked, and whether subjects, clinicians, and evaluators were masked; (5) the method used to identify treatment complications; (6) an explanation and analysis of subjects lost to follow-up; (7) statistical methods used; and (8) information that led to the determination of the size of the study groups and the expected differences between groups. For all studies involving human subjects, the methods section should include a statement that the study was reviewed and approved by the authors’ institutional review board.
      • Abbreviations: Abbreviations (please follow the AMA Manual of Style) may be used, but all abbreviations must be defined at first use (separately for the abstract, the body, and each table and figure). Use only common abbreviations, and use as few as possible; do not abbreviate terms that are used fewer than five times. Abbreviate genus names after the first mention with the same species name.
      • Generic Names: Chemical or generic names of drugs, materials, and equipment are strongly preferred; a proprietary name may be given only after it is preceded by the generic or chemical name the first time it appears and must be followed by the name and location of the manufacturer or supplier.
      • Numbers: Numbers of four digits include a comma. Include the leading zero before the decimal for all values. Use all numbers for ranges (e.g., 345–357, not 345–57). Use either the mL/kg or mL kg-1 format, but be consistent throughout.
      • Footnotes: Footnotes are acceptable in tables but not in the body of the manuscript.

    All articles should include the following sections: Conflicting interests, Funding, Ethical approval, Guarantor, Contributorship, Acknowledgements. Where one of these is not applicable please indicate as such under the sub-heading.

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    4. Editorial policies

    4.1 Peer review policy

    Following a preliminary triage to eliminate submissions unsuitable for Pulmonary Circulation all papers are sent out for review. The covering letter is important. To help the Editor in his preliminary evaluation, please indicate why you think the paper suitable for publication. If your paper should be considered for fast-track publication, please explain why. The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by two expert reviewers. Pulmonary Circulation utilizes a double-blind peer review process in which the the reviewer and authors’ names and information are withheld from the other. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Associate Editors who then makes the final decision.

    As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of suitable peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below: 

      • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
      • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
      • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    You will also be asked to nominate peers who you do not wish to review your manuscript (opposed reviewers).

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript. The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    4.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

      1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
      2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
      3. Approved the version to be published,
      4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship

    4.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    4.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    4.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    4.4 Funding

    Pulmonary Circulation requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    Pulmonary Circulation does not consider manuscripts where funding for the research was provided by the tobacco, e-cigarette, or cannabis industry. Any manuscript that has received funding, in whole or in part, by a tobacco company, e-cigarette company, or tobacco or cannabis industry organization will be rejected without being reviewed. If this funding comes to light after publication, Pulmonary Circulation will issue a formal correction to or retraction of the whole paper, as appropriate.

    4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Pulmonary Circulation to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

    4.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The journal has adopted the Consensus Author Guidelines on Animal Ethics and Welfare for Veterinary Journals published by the International Association of Veterinary Editors.

    4.7 Clinical trials

    Pulmonary Circulation conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    4.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    4.9 Data

    SAGE acknowledges the importance of research data availability as an integral part of the research and verification process for academic journal articles.

    Pulmonary Circulation requests all authors submitting any primary data used in their research articles alongside their article submissions to be published in the online version of the journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. [The editor(s) may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data.] The editor(s) [can/will] also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations. For further information, please contact the editorial office.

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    5. Publishing policies

    5.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway. This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

    5.1.1 Plagiarism

    Pulmonary Circulation and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    5.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement.  Pulmonary Circulation publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard  license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC), which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit SAGE's OA licenses page.

    Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.

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    6. Preparing your manuscript

    6.1 Word processing formats

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    Please submit images and graphs as TIFF, JPEG or EPS files, in order to ensure high resolution images in the published version. To ensure a high resolution, please provide images with the following specifications:

    Line art should be a minimum of 1200 dpi (i.e. 100% black and white images with no grey shading)

    Line tone should be a minimum of 600 dpi (i.e. images with black and grey shadings)

    Halftone should be a minimum of 350 dpi, if these include text they should be a minimum of 600 dpi (i.e. multi-toned images such as photographic images)

    If submitting figures such as flowcharts, drawings, charts etc created in Excel/Word/Powerpoint, these should be submitted as source files. Figures submitted as PDF files will be accepted if in an editable format, but may lose resolution upon publication.

    For full guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE's Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    6.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online ( e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images, etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    6.4 Reference style

    Pulmonary Circulation adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference style. Please review the guidelines on SAGE Vancouver to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Vancouver output file here.

    6.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    7. Submitting your manuscript

    Pulmonary Circulation is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    7.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    7.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    7.3 Corresponding author contact details

    Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    7.4 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway

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    8. On acceptance and publication

    If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the contributor’s publishing agreement. Once your manuscript files have been check for SAGE Production, the corresponding author will be asked to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link. Once the APC has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and can appear online within an average of 30 days. Please note that no production work will occur on your paper until the APC has been received.

    8.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit, or by email to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorizing the change.

    8.2 Online publication

    One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.

    8.3 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. 

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    9. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Pulmonary Circulation editorial office as follows: 


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