Language Testing

Language Testing

2014 Impact Factor: 1.019
2014 Ranking: 46/171 in Linguistics
Source: 2014 Journal Citation Reports ® (Thomson Reuters, 2015)

Glenn Fulcher University of Leicester, UK
April Ginther Purdue University, USA

eISSN: 14770946| ISSN: 02655322|Current volume: 32|Current issue: 3 Frequency: Quarterly

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Language Testing is an international peer reviewed journal that publishes original research on language testing and assessment. Since 1984 it has featured high impact papers covering theoretical issues, empirical studies, and reviews. The journal's wide scope encompasses first and second language testing and assessment of English and other languages, and the use of tests and assessments as research and evaluation tools. Many articles also contribute to methodological innovation and the practical improvement of testing and assessment internationally. In addition, the journal publishes submissions that deal with policy issues, including the use of language tests and assessments for high stakes decision making in fields as diverse as education, employment and international mobility. The journal welcomes the submission of papers that deal with ethical and philosophical issues in language testing, as well as technical matters. Also of concern is research into the washback and impact of language test use, and ground-breaking uses of assessments for learning. Additionally, the journal wishes to publish replication studies that help to embed and extend our knowledge of generalisable findings in the field. Language Testing is committed to encouraging interdisciplinary research, and is keen to receive submissions which draw on theory and methodology from different fields of applied linguistics, as well as educational measurement, and other relevant disciplines.

Language Testing has now been accepted into the following Thomson Reuter’s indexes:

  • Arts and Humanities Citation Index
  • Social Sciences Citation Index
  • Journal Citation Reports/Social Sciences Edition
  • Social Scisearch

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Electronic Access:

Language Testing is available electronically on SAGE Journals Online at

Language Testing is a fully peer reviewed international journal that publishes original research and review articles on language testing and assessment.

It provides a forum for the exchange of ideas and information between people working in the fields of first and second language testing and assessment. This includes researchers and practitioners in EFL and ESL testing, and assessment in child language acquisition and language pathology.

In addition, special attention is focused on issues of testing theory, experimental investigations, and the following up of practical implications.

Book Review Editor
Annie Brown UAE Ministry of Education
Test Review Editor
Luke Harding Lancaster University, UK
Editorial Board
J. Brown University of Hawaii, USA
Michelle Chalhoub-Deville University of Iowa, USA
Carol Chapelle Iowa State University, USA
Liying Cheng Queens University, Canada
Inn-Chull Choi Korea University, South Korea
Deborah Crusan Wright State University, USA
Sara Cushing Weigle Georgia State University, USA
Craig Deville  
Slobodanka Dimova University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Dan Douglas Iowa State University, USA
Gudrun Erickson University of Gothenburg, Sweden
J Fox Carleton University, Canada
Atta Gebril American University of Cairo, Egypt
Ofra Inbar Tel-Aviv University and Beit Berl College, Israel
Talia Isaacs University of Bristol, UK
Noriko Iwashita University of Queensland, Australia
Eunice Jang University of Toronto, Canada
Okim Kang University of Northern Arizona, USA
Ute Knoch University of Melbourne, Australia
Oryang Kwon Seoul National University, South Korea, Korea
Fumiyo Nakatsuhara University of Bedfordshire, UK
Gary Ockey Kanda University of International Studies, Japan
Lia Plakans University of Iowa, USA
David D. Qian The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
John Read University of Auckland, New Zealand
Steven J Ross Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan
Miyuki Sasaki Nagoya Gakuin University, Japan
Norbert Schmitt University of Nottingham, UK
Kathy Sheehan Educational Testing Service, USA
Bernard Spolsky Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Lynda Taylor University of Bedfordshire / Cambridge ESOL, UK
Cyril Weir University of Bedfordshire, UK
Paula Winke Michigan State University, USA
Xiaoming Xi Educational Testing Service, USA
Jin Yan Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Guoxing Yu University of Bristol, UK
  • Academic Search Premier
  • British Education Index
  • Contents Pages in Education
  • Current Index to Journals in Education
  • Deltaa
  • Educational Research Abstracts Online
  • IBZ: International Bibliography of Periodical Literature
  • IBZ: International Bibliography of Periodical Literature in the Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Informationszentrum Für Fremdsprachenforschung (IFS)
  • Informationszentrum Für Fremdsprachenforschung (IFS)
  • International Bibliography of Book Reviews of Scholarly Literature in the Humanities and Social Sciences
  • International Bibliography of Book Reviews of Scholarly Literature on the Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Language Teaching
  • Linguistics Abstracts
  • Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts
  • MLA Abstracts of Articles in Scholarly Journals
  • MLA International Bibliography
  • Professional Development Collection
  • PsycINFO
  • PsycLIT
  • Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection
  • Social Science Abstracts
  • e-Psyche
  • e-Psyche (Ceased)
    1. Peer review policy
    2. Article types
    3. How to submit your manuscript
    4. Journal contributor’s publishing agreement
      4.1 SAGE Choice and Open Access
    5. Declaration of conflicting interests policy
    6. Other conventions
    7. Acknowledgments
      7.1 Funding acknowledgement
    8. Permissions
    9. Manuscript style
      9.1 File types
      9.2 Journal style
      9.3 Reference style
      9.4 Manuscript preparation
      9.4.1 Keywords and abstracts: Helping readers find your article online
      9.4.2 Corresponding author contact details
      9.4.3 Guidelines for submitting artwork, figures and other graphics
      9.4.4 Guidelines for submitting supplemental files
      9.4.5 English language editing services
    10. After acceptance
      10.1 Proofs
      10.2 E-Prints and complimentary copies
      10.3 SAGE production
      10.4 OnlineFirst Publication
    11. Further information

