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Group & Organization Management

Group & Organization Management

An International Journal

eISSN: 15523993 | ISSN: 10596011 | Current volume: 47 | Current issue: 3 Frequency: Bi-monthly

For nearly forty years, Group & Organization Management has served as an international forum for the latest research and analysis in organizational behavior, organization theory, business strategy, and human resources. Whether you’re a scholar or practitioner, Group & Organization Management is your best resource for the new ideas and fresh perspectives you need to stay current in the field of organization studies.

Innovative and Rigorous

Group & Organization Management
is dedicated to publishing theoretically grounded research that addresses a wide range of issues within organizations. From individual behavior to organizational strategy and functioning, GOM features both empirical and theoretical articles spanning various levels of analysis in organizations. GOM’s conceptual and empirical focus gives scholars, educators, and practitioners the tools to help them solve the most challenging problems in today’s organizations.

Unlike most management journals, Group & Organization Management moves away from the boundaries of management subfields and encourages scholarship that challenges traditional distinctions among management scholars. The journal promotes the development of new paradigms and the explorations of paradigms from various disciplines.

Comprehensive Coverage

Each quarterly issue of Group & Organization Management publishes a broad range of articles, including data-based research articles, research review reports, evaluation studies, action research reports, and critiques of research. In addition, GOM brings you articles examining a wide range of topics in organizations from an international and cross-cultural perspective.

And, as an added bonus, Group & Organization Management extends its depth and immediacy of coverage by publishing Special Issues dedicated to important topics or proceedings from recent conferences.

In-Depth and Diverse

Whether you’re a scholar, educator, group facilitator, consultant, trainer, or manager, you’ll find Group & Organization Management brings you the information and discussion you need to excel in your career. GOM sheds new light on a variety of topics, including:

  • Leadership
  • Teamwork & Group Processes
  • Multi-level Theory
  • Organizational Communication
  • Strategic Management
  • Cross-Cultural and International Management
  • Macro OB
  • Organizational Cognition
  • Workplace Diversity

Group & Organization Management (GOM) publishes the work of scholars and professionals who extend management and organization theory and address the implications of this for practitioners.  Innovation, conceptual sophistication, methodological rigor, and cutting-edge scholarship are the driving principles.  Topics include teams, group processes, leadership, organizational behavior, organizational theory, strategic management, organizational communication, gender and diversity, cross-cultural analysis, and organizational development and change, but all articles dealing with individual, group, organizational and/or environmental dimensions are appropriate.  The journal provides an open forum for debate/synergy among diverging philosophical and methodological traditions in management, social sciences and the humanities, welcoming qualitative and quantitative research-based articles as well as critical research reviews and analyses.

