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Public Relations Campaigns
An Integrated Approach

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Public Relations (Analysis)

April 2018 | 304 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

“An easy to read textbook that will inspire public relations students and provide them with the principles and tools to understand the profession and succeed in their careers.” 

—Chike Anyaegbunam, University of Kentucky

 

“A great book on campaign planning with outstanding theoretical models that students will find useful. A textbook students will want to keep as a reference.”

—Gary Ford, Webster University

 

Public Relations Campaigns: An Integrated Approach introduces students to the process of creating public relations campaigns using a hands-on approach that emphasizes the tools students will need when working in the industry. Authors Regina M. Luttrell and Luke W. Capizzo present real examples and current case studies to help students develop practical skills for creating more effective PR campaigns. Students are given multiple opportunities to practice and build their skills throughout the book by learning how to incorporate the PESO model—Paid media, Earned media, Social media, and Owned media. The PESO model helps students understand the importance of creating integrated campaigns that coordinate PR efforts with both advertising and marketing.

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FOREWORD
 
PREFACE
 
WHY INTEGRATED CAMPAIGNS? WHY NOW?
 
ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
 
INTRODUCTION: Campaigns in the Professional Public Relations Context
PUBLIC RELATIONS THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES  
Excellence Theory  
Systems Theory  
Diffusion Theory  
Framing Theory  
Agenda Setting & Agenda Building Theories  
Situational Crisis Communication Theory  
Two-step Flow Model  
MODELS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE  
Press Agentry  
Public Information  
Two-way Asymmetrical  
Two-way Symmetrical  
PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING MODELS  
R-A-C-E, R-O-P-E, or R-O-S-I-E  
ROSTIR: Research, Objectives, Strategies, Tactics,  
Implementation & Reporting  
Communication Goals  
PULLING IT ALL TOGETHER  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: EQUALITY TODAY  
 
CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Integrated Campaigns
A NEED FOR NEW PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING MODELS  
Emerging Models  
THE SIX STEPS OF ROSTIR  
THE VALUE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING MODELS  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: INTRODUCING EQUALITY TODAY  
CASE STUDY: “SEIZE THE HOLIDAYS” WITH KRUSTEAZ: A VIRTUAL BAKING EVENT  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Tactics  
Earned  
Shared  
Owned  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluating  
Theories  
Models  
 
CHAPTER 2: Strategic Communication Campaign Fundamentals
WHY WE PLAN  
ELEMENTS OF A STRATEGIC PLAN  
Research, Diagnosis, and Goal Setting  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Tactics  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Budget  
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: MISSION-DRIVEN PLANNING FOR EQUALITY TODAY  
CASE STUDY: OSCAR MAYER’S WAKEY, WAKEY, EGGS AND BAKEY!  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Target Audience  
Tactics  
Owned  
Shared  
Earned  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
 
CHAPTER 3: Understanding PESO
WHAT IS PESO?  
Paid Media  
Earned Media  
Shared Media  
Owned Media  
WHEN SHOULD EACH OF THE PESO CHANNELS BE USED?  
Campaigns in Action  
Paid Media  
Earned Media  
Shared Media  
Owned Media  
CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: EQUALITY TODAY’S CHANNEL, PARTNER, AND MEASUREMENT BRAINSTORMING  
CASE STUDY: THE PROUD WHOPPER— BE YOUR WAY CAMPAIGN  
PESO Model  
Owned  
Shared  
Earned  
Paid  
Theories  
 
CHAPTER 4: Research, Part 1: Diagnosis and Developmental Research
DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH: DIAGNOSING THE PROBLEM AND/OR OPPORTUNITY  
RESEARCHING AND MEASURING THE PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY  
RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY AND TECHNIQUES  
Data  
Qualitative and Quantitative Research  
Secondary and Primary Research  
Validity  
CONDUCTING RESEARCH  
Secondary Research  
Case Studies  
Government Data  
Scholarly Research  
Think Tank/Nonprofit Reports  
Trade Association Research  
Primary Research  
Polling and Surveys: Opinion and Awareness  
Content Analysis  
Competitor Analysis  
Experimental Research  
Interviews  
Focus Groups  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: RESEARCH FOR ISSUE PRIORITIZATION AT EQUALITY TODAY  
CASE STUDY: HALLMARK ITTY BITTYS STEAL THE SPOTLIGHT  
Research/Diagnosis  
Primary Research: Getting to Know the Consumer  
Objectives  
Strategy  
Implementation  
Tactics  
Paid  
Earned  
Shared  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
 