    Language Testing is an international peer reviewed journal that publishes original research on language testing and assessment.


    1. Peer review policy


    Language Testing is a fully peer reviewed international journal that publishes original research and review articles on language testing and assessment.

    In order to ensure the publication of only the highest quality articles and reviews an objective process of peer reviewed is rigorously applied. Together with the editors, the referees play a vitally important role in maintaining the exceptionally high standards of the journal.

    Review Procedures

    All manuscripts are reviewed initially by the editors and only those papers that meet the standards of the journal, and fit within its aims and scope, are sent for outside review. Upon initial review, if one of the editors feels that a manuscript does not meet the required standards, the co-editor is sent an anonymous copy of the submission and asked to confirm the decision. Should the editors concur, the decision not to send for external review is final. Submissions that are rejected at this stage may not fit with the aims and scope of the journal, may not be sufficiently original, may contain serious methodological flaws, be unintelligible, or draw unwarranted conclusions from data presented.

    If the editors decide that a submission be sent for external review, it will be sent to at least two reviewers, and normally three. All manuscripts are sent anonymously in order to ensure unbiased consideration by the referees. Any other indications of authorship are removed in order to ensure that publication is not dependent upon irrelevant factors such as race, gender, religion, ethnicity or political commitment.

    Submissions are normally reviewed within 2 months of submission, although due to the rigorous blind peer review system this sometimes takes longer. Authors should expect a decision on a submission within 3 months.

    Commissioned Papers

    From time to time the editors may commission papers for Language Testing, normally for anniversary or special issues. Commissioned papers are sent for review by two or three external reviewers, and the reviews evaluated by the editors in the same way as for all other submissions. A commission therefore does not imply that the submission will be published.

    Book and Test Reviews

    Book and Test Reviews are commissioned by the book and test review editor respectively. Reviews represent the considered professional view of the expert in question, and publication is dependent upon review by the relevant editor and the co-editors of Language Testing. Reviews are not normally subject to the multiple-blind peer review system that is operated for all other submissions.

    Selection of Reviewers and Timelines

    The editors of Language Testing select reviewers from the international Editorial Board, or from the international language testing community, on the grounds of their expertise to judge the suitability for publication of the submission concerned. All reviewers are qualified and experienced academics with the highest possible reputation in their field, including, in many cases, a history of publishing in Language Testing.

    Reviewers are normally asked to complete reviews within six weeks of receiving a manuscript, although this may be longer depending upon a reviewer’s other commitments.

    Reviewer Guidelines

    Reviewers are asked to judge the suitability of submissions on the following criteria:

    • Published articles, empirical or theoretical, must be original and must make a significant contribution to knowledge in the field of language testing.
    • An article should relate reported findings or proposed theoretical contribution to existing knowledge. This is generally to be accomplished through a competent and critical review of the relevant literature.
    • Research articles, whether quantitative or qualitative in approach, should be based on new data collected and analysed in a rigorous and well-designed investigation. Reanalyses of “old” data may be used to support theoretical contributions.

