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Peace and Conflict Studies
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Peace and Conflict Studies

Fourth Edition


© 2018 | 712 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
The thoroughly updated Fourth Edition of the gold standard text explores historical and current topics in today’s rapidly changing world to provide a comprehensive introduction to peace and conflict studies. The authors offer an insightful analysis of 21st-century global affairs, including such timely topics as ISIS, the nature of violence and nonviolence, cutting-edge military technologies, the Terrorism and Global Peace Indexes, and the latest developments in Iran, North Korea, and Syria. Comprehensive yet written in a student-friendly and accessible style, the text represents a commitment to inspire readers to create a better world through an understanding of what has happened and what is happening, and therefore what is likely to take place in the future.

Read Dr. Barash’s article on Psychology Today on why nuclear threats by the U.S. Government are never a successful defense tactic.
 
Part I: The Promise of Peace, the Problems of War
 
Chapter 1: The Meanings of Peace
The Meanings of Peace  
Positive and Negative Peace  
Measuring Peace  
The Global Peace Index  
Key Findings of the U.S. Peace Index  
Culture of Peace  
A Final Note on the Meanings of Peace  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 2: Peace Studies, Peace Education, and Peace Research
Peace Studies, War Studies, and Peace and Conflict Studies  
Peace Education  
The Dimensions of Peace and Conflict Studies  
PCS Today  
Some Contributions of PCS  
The Future of PCS  
A Final Note on Peace and Conflict Studies, Peace Education, and Peace Research  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
Journals  
Websites  
 
Chapter 3: The Meanings of Wars
Defining Wars  
The Frequency and Intensity of Wars  
Historical Trends in War  
Modern Weaponry  
Cutting-Edge Military Technologies  
Has Technology Made War Obsolete?  
Wars, Empires, Colonialism, and National Liberation  
The Desirability of Peace Versus Justifications for Wars  
Social Justice and War  
Political Ideologies and Militarism  
Is War Inevitable?  
Can Nations Change?  
The Nature and Functions of Conflict  
A Final Note on War  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 4: Terrorism Versus Counterterrorism
What Is Terrorism? Who Are “Terrorists”?  
A Brief History of Terrorism  
The Historical Tension Between State Terrorism From Above and Nonstate Terrorism From Below  
ISIS  
State and State-Sponsored Terrorism  
Terrorism in the Name of God  
The Terrorism Industry and the Mass Media  
The Global War on Terrorism  
The Victims and Perpetrators of Global Terrorism and Counterterrorism  
A Final Note on Terrorism  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 5: The Special Significance of Nuclear Weapons
The Nature of Nuclear Weapons  
The Effects of Nuclear Weapons  
Nuclear Delivery Systems  
Strategic Doctrine: Deterrence  
How a Nuclear War Could Start  
Nuclear Proliferation  
Some New Worries  
Some Good News  
What Might Be Done  
A Final Note on Nuclear Weapons  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Part II : The Reasons For Wars
 
Chapter 6: The Individual Level
Aggression, Drives, and Instincts  
Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology  
Freudian and Post-Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory  
“Innate Depravity” and “Human Nature”  
Social Learning Theories  
Gender, War, and Peace  
Prejudice, Images of the Enemy, and Human Needs  
Attributions and Just-World Theories of Behavior  
Altruism, Aggression, and Reconciliation  
The Attractions of War  
Inhibitions Against War  
Some Issues in Nuclear Psychology  
A Final Note on Individual-Level Explanations of Wars  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 7: The Group Level
War: Its Prehistory and Early History  
Functions of Nontechnological Wars  
Characteristics of Premodern and Nontechnological Wars  
Alternatives to Nontechnological Warfare  
Underlying Group Processes  
Brief Conclusion on Premodern and Nontechnological Warfare  
Nations, States, Ethnic Groups, and Nationalism  
A Brief History of Nationalist Wars  
Types of Nationalist Wars  
Nationalist Threats to States  
Racial and Cultural Intolerance  
Nationalism and the Public Mood  
Nationalism and Political Ideology  
The Question of “National Character”  
A Final Note on Nationalism and Ethnocentrism  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 8: The State Level
Defining the State  
State Sovereignty  
The State System  
Alliances Between States  
Realpolitik and Raisons d’État  
Internal Cohesion  
Arms Races  
A Final Note on War and States  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 9: The Decision-Making Level
The Role of Leaders  
Crisis Decision Making  
Some Issues Regarding Perception and Cognition  
A Final Note on Decision Making  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 10: The Ideological, Social, and Economic Levels
Conflicting Ideologies  
Population Pressure and Other Social Stresses  
Poverty as a Cause of War  
Imperialism  
The Economic Effects of Wars  
The Effects of Military Spending  
Cultural Conflicts and the “Clash of Civilizations”  
A Final Note on the Reasons for Wars and Peace  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Part III: Building "Negative Peace"
 