CHAPTER 5: Research, Part 2: Goals
UNDERSTANDING YOUR ORGANIZATION AND ITS GOALS  
THE GOAL-SETTING PROCESS  
Seeking the Impact Role for Communication  
Defining the Scope  
Selecting Audiences for Outreach  
Defining the Desired Change  
Prioritizing Budgets and Resources  
WRITING GOALS  
Types of Goals  
Context: Mission versus Situation  
Visionary Goals, Concrete Objectives  
GOAL-SETTING CHALLENGES  
Working with Organizational Decision Makers  
Prompting More Research  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: EQUALITY TODAY SETS COMMUNICATION GOALS  
CASE STUDY: #WEIGHTHIS—REDEFINING SELF-WORTH FROM LEAN CUISINE  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategy  
Tactics  
Paid  
Earned  
Shared  
Owned  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories and Models  
 
CHAPTER 6: Objectives
WHAT MAKES HIGH-VALUE OBJECTIVES?  
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES  
Types of Objectives  
Writing S.M.A.R.T. Objectives  
Specific  
Measurable  
Attainable  
Relevant  
Time-Bound  
Additional Objective Frameworks  
CONNECTING OBJECTIVES TO KEY INTERNAL AUDIENCES  
Do Your Objectives Make Organizational Decision Makers Excited?  
Proving Relevance: Will Completing Your Objectives Drive Positive Change?  
Are You Connecting Short- and Long-Term Objectives?  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: SETTING OBJECTIVES FOR EQUALITY TODAY  
CASE STUDY: COOKIE CARE DELIVERS SWEET RESULTS FOR DOUBLETREE BY HILTON  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategy  
Tactics  
Paid  
Shared  
Owned  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
 
CHAPTER 7: Strategies
CHOOSING YOUR CHANNELS: THE PESO MODEL  
The Model  
Paid  
Earned  
Shared  
Owned  
HOW THE MODEL OVERLAPS  
How to Build an Integrated Campaign Strategy around PESO  
THE RIGHT APPROACH FOR YOUR AUDIENCE(S)  
Demographics  
Geography  
Psychographics  
Activity/Interest  
Influence  
Channel Consumption  
LEVERAGING YOUR ORGANIZATION’S STRENGTHS AND RESOURCES  
Subject Matter Expertise  
Imagery/Visuals  
Dynamic Presenters/Personalities  
Data  
Organizational Vision or Narrative  
History/Institutional Authority  
THE COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE  
Understand Competitors and External Challenges  
Avoid What Everyone Else Is Already Doing  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: CHANNEL SELECTION FOR EQUALITY TODAY  
CASE STUDY: MASTERCARD BITES INTO APPLE PAY  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objective  
Strategy  
Tactics  
Earned & Paid  
Owned  
Shared & Owned  
Paid, Earned, Shared & Owned  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Cut through the Chatter  
Lead the Conversation on Contactless Security  
Drive MasterCard Sign-ups on Apple Pay  
Theories  
 
CHAPTER 8: Tactics
TACTICAL APPROACHES  
Paid Media  
Timing  
Budget  
Messaging  
Content Creation  
Advertising  
Advertorial Content  
Earned Media  
Timing  
Budget  
Messaging  
Content Creation  
Media Relations  
Shared Media  
Timing  
Budget  
Messaging  
Content Creation  
Owned Media  
Timing  
Budget  
Messaging  
Content Creation  
Website Content Management  
Marketing  
Publications  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: TACTICAL CHOICES FOR EQUALITY TODAY  
CASE STUDY: CINNAMILK BY GENERAL MILLS  
Campaign Focus: Promotional  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objective  
Strategy  
Tactics  
Paid & Owned  
Earned  
Shared  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
Model  
 
CHAPTER 9: Implementation
KEY SKILLS FOR IMPLEMENTING PR CAMPAIGNS  
Project Management Basics  
Budgeting  
Dividing Tasks among a Team  
Creating Timelines and Deadlines  
Setting Clear Expectations and Ensuring Clear Communication  
Working with Non-PR People  
Working with the Media  
Self-awareness and Self-evaluation  
Persistence and Perseverance  
PREPARING FOR CHANGE  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: EQUALITY TODAY MEETS UNEXPECTED OBSTACLES  
CASE STUDY: MISSING TYPE—U.K.’S NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE  
Research and Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategy  
Tactics  
Earned  
Shared  
Owned  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
Model  
 
