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OTO Open

OTO Open


eISSN: 2473974X | ISSN: 2473974X | Current volume: 4 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: Continuous

OTO Open, the Official Open Access Journal of the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, is a new, peer reviewed, gold open access journal. The mission of OTO Open is to offer rapid online publication of clinically relevant information in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery (ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders) to facilitate the dissemination of research and to share clinically focused manuscripts and digital materials that enhance patient care.

As an open access publication, all articles are rigorously peer-reviewed, brought to publication as rapidly as possible, and freely available online immediately upon publication. Production costs are covered by Article Processing Charges (APC) paid by the author/institution/funder upon acceptance of the manuscript. This fee covers the cost of publication and ensures that the article will be freely available. There is no charge for submitting a paper to OTO Open. The final typeset and copyedited version of the article will be available online in an average of 20 working days.

The Contribution will be published under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC BY-NC) which allows others to re-use the Contribution without permission as long as the Contribution is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial

Open Access FAQs

The APC is $750 for articles cascaded from Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery.

The APC for AAO-HNSF members is $1,000.

The full APC is $1,300.

When you publish in OTO Open, you will enjoy:

  • Rigorous peer review of your research
  • Multidisciplinary audience
  • Open access format, driving high visibility for maximum global exposure
  • Prompt online publication
  • Retention of copyright under creative commons license, allowing for greater flexibility in use of research.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

OTO Open is the official open access journal of the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. OTO Open is an ethical, peer-reviewed, open access journal that offers rapid online publication of clinically relevant information in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders) to facilitate the dissemination of research and to share clinically focused manuscripts and digital materials that enhance patient care.

Editor-in-Chief
John H. Krouse, MD, PhD, MBA School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA
Deputy Editor
Jennifer J. Shin, MD, SM Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Allergy
J. Whit Mims, MD Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Endocrine Surgery
Michael C. Singer, MD Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA
Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
C.W. David Chang, MD University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA
General Otolaryngology
Jennifer A. Villwock, MD Kansas City, KS, USA
General Otolaryngology and Case Reports
Sonya Malekzadeh, MD Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., USA
Head and Neck/Skull Base Surgery
Andrew M. Coughlin, MD University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
Jeffrey C. Liu, MD Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Andrew G. Shuman, MD University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Health Policy, Patient Safety/Quality Improvement, and Case Reports
Michael J. Brenner, MD University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
International Liaison
J. Pablo Stolovitzky, MD ENT of Georgia, Atlanta, GA, USA
Laryngology/Neurolaryngology
Lee M. Akst, MD Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Otology and Neurotology
Meredith E. Adams, MD University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Thomas L. Eby, MD University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA
Philip D. Littlefield, MD Tripler Army Medical Center, Tripler AMC, HI, USA
Pediatric Otolaryngology
Sarah N. Bowe, MD Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA
Thomas Q. Gallagher, DO Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA
Romaine F. Johnson, MD, MPH Dallas, TX, USA
Sinonasal Disorders
Jivianne T. Lee, MD University of California - Los Angeles, Irvine, CA, USA
Sleep Medicine and Surgery
Ho-Sheng Lin, MD Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
Editorial Board
Eugenia Allegra University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy
Samantha Anne, MD Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Orange, OH, USA
Erika Celis Aguilar, MD Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Mexico
Sady Selaimen da Costa, MD, MSc, PhD University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Hector de la Garza Hesles, MD Hospital Angeles de Las Lomas, Huixquilucan, Mexico
Johan Jacobus Fagan, MBChB, FCS(SA) University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
Jose Florencio Lapena, MD University of the Philippines College of Medicine and Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines
Ziv Gil, MD, PhD Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel
Ossama Hamid, MBBCH, MS, MD Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Sheng-Po Hao, MD, FICS School of Medicine, Fu-Jen University, New Taipei City, Taiwan
Shigeru Hirano, MD, PhD Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
Karl Hoermann, MD Mannheim University Hospital, Mannheim, Germany
Titus S. Ibekwe, MBBS, FWACS University of Abuja College of Health Sciences, Abuja, Nigeria
Lisa E. Ishii, MD, MHS Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Cockeysville, MD, USA
Elliott D. Kozin, MD Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USA
Helene J. Krouse, PhD, RN, CORLN School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA
Daniel B. Kuriloff, MD New York Head and Neck Institute, New York, NY, USA
Lori Lemonnier, MD Louisiana State University - Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA
Edward D. McCoul, MD Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA, USA
Alex J. McKinlay, MD Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
Cem Meco, MD, FEBORL-HNS Ankara University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
Karen S. Pawlowski, PhD University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
James M. Ruda, MD Nationwide Childrens Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA
Cecelia E. Schmalbach, MD Philadelphia, PA, USA
Ahmad R. Sedaghat, MD Cincinnati, OH, USA
Sanna K. Toppila-Salmi, MD, PhD Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Tatsuya Yamasoba, MD, PhD The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • ProQuest
  • PubMed Central (PMC)
  • Introduction

