You are here

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery

eISSN: 19389116 | ISSN: 15385744 | Current volume: 58 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: 8 Times/Year

Indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE

Advances in vascular intervention and diagnostics require information to be at the fingertips of the vascular surgeon. Each issue of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery brings together the most recent peer-reviewed information to guide vascular specialists in endovascular, surgical, and medical treatment of vascular disease. Published six times a year, VES offers original scientific articles on vascular intervention, including the new endovascular therapies for peripheral artery, aneurysm, carotid, and venous conditions; as well as special interest topics presented in the format of Case Reports, Clinical Controversy discussions of disputed issues, comprehensive Basic Science reviews, an Endovascular Techniques section, and a Vascular Medicine section. VES addresses the spectrum of arterial, venous, and lymphatic disease and provides factual information that will expand your clinical perspective and treatment skills. The multidisciplinary approach to the vascular patient is emphasized with options of open surgical repair, endovascular intervention, and medical therapy discussed in each issue.

The Editorial Board, composed of well-known, respected academic vascular surgeons from all over the world is committed to providing timely, provocative articles that are relevant to enhancing the vascular care provided by the vascular surgeon in practice or in a resident-training program. 

Topics presented in recent VES issues include:

  • Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair and Stent Technology
  • Outcomes of Endovascular AAA Repair with Hostile Neck Anatomy
  • Current Management of Carotid Artery Disease
  • Protected Carotid Artery Stenting and Angioplasty
  • Endovascular Therapy of Innominate-Subclavian Arterial Occlusive Lesions
  • Aortic Graft Infection
  • Peripheral Arterial Embolism
  • Laser Atherectomy for Lower Extremity Revascularization
  • Dialysis Access Patency and Repair with Stent-angioplasty
  • Duplex Arteriography in the Evaluation of Acute Limb Ischemia
  • Can CT Scans Predict Impending AAA Rupture
  • Comparison of CT and Catheter Angiography for Evaluation of Peripheral Arterial Disease
  • Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement in Late-stage Cancer
  • Platelet Function and Pharmacologic Inhibition
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Aortic Aneurysm
  • Hypertension and the Vascular Patient
  • Angiogenesis, Vasculogenesis, and Induction of Healing in Chronic Wounds

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) 

Vascular and Endovascular Surgery is a peer-reviewed, leading journal in its field devoted exclusively to all aspects of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular, peripheral vascular, and endovascular surgery. VES reports the latest progress in operative surgical techniques together with new research findings, new clinical experiences, and new developments in diagnostic procedures.