Thomas J. Zagenczyk North Carolina State University, USA
Senior Associate Editor
Ted Baker Rutgers University, USA
Lucy L. Gilson University of Connecticut, USA
Stacey Kessler Kennesaw State University, USA
Michael Kukenberger University of New Hampshire, USA
Devaki Rau Northern Illinois University, USA
Mindy Shoss University of Central Florida, USA
Associate Editors
Sarah Bankins Macquarie University, Australia
Andrew Bennett Old Dominion University, USA
Richard Benton University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign, USA
Layla Branicki The Open University, UK
Tine Buyl Tilburg University, Netherlands
Jianhong Chen University of New Hampshire, USA
Kevin Cruz Georgia Southern University, USA
Rich DeJordy California State University, Fresno, USA
Ray Gibney PSU-Harrisburg, USA
Yannick Griep Radboud University, Netherlands
Anya Johnson The University of Sydney, Australia
Deanna Kennedy University of Washington Bothell, USA
Christian Kiewitz University of Dayton, USA
Don Kluemper University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Jeremy D. Meuser University of Illinois at Urban-Champaign, USA
Curt Moore Oklahoma State University, USA
Jonathan Pinto Imperial College London, UK
Tammy Rapp Ohio University, USA
Simon Restubog University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA
Hettie Richardson Texas Christian University, USA
Kristin L. Scott Clemson University, USA
Yuhyung Shin Hanyang University, South Korea
James M. Vardaman Mississippi State University, USA
Christopher Woodrow University of Reading, UK
Zhiqing Zhou Baruch College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York, USA
Luke Zhu York University, Canada
Editorial Review Panel
Garry Adams Auburn University, USA
Maryam Aldossari Aston Business School, UK
Frederik Anseel Ghent University, BE, Belgium
Maryana Arvin UNC-Charlotte, USA
Chad Autry University of Tennessee, USA
Doten Ayeni University of Edinburgh, UK
Dan Bachrach The University of Alabama, USA
Arnold B. Bakker Erasmus University Rotterdam, NL, Netherlands
Prasad Balkundi University at Buffalo, USA
Yehuda Baruch University of Southampton, UK
Gayle Baugh University of West Florida, USA
Bradford Bell Cornell University, USA
Andrew Bennett Old Dominion University, USA
Jeremy Bernerth San Diego State University, USA
Lorenzo Bizzi California State University at Fullerton, USA
Dane Blevins University of Central Florida, USA
Michelle Bligh Claremont Graduate University, USA
Robert Blomme Nyenrode Business Universiteit, Netherlands
Nikos Bozionelos EM Lyon Business School, France
Lee Brown Texas Women’s University, USA
Henri Burgers University of Queensland, Australia
Gaetane Caesens UC Lovain, Belgium
Jack Carson Appalachian State University, USA
Melissa Carsten Winthrop University, USA
Sara Chaudry University of London, UK
Tianxu Chen West Virginia University, USA
Jin Nam Choi Seoul National University, Korea
Mark Clark American University, USA
Michael Collins University of Queensland, Australia
Neil Conway Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Katherine Crawford Loyola University Chicago, USA
Lauren D'Innocenzo Drexel University, USA
Rob Davison University of Kansas, USA
Rein De Cooman University of Leuven, Belguim
Evangelia Demerouti Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Ceasar Douglas Florida State University, USA
Vanessa Druskat University of New Hampshire, USA
James H. Dulebohn Michigan State University, USA
Scott Dust Miami University (Ohio), USA
Robert Eisenberger Houston University, USA
Kimberly Ellis Florida Atlantic University, USA
Nathan Eva Monash University, Australia
W. Randy Evans University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA
Amanda Ferguson Northern Illinois University, USA
Lisa M. Finkelstein Northern Illinois University, USA
Kayla Follmer West Virginia University, USA
Michael Ford The University of Alabama, USA
Marion Fortin Toulouse University, USA
Yitzhak Fried Texas Tech University, USA
Mel Fugate Mississippi State University, USA
Vickie Coleman Gallagher Cleveland State University, USA
Yvonnne Garbers Kiel University, DE
Patrick Garcia Macquarie University, Australia
William L. Gardner Texas Tech University, USA
Lyndon Garrett Boston College, USA
Sabine Geurts Radboud University, Netherlands
Brenda Ghitelescu The College of New Jersey, USA
Peter Gianiodis Duquesne University, USA
Ray Gibney PSU-Harrisburg, USA
Thomas Greckhamer Louisiana State University, USA
Curtis Gregory Temple University, USA
Mark Geiger Duquesne University, USA
Travis Grosser University of Connecticut, USA
Hannes Guenter Maastricht University, Netherlands
Vishal Gupta University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama
Dana Haggard Missouri State University, USA
Daniel Halgin University of Kentucky, USA
N. Paul Harvey University of New Hampshire, USA