    OTO Open is the official open access journal of the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Journal editorial policy is independent of that of the Academy/Foundation.

    OTO Open is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license, and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution, or author of each manuscript upon acceptance.

    We invite submission of articles on topics pertaining to the science and art of medicine that help fulfill the journal’s mission of publishing contemporary, ethical, clinically relevant information in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery (ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders) that can be used by otolaryngologists, scientists, and clinicians to improve patient care and public health. Articles are published because of scientific merit and are not to be considered general practice standards.

    All manuscripts must be submitted online, via Editorial Manager (https://www.editorialmanager.com/oto-open), to John H. Krouse, MD, PhD, MBA, Editor in Chief, OTO Open. Editorial communication should be addressed to the Editorial Office at oto-open@entnet.org.

    Deadlines

    Submissions not in compliance with the following instructions will be returned to the author by the Editorial Office, and a corrected version must be resubmitted within 30 days. Papers not resubmitted within that time will be withdrawn from consideration.

    Revised manuscripts must follow the same instructions and should be submitted within 30 days of the revision letter date.

    Accepted manuscripts sent to the publisher (SAGE) will be typeset and proofs will then be sent electronically to the corresponding author. If proofs are not approved and received by SAGE within 30 days, the article will not be published.
     

    Article Processing Charges

    If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.

    The APC is $1,300 for direct submissions from non-members.

    The APC for AAO-HNS members is $1,000.

    The APC for articles cascaded from Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery is $750.

    APC Waiver: OTO Open waives the APC for articles whose authors are based in countries listed in Group A or Group B here. To qualify for the waiver, all authors of the paper must be based in countries listed in Group A or Group B.

    Continuous Publication

    One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no issues to fill and no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all. Check the "Latest Articles" tab on the journal website for the latest published content. Articles are batched every quarter, and are then available in the Archive.

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    Editorial Policies

    All manuscripts are first assessed by an Associate Editor, the Editor in Chief, or both. Manuscripts may be rejected at this stage without further peer review because of ethical concerns, serious design flaws, or inconsistency with the journal mission.

    Original Research and review articles are usually assessed by at least two peer reviewers. Shorter manuscripts, such as Case Reports and Commentaries, may be sent to one or more reviewers at the discretion of the editors. The journal uses single-blind peer reviewing. No attempt is made to mask authors’ identities from peer reviewers, but feedback to authors is anonymous unless the reviewer explicitly decides otherwise.

    Publication Criteria

    Peer reviewers are asked to consider explicitly the following 5 criteria when assessing the suitability of a manuscript for publication:

    1. Relevance to mission: Can the information in this manuscript be used to improve patient care and public health?
    2. Internal validity: Are the study design, conduct, and analysis described in a manner that is unbiased, appropriate, and reproducible?
    3. External validity: Was the study sample chosen appropriately and described in adequate detail for results to be generalized?
    4. Level of evidence: Does this manuscript significantly improve the knowledge base beyond what is already published on this topic?
    5. Ethical conduct: Is the manuscript original, approved by an institutional review board (if applicable), and unbiased with regards to conflicts of interest?