Thomas Maldonado New York, NY, USA
Associate Editors
Enrico Ascher Brooklyn, NY, USA
John Blebea Tulsa, OK, USA
Keith D. Calligaro Philadelphia, PA, USA
Kim J. Hodgson Springfield, IL, USA
Alan B. Lumsden Houston, TX, USA
Gregory L. Moneta, MD Portland, OR, USA
Gregorio A. Sicard St Louis, MO, USA
International Editors
Christos D. Liapis Athens, Greece
Ignacio Escotto Sánchez Mexico City, Mexico
Gregor D. Shanik Dublin, Ireland
Juan Varela Bogota, Colombia
Section Editor - Basic Science
Vivian Gahtan Syracuse, NY, USA
Jean Marie Ruddy Charleston, SC, USA
Section Editors - Clinical Controversy
Peter Faries New York, NY, USA
Brajesh K. Lal Newark, NJ, USA
Palma Shaw Syracuse, NY, USA
Section Editors - Endovascular Technique
Samuel S. Ahn Los Angeles, CA, USA
Juan R. Parodi Miami, FL, USA
Mathew Wooster Charleston, SC, USA
Section Editor - Vascular Diagnostics
Nicos Labropoulos Newark, NJ, USA
Editorial Board Members
Ali F. Aburahma Charleston, WV, USA
Kwame S. Amankwah Farmington, CT, USA
Zak Arthurs San Antonio, TX, USA
Robert G. Atnip Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA
Bernadette Aulivola Chicago, IL, USA
Martin A. Back Tampa, FL, USA
Jeffrey L. Ballard Orange, CA, USA
Carlos Bechara Houston, TX, USA
Michael Belkin Boston, MA, USA
Ehsan Benrashid Chapel Hill, NC, USA
John J. Bergan La Jolla, CA, USA
Richard P. Cambria Boston, MA, USA
Jeffrey Carpenter Philadelphia, PA, USA
Timothy A. Chuter San Francisco, CA, USA
G. Patrick Clagett Dallas, TX, USA
Dawn Coleman Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Anthony J. Comerota Toledo, OH, USA
Michael S. Conte San Francisco, CA, USA
John D. Corson Albuquerque, NM, USA
Michael Costanza Syracuse, NY, USA
Frank J. Criado Baltimore, MD, USA
Michael Dalsing Indianapolis, IN, USA
R. Clement Darling, III Albany, NY, USA
David L. Dawson Sacramento, CA, USA
Ralph G. De Palma Washington, DC, USA
Tina R. Desai Chicago, IL, USA
John F. Eidt Little Rock, AR, USA
Bo G. Eklof Lund, Sweden
Mark F. Fillinger Lebanon, NH, USA
William R. Flinn Baltimore, MD, USA
Thomas L. Forbes London, ON, Canada
Julie A. Freischlag Baltimore, MD, USA
Paul A. Gagne New York, NY, USA
Karan Garg New York, NY, USA
Jerry Goldstone Cleveland, OH, USA
Richard M. Green New York, NY, USA
Raul J. Guzman Nashville, TN, USA
Kakra Hughes Washington, DC, USA
Misty Humphries Davis, CA, USA
Glenn Jacobowitz New York, NY, USA
Peter G. Kalman Maywood, IL, USA
Angela Kokkosis Stony Brook, NY, USA
Timothy F. Kresowik Iowa City, IA, USA
Stephen G. Lalka Charlotte, NC, USA
W. Anthony Lee Gainesville, FL, USA
Peter H. Lin Houston, TX, USA
Fred N. Littooy Maywood, IL, USA
Joann M. Lohr Hamilton County, OH, USA
Michel S. Makaroun Pittsburgh, PA, USA
William A. Marston Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Jon S. Matsumura Boulder, CO, USA
George H. Meier, III Norfolk, VA, USA
James O. Menzoian Farmington, CT, USA
Joseph L. Mills Tucson, AZ, USA
Samuel R. Money Ochsner Clinic, New Orleans, LA, USA
Raghu L. Motaganahalli Indianapolis, IN, USA
Albeir Mousa Charleston, WV, USA
Takao Ohki Bronx, NY, USA
W. Andrew Oldenburg Jacksonville, FL, USA
Kenneth Ouriel Cleveland, OH, USA
Jean M. Panneton Norfolk, VA, USA
Bruce A. Perler Baltimore, MD, USA
Luis A. Queral Baltimore, MD, USA
John J. Ricotta Washington, DC, USA
David Rosenthal Atlanta, GA, USA
John J. Rosenthal Long Beach, CA, USA
Mikel Sadek Vascular Surgery, New York University, NY, USA
Hazim J. Safi Houston, TX, USA
Russell H. Samson Sarasota, FL, USA
Luis A. Sanchez St Louis, MO, USA
Lewis Schwartz Chicago, IL, USA
Gary R. Seabrook Milwaukee, WI, USA
Samir K. Shah Gainesville, FL, USA
Sherene Shalhub Seattle, WA, USA
Michael B. Silva, Jr. Lubbock, TX, USA
Jeffrey Siracuse Boston, MA, USA
Scott L. Stevens Knoxville, TN, USA
Timothy M. Sullivan Rochester, MN, USA
Spence M. Taylor Greenville, SC, USA
Katherine Teter New York, NY, USA
William D. Turnipseed Madison, WI, USA
Ageliki Vouyouka New York, NY, USA
Rodney A. White Torrance, CA, USA
Karen Woo, MD, PhD Los Angeles, CA, USA
Christopher K. Zarins Stanford, CA, USA
R. Eugene Zierler Seattle, WA, USA
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
  • Clarivate Analytics: Biological Abstracts
  • Clarivate Analytics: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)
  • EMBASE/Excerpta Medica
  • Inpharma Database
  • Ovid: Allied and Complementary Medicine Database
  • ProQuest Health & Medical Complete
  • ProQuest Medical Library
  • Reactions Database
  • Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science)
  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (VES)’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    Sage Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of VES will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that VES may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy. If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal.


    1. What do we publish?
    1.1 Aims & Scope
    1.2 Article types
    1.3Writing your paper

    2. Editorial policies
    2.1 Peer review policy
    2.2 Authorship
    2.3 Acknowledgements
    2.4 Funding
    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
    2.7 Clinical trials
    2.8 Reporting guidelines
    2.9 Research Data

    3. Publishing policies
    3.1 Publication ethics
    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    4. Preparing your manuscript
    4.1 Preparation
    4.2 Formatting
    4.3 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    4.4 Supplemental material
    4.5 Reference style
    4.6 English language editing services

    5. Submitting your manuscript
    5.1 ORCID
    5.2 Information required for completing your submission
    5.3 Permissions

    6. On acceptance and publication
    6.1 Sage Production
    6.2 Online First publication
    6.3 Access to your published article
    6.4 Promoting your article

    7. Further information
    7.1 Appealing the publication decision


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope
    Vascular and Endovascular Surgery is a peer-reviewed, leading journal in its field devoted exclusively to all aspects of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular, peripheral vascular, and endovascular surgery. VES reports the latest progress in operative surgical techniques together with new research findings, new clinical experiences, and new developments in diagnostic procedures.