Long He York University, Canada
Ciaran Heavey University College Dublin, Ireland
Ralph Heidl University of Oregon, USA
Guido Hertel University of Munster, Germany
Daniel Holt Mississippi State University, USA
Joachim Hüffmeier Technische Universität Dortmund, Germany
Beth Humberd University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA
Didde Maria Humle Lund University, Denmark
Christine L. Jackson Purdue University, USA
Farid Jahantab Pennsylvania State University – Scranton, USA
Jim Jawahar Illinois State University, USA
Hana Huang Johnson Washington State University, USA
Min Kyu Joo University of Sydney, Australia
Samantha Jordon Florida State University, USA
Dustin Jundt Saint Louis University, USA
Elizabeth Karam Texas Tech University, USA
Steven Karau Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, USA
Joy Karriker East Carolina University, USA
Franz Kellermanns University of North Carolina-Charlotte, USA
Theodore Khoury Portland State University, USA
Kohyar Kiazad Monash University, Australia
Virginia Kidwell University of North Texas
Dejun (Tony) Kong University of Colorado Boulder, USA
Alison Konrad University of Western Ontario, CA
Johannes Kraak KEDGE Business School, France
Claire Kueny Missouri State University, USA
Kristine Kuhn Washington State University, USA
G. James Lemoine University of Buffalo, USA
Marcie LePine Arizona State University, USA
Gretchen Vogelgesang Lester San Jose State University, USA
Andrew Li West Texas A&M University, USA
Wendong Li Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
Wan-Chien Lien University of New Hampshire, USA
Chieh-Peng Lin National Chiao Tung University, TW
Robert Litchfield Washington & Jefferson College, USA
Gordon Liu Open University, UK
Andrew Loignon Louisiana State University, USA
Manuel London State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA
Misty Loughry Rollins College, USA
Kevin Lowe University of Sydney, Australia
Jeremy Mackey Auburn University, USA
Liam Maher Boise State University, USA
Jaclyn Margolis University of Pepperdine, USA
Joshua Marineau North Dakota State University, USA
Sophia Marinova University of Alabama Huntsville, USA
Russell A. Marion Clemson University, USA
Lauren Marler Mississippi State University, USA
Martin Martens Vancouver Island University, CA
Mark Martinko Florida A&M University, USA
M. Travis Maynard Colorado State University, USA
Charn McAllister Northern Arizona University, USA
Cynthia McCauley Center for Creative Leadership, USA
Kelly McCauley West Texas A&M University, USA
Lynn McFarland University of South Carolina, USA
Benjamin McLarty Mississippi State University, USA
Amy McMillan East Carolina University, USA
Salar Mesdaghinia Eastern Michigan University, USA
Jessica Mesmer-Magnus University of North Carolina at Wilmington, USA
Isabel Metz Melbourne Business School, Australia
Elisabeth Naima Mikkelsen Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Colleen Mills University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Sal Mistry University of Delaware, USA
Ronald K. Mitchell Texas Tech University, USA
Michael D. Mumford University of Oklahoma, USA
Christopher Myers Johns Hopkins University, USA
Pedro Neves Nova School of Business and Economics, Lisbon, Portugal
Karen Nicholas Boise State University, USA
Guy Notelaers Bergen University, Norway
Michael O'Leary Georgetown University, USA
Thomas O'Neil University of Calgary, Canada
Margaret Ormiston George Washington University, USA
Joshua Palmer Nevada State College, USA
T. K. Peng I-Shou University
Duygu Phillips Oklahoma State University, USA
Shaun M. Pichler California State University at Fullerton, USA
Rajnandini Pillai California State University, San Marcos, USA
Shani Pindek University of Haifa, Israel
Erin Powell NC State University, USA
Radostina Purvanova Drake University, USA
Russell Purvis Clemson University, USA
Narda Quigley Villanova University, USA
Sebastian Raetze Brandenburg University of Technology, DE
Brandon Randolph-Seng Texas A&M University, Commerce, USA
Abdul Rasheed University of Texas at Arlington, USA
Becky Reichard Claremont Graduate University, USA
Noellia-Sarah Reynolds Essex University, UK
Darryl Rice Miami University, USA
Orlando Richard University of Texas at Dallas, USA
Hettie Richardson Texas Christian University, USA
Julia Richardson Curtin Business School, Australia
Jason Ridge University of Arkansas Fayetteville, USA
Patrick Rosopa Clemson University, USA
Denise Rousseau Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Zachary A. Russell Xavier University, USA
Eduardo Salas Rice University, USA
Denise Salin Hanken School of Economics, Finland
Terri A. Scandura University of Miami, USA
M.J.D. (René) Schalk Tilburg University, NL
Joseph Schmidt University of Saskatchewan, CA, Canada
Andreas Schwab Iowa State University, USA
Birgit Schyns Durham University, UK