    Authors are provided with general and specific comments regarding their manuscript, from editorial and peer review. Based on these comments, plus personal review of the manuscript, the Editor in Chief renders an initial disposition of reject, minor revision, major revision, or accept.

    Rejection Appeals

    Authors have the right to appeal editorial decisions. Appeals should be sent via e-mail to the Editorial Office at oto-open@entnet.org with concise supporting arguments to substantiate the request. The Editor in Chief may reject the appeal or agree to further review the manuscript. Reject appeals are not permitted for Case Report and Clinical Photograph submissions. Appeal decisions are final.

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    Article Categories

    OTO Open publishes the types of articles defined below. When submitting your manuscript, please follow the instructions relevant to the applicable article category. Please check the Manuscript Preparation section for further details.

    Original Research: Original, in-depth, clinical or basic science investigations that aim to change clinical practice or the understanding of a disease process. Article types include, but are not limited to, clinical trials, before-and-after studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional surveys, and diagnostic test assessments. Components of original research are:

    • title page, including the manuscript title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees (no more than three), institutional affiliations, and locations. Designate ONE author as the corresponding author. (See the Authorship section below.) Also indicate where the paper was presented, if applicable.
    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Study Design, Setting, Subjects and Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
    • A brief Introduction outlining the wider context that generated the study and the specific issues or hypotheses the study addresses.
    • Methods section with enough detail to ensure reproducibility of the research, including statistical methods and sample size calculation.
    • Results section that uses appropriate descriptive and analytic statistics to summarize data. For all treatment or intervention studies, include a paragraph describing all harms and adverse events encountered (if none, so state).
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, highlights antecedent literature on the topic, explains what the current study adds to existing knowledge, and details the strengths and limitations of the current research.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 3,000 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 10 figures or tables. There is no limit on references.
    • Adherence to the CONSORT statement when reporting a randomized trial, including a patient flow diagram.
    • Adherence to the AAO-HNS minimal reporting standards for studies reporting audiometric data in clinical research.
    • IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Patient Safety/Quality Improvement (PS/QI): Original research aimed to improve patient safety and the quality of otolaryngology care. Topics include but are not limited to: healthcare delivery, avoiding medial errors, quality of care, comparative effectiveness research, and patient/resident education. The components of a PS/QI article are:

    • title page, including the manuscript title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees (no more than three), institutional affiliations, and locations. Designate ONE author as the corresponding author. (See the Authorship section, below.) Also indicate where the paper was presented, if applicable. List PS/QI as one of the keywords.
    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Implications for Practice.
    • An Introduction outlining the explicit clinical problem and the rationale for conducting the review.
    • Methods section outlining the study design. OTO Open recognizes the unique and often subjective nature of PS/QI research and requires PS/QI studies to adhere to the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE 2.0) Guidelines.
    • Results section to include the following items appropriate for the study: initial steps of intervention with evolution over time; details of process measures/outcomes; contextual elements that interacted with the intervention; observed association between outcomes, interventions and contextual elements; unintended consequences to include benefits, cost, and failures; and details of missing data.
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, highlights antecedent literature on the topic, explains what the current study adds to existing knowledge, and lists potential research biases.
    • An Implications for Practice section that clarifies clinical implications, areas for future research, and helps clinicians place the PS/QI findings in appropriate context.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 4,500 words (from Introduction through Implications of Practice) and a total of 15 figures or tables.
    • IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Systematic Reviews (including Meta-analyses): Critical assessments of literature and data sources on important clinical topics in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Systematic reviews that reduce bias with explicit procedures to select, appraise, and analyze studies are highly preferred over traditional narrative reviews. The review may include a meta-analysis, or statistical synthesis of data from separate, but similar, studies leading to a quantitative summary of the pooled results. Systematic reviews may not be combined with case reports. The components of a systematic review are:

    • title page, including the manuscript title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees (no more than three), institutional affiliations, and locations. Designate ONE author as the corresponding author. (See the Authorship section, below.) Also indicate where the paper was presented, if applicable.
    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Data Sources, Review Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
    • An Introduction outlining the explicit clinical problem, rationale for the intervention (if applicable), and the rationale for conducting the review.
    • Methods section that specifies the information sources, search strategy, inclusion and exclusion criteria for articles, criteria and process used for validity assessment (if none, so state), process for data abstraction, and statistical methods for summarizing data.
    • Results section that describes study selection, study characteristics, and, when applicable, uses statistical methods to summarize data and to assess heterogeneity.
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, makes clinical inferences based on validity, interprets results in light of the total available evidence, and lists potential biases in the review process.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 4,500 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 15 figures or tables. There is no limit on references.
    • Adherence to the PRISMA statement, including a flow chart of article selection.

    State-of-the-Art Reviews: A narrative review article that (a) provides a comprehensive and scholarly overview of an important clinical subject, with a principal focus on developments in the past 5 years (or less), or (b) explains recent advances in science and technology that have influenced management of a condition in terms that teach relevant science to those who devote most of their time and effort to clinical endeavors, or (c) describes how the perception of an illness, diagnostic approach, or therapeutic intervention has evolved in recent years. State-of-the-art reviews may not be combined with case reports. The components of a state-of-the-art review are:

    • title page, including the manuscript title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees (no more than three), institutional affiliations, and locations. Designate ONE author as the corresponding author. (See the Authorship section, below.) Also indicate where the paper was presented, if applicable.
    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Data Sources, Review Methods, Conclusions, and Implications for Practice.
    • An Introduction outlining the explicit clinical problem and the rationale for conducting the review.
    • Methods section that briefly states how articles were identified, what data sources were used, and what criteria were applied (objective or subjective) to include or exclude articles.
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, organized preferably with one or more subheadings to facilitate reading.
    • An Implications for Practice section that clarifies clinical implications, areas for future research, and helps clinicians place the review findings in appropriate context.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 4,500 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 15 figures or tables.

    History of Otolaryngology: Presentation of a historical piece about a leader, teacher, clinician, or event in otolaryngology that discusses how this person or event has shaped the specialty and created a legacy of excellence. History of Otolaryngology papers should contain a title page, unstructured abstract of up to 150 words, and a narrative discussing the person or event being featured. They may be authored by an individual, group, society, or committee with an important concern of interest to readers. Manuscript length: No more than 1,200 words (from Introduction through Conclusion), with up to 10 references, and a total of 3 figures or tables.

    Ethics in Practice: A case-based discussion of contemporary ethical issues arising in the field of otolaryngology. Submissions should include content relevant to otolaryngologists and highlight a topic or dilemma conducive to multiple perspectives or viewpoints. Suggested topics include (but are not limited to): conflicts among clinicians/disciplines; itinerant surgery; end of life care in head and neck cancer; discrimination in the workplace; research ethics; rationing/scarce resource utilization; billing/coding ethics; trainee selection and involvement in clinical care; clinical decision-making; doctor-patient relationships; the impaired clinician. The components of an Ethics in Practice article are:

    • Succinct case presentation/description that poses a specific question or dilemma (200 words maximum). Cases may involve a specific/individual patient example or be hypothetical. Reports of actual cases must be de-identified in a HIPAA-compliant manner, and IRB approval or exemption is required. Note in the case presentation whether the case is actual or hypothetical.
    • Point that provides a reasoned perspective taking a clear position on the issue posed (900 words maximum).
    • Counterpoint that provides a reasoned perspective taking an opposing position (900 words maximum).
    • Manuscript length: No more than 2000 words total (200 for case presentation, 900 for point, and 900 for counterpoint), with up to 10 references, 1 figure, and 1 table each for the Point and Counterpoint sections.