    Decision Making

    Reviewers make recommend that a submission be (a) rejected, (b) revised and resubmitted, (c) accepted for publication with minor amendments, or (d) accepted for publication forthwith. In the case of (c) the editors may ask one or more of the reviewers to ‘sign off’ on amendments, or undertake this task themselves. When manuscripts are revised and resubmitted the editors make every attempt to ask the original reviewers to consider the manuscript again and evaluate it against the specific recommendations made in the first review. If for any reason a reviewer declines to take part in a second review, the editors will attempt to find a replacement reviewer.

    The final decision to publish or reject remains with the editors.

    Conflict of Interest

    If one of the editors, colleague or a student of an editor submits a manuscript to Language Testing, the co-editor steers the manuscript through the review process and keeps the names of the reviewers from the other. No editor takes any decisions or responsibility for the review process of their own work, or the work of a close colleague, student or friend.

    If a reviewer recognizes the author of a paper as a colleague, student or friend, they refuse to take part in the review process.

    Feedback to Reviewers

    Under normal circumstances, anonymous copies of all reviews are circulated to the reviewers within one month of a decision being taken on a manuscript, together with an indication of the decision made. This maintains an open and transparent process, and helps newer reviewers to understand the review process.

    Copies of reviews are not always circulated to reviewers of commissioned papers.

    Feedback to Authors

    Authors are provided with a decision on their manuscript together with anonymous copies of the reviews, usually within two weeks of a decision being made. Where manuscripts are accepted for publication subject to amendments, a timeline for making the amendments is agreed.

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    2. Article types

    Language Testing publishes articles on the testing and assessment of language for a range of purposes, whether educational or professional, and in diverse contexts, including first language, second or foreign language, bilingual and/or multilingual situations. It also publishes articles reporting language project and programme evaluation which have theoretical implications for language testing. Equal preference is given to empirically based and theoretical articles. The former should report empirical research bearing upon theoretical issues, while the latter should offer a critical review and analysis of a theoretical issue that is of current interest to the field. Contributions discussing implications of theory or research for practical testing will also be considered favourably.

    Where possible and appropriate, authors should supply sufficient information, including test texts and items, to enable replication of investigations. Lack of statistically significant results, or difficulty in drawing clear conclusions, will not necessarily rule out publication of interesting contributions. Empirical papers that use significance testing should as a matter of course provide effect sizes.

    While book reviews are normally commissioned by the editors, offers to review recent publications will also be welcome. The editors also welcome ideas and suggestions from potential guest editors for special issues of the journal that focus on topical themes.

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    3. How to submit your manuscript

    Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure you carefully read and adhere to all the guidelines and instructions to authors provided below. Manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Manuscripts should be submitted online at the Language Testing SAGE Track site:

    If you are a new user, you will first need to create an account. Submissions should be made by logging in and selecting the Author Center and the 'Click here to Submit a New Manuscript' option. Follow the instructions on each page, clicking the 'Next' button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen. If at any stage you have any questions or require the user guide, please use the ‘Online Help’ button at the top right of every screen.

    Correspondence on editorial matters should be addressed (preferably by email) to one of the editors:

    Glenn Fulcher
    University of Leicester
    School of education
    21 University Road
    LE1 7RF

    April Ginther
    Associate Professor of English
    Director, Oral English Proficiency Program
    Purdue University
    Young Hall, Room 810
    155 S. Grant Street
    West Lafayette, IN  47907-2108

    Guidelines for the Preparation of Manuscripts.

    Article submissions should normally be between 4,000 and 8,000 words in length, inclusive of references and tables. Microsoft Word is the preferred word processor. Avoid unnecessary formatting and use a standard font for your text. Times New Roman/Times and Arial/Helvetica are preferred.

    Language Testing conducts blinded peer-review. When uploading your manuscript you will need to upload a manuscript file with no identifying author information (designate as Main Document) and a separate title page (designate as Title Page) with author details. 

    The author information must include the following: author(s) name(s), position(s) and affiliation(s), all contact address details, including fax number and e-mail address. Please indicate the corresponding author to whom queries and proofs should be sent.

    The first page of the manuscript must include the following: Title and an abstract of not more than 300 words in length. Immediately underneath the abstract, please include up to six keywords or phrases that will enable your article to be identified in literature searches. The text of the article should follow the keywords.