Rosalind Searle University of Glasgow, Scotland
Linda Shanock UNC-Charlotte, USA
Meir Shemla Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Marissa L. Shuffler Clemson University, USA
Maria Simosi University of London, UK
Robert Sinclair Clemson University, USA
Jarvis Smallfield University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA
John Paul Stephens Case Western Reserve University, USA
Florence Stinglhamber Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
Brendan Strejcek University of British Columbia, Canada
Sherry E. Sullivan Bowling Green State University, USA
Sun Young Sung Nanjing University, China
Shlomo Tarba University of Birmingham, UK
Shannon Taylor University of Central Florida, USA
Manuel J. Tejeda Barry University, USA
Amanuel Tekleab Wayne State University, USA
Amanda Thayer Florida Institute of Technology, USA
Christopher Thomas Saint Louis University, USA
Christian Thoroughgood Villanova University, USA
Andrew Timming RMIT University, Australia
Edward Tomlinson West Virginia University, USA
Nick Turner University of Calgary, Canada
Sijir Uitdewilligen Maastricht University, Netherlands
Christian Vandenberghe HEC Montreal, CA, Canada
Marijke Verbruggen University of Leuven, Belgium
Prajya R. Vidyarthi University of Texas at El Paso, USA
Ivana Vranjes Hanken School of Economics, Finland
H. Jack Walker Auburn University, USA
William P. Wan City University of Hong Kong, HK
Gang Wang The University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA
Sheng Wang University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Marvin Washington University of Alberta, CA, Canada
Todd Weber Central Washington University, USA
Liqun Wei Hong Kong Baptist University, USA
Anthony R. Wheeler University of Rhode Island, USA
Celeste Wilderom University of Twente, NL, Netherlands
Jessica Wildman Florida Institute of Technology, USA
Ethlyn Williams Florida Atlantic University, USA
Christopher Woodrow University of Reading, UK
Francis J. Yammarino State University of New York (SUNY) at Binghamton, USA
Emily Yarrow University of Portsmouth, UK
Kang Yang (Trevor) Yu Nanyang Technical University, SG, Singapore
Yumeng Yu University of Edinburgh, UK
Gary Yukl State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany, USA
Miles A. Zachary Auburn University, USA
Hannes Zacher Leipzig University, Germany
Dianhan Zheng Kennesaw State University, USA
Zhu Zhu Montclair State University, USA
Social Media Coordinator
Olivia Porcello University of Connecticut, USA
GOM Now Editorial Board
Layla Branicki The Open University, UK
Jeewon Cho Oregon State University, USA
Kevin Cruz Georgia Southern University, USA
Walter Davis University of Mississippi, USA
Bart Debicki University of Baltimore, USA
Rich DeJordy California State University, Fresno, USA
Deborah Diazgranados Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
Emilija Djurdjevic University of Rhode Island, USA
Keaton Fletcher Georgia Tech, USA
Peter Gianiodis Duquesne University, USA
Raymond Gibney PSU-Harrisburg, USA
Brad Harris Texas Christian University, USA
Oscar Holmes IV Rutgers University-Camden, USA
Joachim Hüffmeier Technische Universität Dortmund, Germany
Don Kluemper University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
Patricia Lanier University of Louisiana at Lafayette, USA
Jim Lemoine University at Buffalo, USA
Steele Logan University of South Florida, USA
Lee Macenczak Kennesaw State University, USA
Jeremy Mackey Auburn University, USA
Laura Madden East Carolina University, USA
Tim Madden East Carolina University, USA
Jaclyn Margolis University of Pepperdine, USA
Nancy McIntyre West Virginia University, USA
Ben McLarty Mississippi State University, USA
Salar Mesdaghinia Eastern Michigan University, USA
Jeremy Meuser University of Mississippi, USA
Gazica Michele Embry Riddle University, USA
Colleen Mills University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Shani Pindek University of Haifa, Israel
Radostina Purvanova Drake University, USA
Indu Ramachandran Texas State University, USA
Robert Randolph Kennesaw State University, USA
Devaki Rau Northern Illinois University, USA
Rebecca Reichard Claremont Graduate University, USA
Hettie Richardson Texas Christian University, USA
Eduardo Salas Rice University, USA
Birgit Schyns Durham University, UK
Jennifer Sexton Mississippi State University, USA
Mindy Shoss University of Central Florida, USA
Anit Somech University of Haifa, Israel
Paul Spector University of South Florida, USA
John Paul Stephens Case Western Reserve University, USA
Amanuel Tekleab Wayne State University, USA
Gretchen Vogelgesang Lester San Jose State University, USA
Dianhan Zheng Kennesaw State University, USA
Zhiqing Zhou Baruch College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York, USA
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines:

    Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to Authors will be required to set up an online account on the SAGETRACK system powered by ScholarOne. Your submission will be acknowledged electronically when received.

    Please be aware that you will be prompted to select from a pull-down menu five keywords describing your submission that will help us identify appropriate reviewers; your assurances that your submission is original (i.e., not published elsewhere) and is not currently under review elsewhere.

    In order to facilitate processing of submissions, please make sure that:

    • Your submission (including references) conforms to APA format as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition).
    • Files should be submitted in Microsoft Word format.
    • All text, including references, is double-spaced in 12-pitch or larger font with margins of one inch or more.
    • Your title page includes complete contact information for all authors, including mailing addresses, e-mail addresses, phone and fax numbers.
    • Your abstract is 250 words or less.
    • Your submission contains few and only necessary endnotes.
    • The text of your submission, including abstract, body of the paper, and references (but not including title page, tables, and figures), is no longer than 35 pages total.
    • Any prior publication of the data featured in the manuscript is explicitly acknowledged either in the manuscript or in the transmittal letter to the editor. Any forthcoming or "in press" articles which use the data should be forwarded to the editor with the submission.

    Any questions concerning electronic submission should be directed to the Editor at

    Authors who want to refine the use of English in their manuscripts might consider utilizing the services of SPi, a non-affiliated company that offers Professional Editing Services to authors of journal articles in the areas of science, technology, medicine or the social sciences. SPi specializes in editing and correcting English-language manuscripts written by authors with a primary language other than English. Visit for more information about SPi’s Professional Editing Services, pricing, and turn-around times, or to obtain a free quote or submit a manuscript for language polishing.

    Please be aware that SAGE has no affiliation with SPi and makes no endorsement of the company. An author’s use of SPi’s services in no way guarantees that his or her submission will ultimately be accepted. Any arrangement an author enters into will be exclusively between the author and SPi, and any costs incurred are the sole responsibility of the author.

    This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

    If your manuscript employs Confirmatory Factory Analysis (CFA), Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), and/or path analysis, use the tool linked below to calculate the degrees of freedom for the reported analyses. Check the consistency between the degrees of freedom from your original analyses and the calculator, and correct errors to eliminate discrepancies. Submit screen shots of the results from the Degrees of Freedom Calculator with your manuscript.



    As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of [X] peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.


    ANNOUNCEMENT: Final Methods Review Option for Conditional Acceptance Decisions of Manuscripts that Use Quantitative Methods

    For manuscripts that include quantitative analyses, please note that Group & Organization Management, has implemented an optional "methods review" step as part of the review process. That is, when such manuscripts reach the stage where the Action Editor is contemplating a "Conditional Acceptance" decision, he or she may request GOM’s Methods Associate Editor, Brian Miller, provide a final methods review. Specifically, a review of the methods and statistical analyses reported will be requested to ascertain if there is a need for additional information or clarification and/or any errors that require correction. The findings of this methods review will be taken into account by the Action Editor when issuing the subsequent editorial decision.


    GOM Now Guideline for Authors

    Since this manuscript approach is a bit different from traditional ones, we wanted to provide authors some additional guidance. Below is a rough outline of how to structure your article. Articles should consist about 2500 words (excluding online supplemental material).


    1. What is your research topic? Why is this topic important and timely? Why do business leaders at all levels need to know about your research?
    2. What is known about research in this area specifically relevant to the research reported in the manuscript?
    3. How does your manuscript add to the body of knowledge?
    4. Inclusion of a theoretical mechanism is optional.
    5. Include your hypotheses or research questions.
    6. It might be helpful to review medical and nursing journals. These fields tend to use shorter introductions than our field.


    1. In these sections, we are looking for you to provide your reader with the basic ideas. Who were the participants? How did you recruit them? What did you ask participants to do?   How did you collect data (e.g., measures you used for survey data)?    
    2. How did you analyze your data? What did you find (i.e., results)?
    3. You may use statistical terminology here, but just explain the terminology (i.e., do not assume your readers know terms like CFA and SEM).
    4. Methods/Results Appendix: Manuscripts must be methodologically sound for when someone “looks under the hood.” For example, here is where you can include full CFA results or statistics used to justify aggregating data. Just because you do not include some of these things in the manuscript, doesn’t mean they haven’t been done. Therefore, please include full methods/results sections as supplemental material. These sections should look like a traditional Methods/Results section. This will help speed up the review process. These sections will be published online so that readers can go a bit deeper if they choose. 


    1. Summarize what you found in one paragraph.
    2. Explain to the reader why these findings are important and helpful for practice, that is, why do the findings reported in the manuscript matter?
    3. Provide clear and useful practical implications. What should practitioners do with your findings? How do they apply your findings to the workplace?
    4. What are future research questions that we should be asking?



    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    Sage Choice

    If you or your funder wish your article to be freely available online to nonsubscribers immediately upon publication (gold open access), you can opt for it to be included in SAGE Choice, subject to payment of a publication fee. The manuscript submission and peer review procedure is unchanged. On acceptance of your article, you will be asked to let SAGE know directly if you are choosing SAGE Choice. To check journal eligibility and the publication fee, please visit SAGE Choice. For more information on open access options and compliance at SAGE, including self author archiving deposits (green open access) visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

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