    Commentaries: Communication of a novel, scientifically based opinion or insight as an independent contribution, or regarding a manuscript published in the journal within the past 6 months. Commentaries should contain a title page, unstructured abstract of up to 150 words, and a main point and supporting discussion. They may be authored by an individual, group, society, or committee with an important concern of interest to readers. Manuscript length: No more than 900 words (from Introduction through Conclusion), with up to 10 references, and a total of 5 figures or tables.

    Short Scientific Communications: Quick communication of preliminary results (including small sample studies) or scientific research that is not yet ready for presentation in full form. Such research should have the potential to stimulate communications among researchers and clinicians that may lead to new concepts and supportive work. Submissions must have a title page and an unstructured abstract of up to 150 words. Manuscript length: No more than 900 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 3 figures or tables. There is no limit on references. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Clinical Techniques and Technology: A short report of unique or original methods for (1) surgical techniques or medical management, or (2) new devices or technology. CTT manuscripts cannot be only theoretical. They must include data on safety and outcomes in 3 or more subjects. Submissions must have a title page and an unstructured abstract of up to 150 words. Manuscript length: No more than 900 words (from Introduction through Conclusion), 5 references, and a total of 4 figures or tables. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Case Reports: Report of a truly unique, highly relevant, and educationally valuable case. Submissions should have a title page, have no abstract, and include an Introduction and Discussion. Do not combine case reports with a review of the literature. Manuscript length: No more than 700 words (from Introduction through Discussion), 5 references, and a total of 2 figures or tables. Case reports must have no more than four authors. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Clinical Photographs: Color photograph (not a picture of an x-ray) of a unique, relevant, and educationally valuable clinical entity with an accompanying discussion. The emphasis of the manuscript should clearly center on the photograph, not the case history or a literature review. Submissions must have a title page and no abstract. Manuscript length: No more than 300 words (from Introduction through Discussion), 2 figures, and 5 references. Clinical Photographs must have no more than two authors. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    Letters to the Editor: Letters to the Editor regarding published material or information of timely interest. If the letter is related to a previously published article, it must be submitted within 3 months of the original publication, and those authors will be invited to reply. The letter should be titled and double-spaced, include a title page, and follow all manuscript formatting guidelines (see Manuscript Preparation). It should be brief and to the point, with no more than 400 words, 5 references, and 1 figure or table.

    Supplements: Supplements to the journal are considered for publication on the basis of importance of topic, expertise of participants, and scientific quality of the articles presented. All supplements undergo peer review. Private funding for supplements is encouraged. Contact the Managing Editor of the journal at oto-open@entnet.org for further information and an application form, which must be returned before a supplement can be scheduled.

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    Manuscript Preparation

    The journal will not consider manuscripts for publication if authors do not comply with the following instructions.

    Correct preparation of the manuscript will expedite the review and publishing process. Manuscripts must conform to acceptable English usage. For further questions concerning style, consult a recent issue of this journal or the American Medical Association’s Manual of Style.

    Submitting a Manuscript Online
    Go to https://www.editorialmanager.com/oto-open for directions on using Editorial Manager, the online submission and review system. We recommend using the most current version of Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Safari as browsers.

    To use Editorial Manager, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader (a PDF reader) 5.0 or later installed on your system. If you need to install this software, you can download the free Adobe Acrobat Reader at https://get.adobe.com/reader. If you experience difficulty installing or using this software, contact your IT department for assistance.

    Authors should first read the User Instructions available on the Editorial Manager homepage, and then, if a first-time user, register in Editorial Manager. Please contact the Editorial Office at oto-open@entnet.org if you have any questions about Editorial Manager.

    Necessary Forms
    Before starting the submission process, two forms must be completed for all authors.​​​​​​

    • Form 1: The Authorship, Sponsorship, and Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form (submitted online) will be completed electronically and uploaded for inclusion in the manuscript so that reviewers have access to disclosure information. A manuscript cannot be submitted without including this form. This 3-column form requires information on potential conflicts of interest that are upcoming or existed in the past 24 months (if none, state explicitly) and each author’s role in creating the final version of the manuscript (e.g., design, conduct, analysis, or presentation of the research). This form is in addition to, not in place of, the Contributor's Publishing Agreement (described next) that must be submitted offline.