Chapter 11: Peace Movements
Popular Attitudes Toward Peace  
Attention, Success, and Failure  
Historical and Current Perceptions of War  
History and Taxonomy of Peace Movements  
Interconnections Between Peace and Other Social Movements  
Some Internal Debates Within Peace Movements  
Some Criticisms of Peace Movements  
Maintaining the Momentum of Peace Movements  
A Final Note on Peace Movements  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 12: Diplomacy, Negotiations, and Conflict Resolution
Human Conflict  
Summitry  
A Brief History of Diplomacy  
Diplomacy and Military Force  
Diplomacy and Realpolitik  
Track II Diplomacy  
Third-Party Involvement  
Negotiating Techniques for Resolving Conflict  
Methods of Integrative Bargaining  
Additional Negotiating Techniques  
A Final Note on Conflict Resolution  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 13: Disarmament and Arms Control
Different Visions of Disarmament  
A Brief History of Disarmament  
Some Current Agreements  
The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)  
Future Prospects  
Some Conventional Arms Abuses and Opportunities  
Pitfalls of Arms Control Agreements  
Benefits of Arms Control Prospects  
Economic Conversion  
A Final Note on Disarmament and Arms Control  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 14: International Cooperation
The United Nations  
Limitations on the UN's Use of Force  
Other Functions of the United Nations  
Functionalism  
Regional Organizations  
World Government?  
A Brief History of Plans for World Government  
Pros and Cons of World Government  
The Dream of World Government: A Waste of Time?  
The Prospects for World Government  
The Uniting of the United States of America: A Rehearsal for a Global Federal System?  
Toward World Government?  
A Final Note on International Cooperation  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 15: Peace Through Strength?
Balance of Power  
Problems With Balance of Power  
The Rise of the BRICS  
Collective Security  
National Security via Military Force  
Appeasement, Provocation, and Deterrence  
The Use and Abuse of Threats  
The Prisoner’s Dilemma  
Sanctions  
Nonprovocative Defense  
A Final Note on Peace Through Strength  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 16: International Law
The Sources of International Law  
Enforcement of International Law  
The Conflict between International Law and State Sovereignty  
Hidden Strengths of International Law  
The Law of War  
A Final Note on International Law  
Notes  
Questions of Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 17: Ethical and Religious Perspectives
Ethics  
Religious Attitudes Toward War  
Christian “Realism”  
Religious Pacifism  
Nuclear Ethics  
A Final Note on Ethics and Religion  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Part IV: Building Positive Peace
 
Chapter 18: Human Rights
A Brief History of Human Rights  
Women’s Rights  
Some Human Rights Controversies  
Refugees  
LGBT Rights  
The Legal Status of Human Rights  
Human Rights and the Nation-State  
Human Rights and Peace  
Competing Conceptions of Human Rights  
The Responsibility to Protect  
Promoting Human Rights  
A Final Note on Human Rights  
Notes  
Questions for Further Study  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 19: Ecological Well-Being
Enhanced Environmental Awareness  
The Environment and National Security  
The Tragedy of the Commons  
Some Major Environmental Problems  
Some Environmental Principles  
Environmental Activism  
Struggling for Sustainability  
Resource Wars  
Environmental Ethics  
A Final Note on Ecological Well-Being  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 20: Economic Well-Being
The Problem of Poverty  
Socioeconomic Development  
Ethics, Equity and a Bit of History  
Hunger  
Measuring Wealth, Poverty, and Income Inequality  
Population  
The Demographic-Economic Environmental Trap  
Future Directions  
The Case of Costa Rica  
A Final Note on Economic Well-Being  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 21: Movements Toward Democracy
What Is Democracy?  
A Brief Modern History of Democratization  
Democracies and Wars  
Can Democracy Be Exported? Should It Be?  
A Final Note on Movements Toward Democracy  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 22: National Reconciliation
Truth and Reconciliation Commissions  
In the Absence of Truthful Reconciliation . . .  
TRC Downsides and Caveats  
A Final Note on Reconciliation  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 23: Nonviolence
What Is Nonviolence?  
Violence  
Nonviolent Peace Theorists and Theories  
Mohandas K. Gandhi  
Gandhian Nonviolence in Theory and Practice  
Martin Luther King, Jr. and the U.S. Civil Rights Movement  
Some Nonviolent Successes  
Civilian-Based Defense  
Does Nonviolence “Work”? If So, Why?  
Prospects for Nonviolence  
A Final Note on Nonviolence  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  
 
Chapter 24: Toward a More Peaceful Future
Transformations of Self and Society  
Toward the Future  
A Final Note on Transformation and the Future  
Notes  
Questions for Further Reflection  
Suggestions for Further Reading  

For instructors

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Paperback
ISBN: 9781506344225
£83.00