    Style and convention

    Please follow these conventions:

    i) use 'z' not 's' where there is an alternative, and in general follow the first variant given by the Shorter Oxford Dictionary, e.g. realize, idealize, analyse, advertise.

    ii) Numbers: adopt the rule that all numbers under 10 should be spelt out in letters except where attached to a unit of quantity (e.g. 1 mm or 3 kg) or where the context makes this awkward (e.g. use spelt-out forms at the beginning of a sentence).

    iii) Avoid excessive capitalization. For titles of book and articles, capitals should be used for the initial letter of the first word only. For the titles of journals and series, the initial letter of all principal words should be capitalized.

    iv) Use italics for emphasis very sparingly.

    v) Abbreviations: initial letter of abbreviations should be typed with no full point (e.g. UK, UNESCO, BBC). Abbreviations in which the last letter of the abbreviation is the same as the last letter of the word should also have no full point (e.g. Mr, St, - but no., str., etc.).

    vi) Spelling may follow either British or American conventions, provided that it is done consistently.

    vii) The term 'subject' should be avoided when referring to individuals who participate in research studies. Terms such as 'participant', 'individual' or 'test-taker' should be used, as appropriate.

    Headings: In dividing articles under headings, please use the following format:

    (subheading) I, II, III etc.

    (subsubheading) 1, 2, 3 etc.

    (subsubsubheading) a, b, c etc.

    Please avoid using more than three levels of subheadings.

    References should follow the APA system. In the typescript references should be indicated by giving the author's name and the year of publication (with page references where necessary). For example:

    ... Wigglesworth (1995) investigated whether a minimal amount of planning time (one minute) provided in a test situation was adequate to have an effect on the candidate's discourse.

    ... but they have not conducted observations on teaching (Hughes, 1988; Khanaya, 1990).

    More than three authors should be referred to as, e.g., Huhta et al. in the text but listed in full in the references.

    References should be listed in full at the end of the article, in alphabetical order and in the following form:

    a) Journal article

    Brown, A. (2003). Interviewer variation and the co-construction of speaking proficiency. Language Testing, 20(1) 1 - 25.

    b) Book

    Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    c) Article in a book

    Clapham, C. (1996). What makes an ESP reading test appropriate for its candidates? In A. Cumming & R. Berwick, editors, Validation in language testing (pp. 171-193). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    d) Online journal articles

    Stansfield, C. W. (1996). Content assessment in the native language. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 5(9). Retrieved May 7, 2007, from

    e) Non-journal web sources, documents or reports

    Kehoe, J. (1995). Basic item analysis for multiple-choice tests. Retrieved April, 2007, from

    Notes Please follow the following style:

    i. Indicate in brackets at the end of references the number of pages in mimeographed articles and publications.

    ii. If several papers by the same author and from the same year are cited, a, b, c, etc. should be added to the year of publication (1972a; 1972b, etc.).

    iii. The use of the phrase et al. (= et alia) to indicate multiple authorship is permissible in the text, but not in the list of references, where all names should be given.

    iv. No journal titles should be abbreviated. If in exceptional circumstances any abbreviations are used then they should be listed at the beginning of the references.

    Illustrations should be suitable for photographic reproduction. The use of the table, shape, chart and smart art features of Word are suitable for the production of diagrams and figures. Photographs and Artwork should be submitted in TIFF (tagged image file format). Avoid the popular gif and jpeg images, which are only suitable for online publications. Grayscale or color photographic images should be 300 dpi (dots per inch), and monochrome artwork (black line art on a white background) at 600 dpi. Combination images should also be at 600 dpi. TIFF files are usually very large in size and LZW compression is requested. All illustrations should be placed at the end of the manuscript with a list of captions, but their place in the text should be marked in the margin. TIFF files may be embedded in the manuscript but should also be sent as separate files.

    Footnotes should be avoided.

    Full guidelines on journal style and preparation of manuscripts are available from the SAGE website:

    Proofs will be supplied only once in the form of page proofs. Please remember that:

    (i) Proof corrections are disproportionately expensive. For example, the insertion of three commas on a page will frequently cost as much, or more than, the original setting cost of the entire page.

    (ii) If you return proofs even a few days after the date stipulated, it may be too late to include your corrections in the final version of the journal.

    Eprints: Each corresponding author will receive 25 access 'hits' to his or her article, plus a bound copy of the issue.

    Consideration for publication will be given to material which has previously had limited circulation elsewhere (e.g. seminar papers). Submission of an article implies, however, that it has not been published, and is not being considered for publication elsewhere, either in the submitted form or in a modified version. Articles which are already available electronically will not be considered.

    Any overlap in a manuscript with material appearing in other published or under-review work by the author or his/her co-authors should be declared on submission.  Acceptance of submitted material is on the understanding that it will not be reproduced in full or in part without the permission of the publisher.