    Click here to view a Sample Completed Authorship, Sponsorship, and Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form
    ​​

    • Form 2: The Contributor's Publishing Agreement (submitted offline) must be completed by the corresponding author. Please note that signatures must be made manually. Electronic and copied signatures are insufficient. Send the completed agreement as a scanned document by email to the editorial office at oto-open@entnet.org or via FAX to 1-703-299-1136. If authors of a manuscript are based in different locations, each author may submit a separate copy of the forms.

    Title: Do not exceed 15 words. Identify all animal research as such in the title.

    Title Page: Include the submission title and all authors’ full names, academic degrees, institutional affiliations, and locations along with the corresponding author's contact information. Designate ONE author as the corresponding author (see Authorship, below), and provide his or her complete address, email address, and phone/fax numbers. The corresponding author will receive all correspondence regarding the manuscript, as well as proof pages and reprint requests. Also indicate where the paper was presented, and include a brief list of keywords.

    Abbreviations: Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract. When using abbreviations in the text, indicate the abbreviation parenthetically after the first occurrence and use the abbreviation alone for all subsequent occurrences.

    Text: Do not use the “Track Changes” feature of any word processing program. If this feature has been used for any portion of the manuscript, all changes must be accepted before building a .pdf submission. Do not use “Endnotes” or similar programs for entering references. The Editorial Office will not edit or process submissions containing this formatting. When preparing the text:

    • See Article Categories for length requirements.
    • Number all pages, beginning with the title page as #1.
    • Include the Abstract as page #2.
    • Use continuous line numbering for both new and revised submissions.
    • Use only 12-point font in Arial, Times New Roman, or Century styles.
    • Double-space the manuscript (including references, figure legends, and tables) with minimum 1-inch margins.
    • Use generic drug and equipment names when possible; cite the proprietary names in parentheses after first mention, if desired. Identify equipment by manufacturer name and location.
    • State all measurements in metric units, and if desired, add English units in parentheses.
    • Begin each table on a separate page.
    • Begin references on a separate page after acknowledgments.
    • Revisions should be submitted with the edited text highlighted in yellow, using the “highlight” feature of your word processing program.

    Authorship: Authorship credit should be based on criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors: 1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) final approval of the version to be published, and 4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Each author must meet ALL FOUR conditions. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be listed under “Acknowledgments,” with their particular contribution described.

    Acknowledgments: All papers prepared in consultation with a writer, statistician, or any other contributor who is not a coauthor must contain an acknowledgment, following the text, indicating full name(s), degrees, and explicit role(s) in the design, conduct, analysis, or presentation of the research.

    References: Authors are responsible for the completeness, accuracy, and format of their references.

    • References follow the American Medical Association’s Manual of Style, 10th Edition.
    • Double-space references throughout, number them in the sequence in which they appear in the text, and cite them in the text using superscript Arabic numerals.
    • Do not use “Endnotes” or similar programs for entering references.
    • List only the first 3 authors if there are more than 6 total, and add et al after the third author.
    • Abbreviate journal titles as shown in the Cumulative Index Medicus. Translate any article titles that are not in English.
    • Journal titles should be italicized.

    Examples of correct reference format:

    Journal
    Seluga KJ, Baker LL, Ojalvo IU. A parametric study of golf car and personal transport vehicle braking stability and their deficiencies. Accid Anal Prev. 2009;41:839-848.

    Book
    Dillon H. Hearing Aids. Sydney, Australia: Boomerang Press; 2001.

    Chapter
    Graney DO, Rice DH. Anatomy. In: Cummings CW, Fredrickson JM, Harker LA, et al, eds. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. 3rd ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1998:1059-1064.

    Internet
    Somers FL. National Golf Car Manufacturers Association issues statement following golf car safety studies (August 2008). http://www.prlog.org/10104352-national-golf-car-manufacturersassociation.... November 2, 2010.