    1.2 Article types
    VES publishes peer-reviewed original articles and case reports relating to any phase of vascular diseases, including diagnostic methods, therapeutic procedures, operative techniques, clinical and laboratory research.

    Clinical Controversy: abstract should be no more than 300 words and manuscript should be limited to 3,000 words.

    Letter to the Editor: should be no more than 700 words and have a maximum of 5 references. Generally should be within six months of publication of the original article being referenced.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable
    For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy
    VES operates a conventional single-anonymized reviewing policy in which the reviewer’s name is always concealed from the submitting author.

    Sage does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    • The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors
    • The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper
    • The author has recommended the reviewer
    • The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution). 

    2.2 Authorship
    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published,
    4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.3 Acknowledgements
    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.3.1 Writing assistance
    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding
    VES requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    It is the policy of VES to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the ARRIVE guidelines.

    2.7 Clinical trials
    VES conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    2.8 Reporting guidelines
    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    2.9. Research Data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

    3. Publishing policies

    3.1 Publication ethics
    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism
    VES and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication
    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement      
    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving
    VES offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission                                         

    4.1 Preparation
    The manuscript should include four major sections (in this order): Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.

    Sections in a manuscript may include the following (in this order): (1) Title page, (2) Abstract, (3) Keywords, (4) Text, (5) References, (6) Tables, (7) Figures, and (8) Appendices.

    1. Title page. Please include the following:

    • Full article title
    • Acknowledgments and credits
    • Each author’s complete name, academic degrees, and institutional affiliation(s)
    • Grant numbers and/or funding information
    • Corresponding author (name, address, phone/fax, e-mail)

    2. Abstract. Abstracts should be structured for reports of original data, systematic reviews (including meta-analyses), and clinical reviews (word limit should be 250-300 words).

    • Type the abstract on a separate page headed by the full article title. Omit author(s)’s names.
    • Abstracts are not required for special features such as letters, news articles, editorial etc.

    3. Keywords. A short list of keywords should be given at the end of the abstract.

    4. Text. Begin article text on a new page headed by the full article title.

    5. References. In-text citation.

    • For each text citation there must be a corresponding reference in the reference list and for each reference there must be a corresponding text citation.
    • Cite references in consecutive order using superscript Arabic numbers.
    • Each superscript must match one reference in the References list.
    • Use commas to separate multiple citation numbers in text. Corresponding references should be listed in numeric order at the end of the document. Unpublished works and personal communications (oral, written, and electronic) should be cited parenthetically (and not on the reference list). Superscript numbers are placed outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons.
    • For citation examples, please check AMA (11th Ed).
    • IMPORTANT NOTE: To encourage a faster production process of your article, you are requested to closely adhere to the points above for references. Otherwise, it will entail a long process of solving copyeditor’s queries and may directly affect the publication time of your article.

    6. Tables. They should be structured properly. Each table must have a clear and concise title.

    • They should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text.

    • For each Table, there must be a corresponding citation in the text and for each Table citation here must be a corresponding Table.

    7. Figures. They should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include figure captions. Figures will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially. The figure resolution should be 300dpi at the time of submission.

    8. Appendices. They should be lettered to distinguish from numbered tables and figures. Include a descriptive title for each appendix (e.g., “Appendix A. Variable Names and Definitions”). Cross-check text for accuracy against appendices.

    9. Footnotes. Footnotes should be avoided in text, but are allowed on the title page.

    4.2 Formatting
    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.3 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    Figures supplied in color will appear in color online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For specifically requested color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.4 Supplemental material
    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files.

    4.5 Reference style
    VES adheres to the AMA Manual of Style. View the guide here to ensure your manuscript conforms to this style.

    4.6 English language editing services
    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

    5. Submitting your manuscript
    VES is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID
    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission
    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions
    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production
    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. 

    6.2 Online First publication
    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article
    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article
    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

    7. Further information
    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process can be directed to the VES editorial office at

    7.1 Appealing the publication decision
    Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at

    Individual Subscription, E-access

    Individual Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

    Hospital Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

    Institutional Subscription, E-access

    Institutional Subscription & Backfile Lease, E-access Plus Backfile (All Online Content)

    Institutional Subscription, Print Only

    Institutional Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

    Institutional Subscription & Backfile Lease, Combined Plus Backfile (Current Volume Print & All Online Content)

    Institutional Backfile Purchase, E-access (Content through 1998)

    Individual, Single Print Issue

    Institutional, Single Print Issue