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    4. Journal contributor’s publishing agreement   

    Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    4.1 SAGE Choice and Open Access
    If you or your funder wish your article to be freely available online to non subscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in SAGE Choice, subject to payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let SAGE know directly if you are choosing SAGE Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit SAGE Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at SAGE, including self author archiving deposits (green open access) visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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    5. Declaration of conflicting interests                  

    Within your Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement you will be required to make a certification with respect to a declaration of conflicting interests. Language Testing does not require a declaration of conflicting interests but recommends you review the good practice guidelines on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

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    6. Other conventions

    None applicable.

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    7. Acknowledgements                                                         

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an ‘Acknowledgements’ section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    7.1 Funding Acknowledgement
    To comply with the guidance for Research Funders, Authors and Publishers issued by the Research Information Network (RIN), Language Testing additionally requires all Authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. All research articles should have a funding acknowledgement in the form of a sentence as follows, with the funding agency written out in full, followed by the grant number in square brackets:

    This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number xxx].

    Multiple grant numbers should be separated by comma and space. Where the research was supported by more than one agency, the different agencies should be separated by semi-colon, with ‘and’ before the final funder. Thus:

    This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Natural Environment Research Council [grant number zzzz]; and the Economic and Social Research Council [grant number aaaa].

    In some cases, research is not funded by a specific project grant, but rather from the block grant and other resources available to a university, college or other research institution. Where no specific funding has been provided for the research we ask that corresponding authors use the following sentence:

    This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    Please include this information under a separate heading entitled “Funding” directly after any other Acknowledgements prior to your “Declaration of Conflicting Interests” (if applicable), any Notes and your References.

    For more information on the guidance for Research Funders, Authors and Publishers, please visit:

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    8. Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway..

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    9. Manuscript style

    9.1 File types
    Only electronic files conforming to the journal's guidelines will be accepted. Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are Word DOC, RTF, XLS. LaTeX files are also accepted. Please also refer to additional guideline on submitting artwork [and supplemental files] below.

    9.2 Journal Style
    Language Testing conforms to the SAGE house style. Click here to review guidelines on SAGE UK House Style.

    9.3 Reference Style
    Language Testing operates an APA reference style. Click here to review the guidelines on APA to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    9.4. Manuscript Preparation
    The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point.

    9.4.1 Your Title, Keywords and Abstracts: Helping readers find your article online
    The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting SAGE�s Journal Author Gateway Guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

    9.4.2 Corresponding Author Contact details
    Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors.

    9.4.3 Guidelines for submitting artwork, figures and other graphics
    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures, these figures will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. If a charge applies you will be informed by your SAGE Production Editor. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article.

    9.4.4 Guidelines for submitting supplemental files
    Language Testing does not currently accept supplemental files.

    9.4.5 English Language Editing services
    Non-English speaking authors who would like to refine their use of language in their manuscripts might consider using a professional editing service. Visit for further information.

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    10. After acceptance           

    10.1 Proofs
    We will email a PDF of the proofs to the corresponding author.

    10.2 E-Prints and Complimentary Copies
    SAGE provides authors with access to a PDF of their final article. For further information please visit Offprints and Reprints on our Journal Author Gateway.

    10.3 SAGE Production
    At SAGE we place an extremely strong emphasis on the highest production standards possible. We attach high importance to our quality service levels in copy-editing, typesetting, printing, and online publication ( We also seek to uphold excellent author relations throughout the publication process.

    We value your feedback to ensure we continue to improve our author service levels. On publication all corresponding authors will receive a brief survey questionnaire on your experience of publishing in Language Testing with SAGE.

    10.4 OnlineFirst Publication
    A large number of journals benefit from OnlineFirst, a feature offered through SAGE’s electronic journal platform, SAGE Journals Online. It allows final revision articles (completed articles in queue for assignment to an upcoming issue) to be hosted online prior to their inclusion in a final print and online journal issue which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. For more information please visit our OnlineFirst Fact Sheet.

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    11. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the Manuscript Submission process should be sent to the Editorial Office as follows:

    April Ginther
    Associate Professor of English
    Director, Oral English Proficiency Program 
    Purdue University 
    Young Hall, Room 810
    155 S. Grant Street 
    West Lafayette, IN  47907-2108 

    Glenn Fulcher
    University of Leicester
    School of education
    21 University Road
    LE1 7RF

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