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Non-Western Perspectives on Human Communication
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Non-Western Perspectives on Human Communication
Implications for Theory and Practice



September 2002 | 248 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
This book challenges the longstanding individualistic model on which most western intercultural research is based. It proposes a non-western way of conceptualizing identity - the cornerstone of cultural research - and shows how traditional western and non-western views can be blended into a broader, more realistic understanding of cultures and communication. Grounding her work in a thorough knowledge of the literature, the author challenges students and researchers alike to reexamine their approach to intercultural study.
 
I. INTRODUCTION
 
1. "Who am I?": Cultural Variations in Self-Systems
Evolution of Western Self-Construction: "America's Civil Religion"

 
Interdependent Self-Construals-An Alternative Framework

 
 
2. Independent and Interdependent Models of the Self as Cultural Frame
 
3. Why Self-Construals are Useful
Parismony of Explanation: Impact of Culture

 
Cultural Relativity of Communication Theories

 
 
ii. CULTURAL RELATIVITY OF COMMINCATION CONSTRUCTS AND THEORIES: "U.S.- CENTRISM"
 
4. "Communication Apprehension": "Deficiency" or "Politeness"?
Motivation to "Avoid" Verbal Communication

 
Traditional View: Communication "Avoidance" as a Deficiency

 
Communication Avoidance Stemming from a Sensitivity to Social Contexts

 
Implications

 
 
5. Motivation to "Approach" Verbal Communication: Is Communication Approach Always Healthy?
Assertiveness: "Standing up for your own Rights"

 
Argumentativeness: A Subset of Assertiveness

 
Critique and Summary

 
 
6. Conflict Management Styles: Is Avoidance Really a "Lose-Lose"?
Prior Conflict Management Typologies

 
Individualistic Bias in Past Conceptualizations of Conflict Styles

 
 
7. Cognitive Consistency: A Cultural Assumption?
Fundamental Assumptions of Cognitive Dissonance Theory

 
Is Cognitive Dissonance a Culture-Bound Concept?

 
 
8. Attitude-Behavior Consistency: Cultural Ideal of the Individualistic Society
Predicting Behaviors: Deemphasizing Situations Over Attitudes

 
Emphasizing Other Sources of Behavior

 
 
9. Susceptibility to Social Influence: Conformity or "Tact"?
An Eco-Cultural Explanation of Conformity

 
Conformity as "Social Sensitivity," Independence as "Insensitivity"

 
 
10. Internal Control Ideology and Communication: Are Internals "Good Guys" and Externals "Bad Guys"?
Internal Control Ideology

 
Relationship between Locus of Control and Communication Ideology

 
 
11. Deceptive Communication: Moral Choice or Social Necessity?
Deception as a Moral Issue: Independent Perspective

 
Deception as a Social Necessity: Interdependent Perspective

 
 
12. Self-Disclosure: Bragging vs. Negative Self-Disclosure
Motivational Influences on Styles of Self-Disclosure

 
 
13. Silence: "Is It Really Golden?"
Silence as Malfunctioning of (Human) Machines

 
Neglected Component of Human Communication: Silence

 
 
14. Acculturative Communication Competence: Who Bears the Burden of Adjustment?
Assimilation Model: "Marginal Man [sic]" Perspective

 
Alternation Model: Bicultural Perspective

 
Host Communication Competence: One-Way Assimilation

 
Bicultural Communication Competence: Alternation Model

 
 
III. TOWARDS A BI-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF CULTURAL IDENTITY
 
15. The Sources of Dualism: Mechanistic Cartesian Worldview
Bias Toward "Yang" Communication Behaviors

 
Particle/Wave Paradox: Implications of Personhood for Human Communication

 
 
16. Dimensionality of Cultural Identity
Unidimensional Model of Self-Construals

 
Bi-dimensional Model of Self-Construals

 
Support for the Bi-dimensional Model

 
Formation of Bicultural Identity

 
 
IV. CONCLUSION-TOWARDS MODELS OF MATURITY
 
17. Into the Future: Implications for Future Inquiry
 
Postscript
 
References

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