Advice is provided on the most useful methods for particular test situations. The authors explain the logic of each method - from item-response theory to nonparametric, categorical methods - in terms of how differential item functioning (DIF) is defined by the method and how well the method can be expected to work. A summary of findings on the behaviour of indices in empirical studies is included. The book concludes with a set of principles for deciding when DIF should be interpreted as evidence of bias.
|Test Bias, Item Bias, and Test Validity|