CHAPTER 10: Reporting and Evaluation
EVALUATING YOUR CAMPAIGN  
Media Evaluation  
Digital Evaluation Metrics and Approaches  
Turning Evaluation into Improvement  
REPORTING ON YOUR CAMPAIGN  
Objective-driven Reporting  
Prioritization: What Information Is Most  
Important for the Reader?  
Format: How Should Your Information Be Best Presented to Your Audience?  
PESO: SPECIAL REPORTING CONSIDERATIONS  
Paid Media  
Earned Media  
Shared Media  
Owned Media  
Integrated Reporting  
CONCLUSION  
THINK CRITICALLY  
KEY TERMS  
CONCEPT CASE: REPORTING RESULTS—EQUALITY TODAY’S ANNUAL MEETING  
CASE STUDY: CANS GET YOU COOKING  
Research/Diagnosis  
Developmental Research and Insights  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Tactics  
Paid  
Earned  
Shared  
Owned  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
 
CHAPTER 11: Formulating an Integrated Campaign—Case Studies
PRODUCT MARKETING  
Brewing Inspiration to Engage Coffee Fans  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Tactics  
Shared  
Paid + Shared  
Owned  
Paid + Owned + Shared  
Earned + Shared  
Owned + Shared  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Earned  
Shared  
Theories  
Model  
ACTIVISM  
One for All: Mississippians’ Fight for a New Flag  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategy  
Tactics  
Earned + Owned  
Shared  
Owned  
Implementation  
Reporting  
Theories  
Model  
ENGAGEMENT  
Appreciating Mom; World’s Toughest Job—American Greetings  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Tactics  
Shared + Owned  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Earned  
Shared  
Owned  
Theories  
Model  
CRISIS COMMUNICATION  
Harambe’s Last Day at the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Tactics  
Owned  
Earned  
Shared  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
Model  
GLOBAL AND MULTICULTURAL  
UNICEF: Toys in Mourning  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Tactics  
Earned + Shared + Owned  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
Model  
Teens 4 Pink: Sisters Network and Eisai Inc. with Shared Voice Public Relations  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategy  
Tactics  
Earned  
Shared  
Owned  
Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
Model  
INTERNAL COMMUNICATION AND EMPLOYEE RELATIONS  
Responding to “Ferguson”: From Tragedy to Positive Change  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Tactics and Implementation  
Earned + Shared  
Owned  
Reporting  
Theories  
Model  
HP Global Wellness Challenge  
Research/Diagnosis  
Objectives  
Strategies  
Tactics  
Owned & Shared  
Implementation  
Challenges during Implementation  
Reporting/Evaluation  
Theories  
Model  
 
APPENDIX
 
GLOSSARY
 
REFERENCES
 
INDEX

Supplements

Instructor Site

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  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
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  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
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  • Carefully selected web-based video resources feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.  

“An easy to read textbook that will inspire public relations students and provide them with the principles and tools to understand the profession and succeed in their careers.”  

Chike Anyaegbunam
University of Kentucky

“A great book on campaign planning with outstanding theoretical models that students will find useful.  A textbook students will want to keep as a reference.”

Gary Ford
Webster University

“Thorough, well written with a modern common sense approach to teaching students all of the components of a public relations campaign.”

Donald Girard
California State University San Bernardino

“A concise textbook with good media-focused strategies and tactics.”

Minjeong Kang
Indiana University, Bloomington

“A good basic campaigns text that explores all facets of public relations campaigns.”

Nicki L. Bourdeaux
Nicholls State University

“A different approach for a campaign class that is worth thinking about and utilizing.  The ROSTIR method accompanied by the PESO overlay is a great approach to breaking down an overwhelming campaign.”

Nancy Kerr
Champlain College

 “It’s a new, helpful approach to thinking about campaigns. It offers more depth in its PESO model.”

Donna Downs
Taylor University

“A useful text for helping students understand the public relations planning process from an integrated marketing communication perspective.”

Jennie Donohue
Marist College

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