    Tables: Data appearing in tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. Tables must be submitted in Excel or Word table format and not as images. Tables should contain at least 2 columns of data and should not list qualitative information or single-column numeric data that can be easily described in the Results section. Put tables on separate pages and number them in order of their mention in the text. Place tables before the figure legend page and after the list of references, and do not embed them throughout the text. Provide a brief title for each table (not a separate legend), and define any abbreviations in table footnotes. Tables must use a minimum font size of 10.

    Figures: Upload each figure as its own file in Editorial Manager. Provide a legend of no more than 30 words for each figure after your reference list. Additional figure guidelines are as follows:

    • Acceptable file types: EPS, JPEG, PDF, and TIFF.
    • Supply the original version of graphs and diagrams. For example, if you created a graph in Word or Excel, supply the original Word or Excel file. Do not save the image in a different file format.
    • Color figures are encouraged whenever possible for contrast.
    • CMYK and grayscale rasterized images must be at least 300 dpi. Line art/bitmap images must be at least 1200 dpi.
    • Figures composed of multiple, separate images will be counted as multiple figures.

    Appendices and Supplemental Materials: Appendices and supplemental materials will only be published online, not in the print journal, and may include videos, audio files, and additional figures or tables that enhance the value of the manuscript. Appendices must be submitted online with the rest of the manuscript and labeled as such. All tables larger than 3 pages (with 1-inch margins) and questionnaires will be considered as Appendices. Please click here for more information on supplemental materials, including acceptable file types.

    Data: OTO Open requests all authors submit any primary data used in their research articles, alongside their article submissions, to be published in journal, or provide detailed information in their articles on how the data can be obtained. This information should include links to third-party data repositories or detailed contact information for third-party data sources. Data available only on an author-maintained website will need to be loaded onto either the journal’s platform or a third-party platform to ensure continuing accessibility. Examples of data types include but are not limited to statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The editor may consider limited embargoes on proprietary data. The editor may also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations.

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    Ethical Concerns

    Disclosure of Competing Interests, Financial, and Sponsor Information
    Competing interests exist when an author or the author’s institution has financial or personal relationships with other people or organizations that could influence (or bias) the author’s decisions, work, or manuscript. Sponsorships and funding sources must also be identified. Financial relationships are easily identifiable, but conflicts can also occur because of personal relationships, academic competition, or intellectual passion. Full disclosure of all such conflicts and relationships is required. Failure to disclose conflicts may lead to publication of a corrigendum. The editors may use disclosure information as a basis for editorial decisions.

    Patient Confidentiality
    For manuscripts containing photographs of a person, submit a permission to publish statement from the person or guardian, or submit a photograph that will not reveal the person’s identity (eye covers are inadequate to protect patient identity). The journal has no standard patient consent form, but the statement must grant the authors the right to publish the photograph both online and in print in a scientific medical journal. The statement must be in English or provided with an English translation.

    Using Previously Published Material and Illustrations
    For manuscripts containing tables, figures, direct quotations longer than 100 words, or other material reproduced from another source, permission from the copyright holder (often the illustrator or original publication source) must be obtained and submitted to the Editorial Office. The journal has no standard permission form, but the statement must grant the authors the right to publish the material both online and in print in a scientific medical journal. A description or copy of the material to be republished must be included in the statement. In addition, the copyright holder must be credited in the manuscript.

    IRB Policy and Animal Studies
    For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants, formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver (exemption), by an appropriate institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee is required and should be described in the Methods section with the full name of the reviewing entity. All clinical research requires formal review, including case reports, case series, medical record reviews, and other observational studies. For experiments involving animals, state the animal-handling protocol in the Methods section, including approval by an institutional board.

    Duplicate or Redundant Submission
    Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously and are not under consideration by another publication. If the author would like the journal to consider a duplicate publication, he or she must submit the request, in writing, to the Editor in Chief with appropriate justification.

    Plagiarism
    OTO Open and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

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    Notice NIH Grant Recipients

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Policy on Enhancing Public Access to Archived Publications Resulting from NIH Funded Research (Public Access Policy) strongly encourages all investigators to make their NIH-funded peer-reviewed, author’s final manuscript available to other researchers and the public through the NIH National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) PubMed Central (PMC) database no later than twelve months after the date of publication. In support of this policy, we encourage authors of accepted manuscripts that describe original research funded entirely or in part by an NIH grant to submit their manuscript to the NIH grantee site at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pmc/about/authorms.html. The “author’s final manuscript” is the peer reviewed, pre-copyedited version of the article. Articles may be deposited with PubMedCentral at any time after publication in the journal.

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    Editing Services

    Authors who wish to improve the grammar and spelling in their articles may wish to consult a professional service. Here are a few of the many available services:

    Reporting Hearing Outcomes

    The journal requires that authors use the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery minimal reporting standard for reporting audiometric data in clinical research. While authors are welcome to interpret their data in any way they find interesting and informative, to facilitate comparison among studies results must include the minimal data set in the standardized AAO-HNS scattergram reporting format.

    To create the required scattergrams, go to https://hearingoutcomes.stanford.edu. There you will find instructions on uploading your data and using the online tool to generate your scattergrams. The scattergrams must be uploaded as figures when you submit your manuscript to the journal.

    Videos

    This journal videocast, filmed at the 2012 AAO-HNSF Annual Meeting & OTO EXPOSM, is a panel discussion with tips for authors on how to get articles published. Watch then Editor in Chief Richard M. Rosenfeld, MD, MPH, then Associate Editor for Otology and Neurotology Brian Blakley, MD, and then Associate Editor for General Otolaryngology and Case Reports Julie L. Wei, MD, provide their advice on the peer review process.

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    Submission Checklist

    • Assure compliance with the detailed instructions above.
    • Include a title page as the first page of your complete manuscript file. On the title page, put all authors’ complete names (given name followed by family name), medical degrees, affiliated institutions, the corresponding author’s contact information (street and email addresses), and a copy of your keywords list.
    • Complete and include the Authorship, Sponsorship, and Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form. In the contribution column, do not simply copy the authorship criteria; describe each author’s specific contribution to the manuscript.
    • If applicable, provide an abstract both in Editorial Manager and after your title page in your Complete Manuscript file. The abstract must be the same in Editorial Manager and your manuscript, and structured according to the type of manuscript you are submitting (see the Article Categories section above).
    • If applicable, note formal institutional review board or ethics committee approval or exemption in the body of your manuscript, including the specific name of the board or committee. Approval or exemption is required for all manuscripts involving human subjects, including case reports and where required by regulation.
    • Double-space the manuscript.
    • Cite references using superscript numerals.
    • Upload each figure as its own file in EPS, JPEG, PDF, or TIFF format. Do not paste figures into your Complete Manuscript file.
    • Create tables in Microsoft Word, and include each on its own page after your reference list in your Complete Manuscript file. Do not paste tables into Microsoft Word as images. Tables must use a minimum font size of 10.
    • Confirm the accuracy of reference information, and format your references list according to journal style (see the References section above).
    • Number your pages, and turn on continuous line numbering.
    • Submit the Contributor's Publishing Agreement.

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    The Submission Not in Compliance Letter

    The most common reasons your submission is returned without review:

    • Incomplete or incorrect Authorship, Sponsorship, and Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form: not listing each author, failing to list author contributions, copying and pasting the sample text.
    • Invalid email addresses for coauthors listed in Editorial Manager.
    • Incomplete title page: incomplete author affiliations, no keywords, missing presentation information.
    • Abstract is missing in the Word file or not properly structured.
    • Missing line numbers.
    • Entire manuscript is not double-spaced.
    • Methods section does not mention IRB approval.
    • References not cited in numerical order.
    • Figures not uploaded separately, not cited in text, no legends provided.

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