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Chronic Illness

Chronic Illness

eISSN: 17459206 | ISSN: 17423953 | Current volume: 20 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Quarterly

Chronic Illness is a peer reviewed scholarly journal which provides a forum in which researchers from a wide range of disciplines, clinicians, policy makers, and people living with chronic illness come together to clarify the common principles underlying the experience and management of chronic illness. Specifically, it:

  • Publishes high quality original research
  • Informs practices and policies in relation to chronic illness
  • Provides rigorous insight into the experiences of people living with long term medical conditions.

Chronic Illness is an important journal for those who study, work with, manage or experience chronic illness. It integrates academic and clinical perspectives, and those of people living with long term medical conditions. It promotes new thinking about models of illness and care. It considers the range of appropriate clinical and psychosocial interventions, including organisational frameworks at the interface between primary and secondary care.

It encourages the study of emerging issues in early diagnostics; outcome based performance, data gathering and surveillance challenges; ageing and developmental issues; the changing self-perceptions of people with chronic illness; quality of life measures and interventions; medication concordance; and the efficacy of self-management strategies, group participation programmes and remote medical management.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Chronic illnesses are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely completely cured. The most common are cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke and heart failure), the arthritides, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and epilepsy. There is increasing evidence that mental illnesses such as depression are best understood as chronic health problems. HIV/AIDS has become a chronic condition in those countries where effective medication is available.

As life expectancy increases, so does the likelihood that people will become susceptible to chronic illness. Between 1996 and 2020, the population aged over 65 is projected to increase by about 82% globally (110% in less developed countries, and 40% in more developed countries). Chronic disease is now the main reason why people seek health care in the developed world. Because of the difficulty and duration of treatment, the costs of chronic health conditions are enormous: in the USA it now consumes 70% of health care spending [Holman H., Lorig K. Patients as partners in managing chronic disease. BMJ 2000, 320.526-7].

Awareness is increasing that similar strategies can be effective in treating many different conditions. These are likely to involve the proactive identification of relevant populations; to provide support for the relationship between people living with long term health conditions and health and social care professionals; to develop evidence-based care guidelines which emphasise the prevention of exacerbation and complications; and promote empowerment strategies for people living with chronic illness, such as self-management and education. They also require continuous evaluation of clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes.

Matthew Sorenson Texas A&M University, USA
Associate Editors
Michelle Judge University of Connecticut, USA
Editorial Board Member
Joan Austin Indiana University, USA
Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
Malcolm W Battersby Flinders University, Australia
Pim Cuijpers Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands
Walid El Ansari University of Gloucestershire, UK
Andrew Farmer University of Oxford, UK
Linda Gask University of Manchester, UK
Brian Hurwitz Kings College London, UK
Adria D A Kaptein Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands
Cindy Lam University of Hong Kong, China
Carl May University of Southampton, UK
Ilse Mesters Maastricht University, Netherlands
Sania Nishtar Heartfile, Pakistan
John Piette Centre for Practice Management, USA
K. Srinath Reddy Public Health Foundation of India, India
Juan Angel Bellon Saameno Centro de Salud El Palo, Spain
Eileen Savage University College Cork (NUI), Ireland
Ezra Susser Columbia University, USA
Claus Vogele University of Surrey Roehampton, UK
  • British Nursing Index
  • Clarivate Analytics: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)
  • Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature CINAHL
  • EMBASE/Excerpta Medica
  • EMCare
  • PubMed: MEDLINE
  • SciVal
  • Scopus
  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Chronic Illness will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.1.1 Declarations
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.7 Clinical trials
      2.8 Reporting guidelines
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to Chronic Illness, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article Types

    The journal publishes original papers, reviews, discussions of topical issues and case studies. The suggested word counts only refer to the body of the text and exclude references etc.

    Summary of manuscript structure:

    Chronic Illness adheres to a double-anonymize reviewing policy in which the identity of both the reviewer and author are always concealed from both parties. Your title page should be submitted separately and there should be no author identifiers in the manuscript.

    When preparing your paper:
    Review papers, discussion papers, and papers including substantive qualitative research should be no more than 5,000 words in length, excluding structured abstracts, quantitative tables and figures, and references. We welcome systematic reviews and syntheses on areas of interest and importance to those concerned with chronic illness. A clear research question and a description of methods, including search strategies and quality appraisal, should be provided. Methods for synthesis, including meta-analysis, narrative summary, meta-ethnography etc., should be clearly explained. Quantitative research papers should be no more than 3000 words in length, excluding structured abstracts, tables and figures, and references.

    Short reports, commentaries on classic papers and patients' comments should be no more than 1,000 words in length, excluding abstracts, tables and figures, and references. These are a useful method for reporting circumscribed research where the study or the results may not justify a full report. It does not imply a lower standard for the quality of the work reported. The guidance is the same as for original articles with the following exceptions: the summary need not be a structured abstract; authors should limit themselves to no more than ten references and two figures or tables.

    Original papers
    Should include:

    • Title page: (1) title of the article; (2) first name(s) or initial(s) and surname of each author; (3) address of the department or institution to which the work should be attributed; (4) full postal address of each author; (5) name, telephone, email address and fax number of the author responsible for correspondence and to whom requests for offprints should be sent. (This is particularly important where the corresponding author is not the first named author.)
    • Abstract (<200 words): a short inclusive statement suitable for direct electronic abstracting identifying the purpose of the study, key methods, the main results and the main conclusion. Structured abstracts are essential for research and review papers, and should be submitted under the headings: objectives, methods, results, and discussion.
    • Key words: maximum of 5 key words for indexing.
    • Introduction: concise description of background, sufficient for the non-specialist to appreciate the context of the work. Clear statement of the purpose of the study. Authors should avoid obviously partisan selection and quotation of literature.
    • Methods: should demonstrate a clear and documented design or strategy directed towards a specific research question. The study design should be appropriate to the aims of the study and be clearly described. The criteria for selecting the sample should be clearly described and justified. A clear description of sampling, recruitment to the study, data collection, and data analysis should be provided. Full details of interventions should be given for intervention studies. This section should also include details of approval from a named Research Ethics Committee, and any arrangements for data oversight.
    • Results: should contain all the information required by referees and readers to assess the validity of the conclusions. The characteristics of the sample included in the study should be clearly described. For quantitative studies, the section should include details of the response rates and numbers lost to follow-up. The analysis should be clear and systematic. Results of statistical tests should be reported with confidence intervals in order to provide an estimate of precision. No more than six tables should be included.
    • Discussion: an interpretation of the study placed within the context of current knowledge leading to specific conclusions where possible. We recommend that this covers the following sections, using sub-headings: summary of main findings; the strengths and the limitations of this study; how and why it agrees or disagrees with the existing literature, in particular including any papers published since the study was designed and carried out; the implications for future research or clinical practice.
    • Each of the above sections should use subheadings as appropriate.
    • Acknowledgements.
    • References (ideally max. 25), figures and tables (see 9.4.3 for more details).
    • Patient comments: we welcome submissions of articles, including comments on published papers, from people who experience chronic illness or their carers
    • Commentaries on classic papers: these will normally be commissioned, but the Editor will also be pleased to consider unsolicited copy.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    Chronic Illness adheres to a double-anonymize reviewing policy in which the identity of both the reviewer and author are always concealed from both parties. Each manuscript is reviewed by at least two referees. Referees will be encouraged to provide substantive, constructive reviews that provide suggestions for improving the work and distinguish between mandatory and non-mandatory recommendations.

    All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible.

    As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of 3 peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission,
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors,
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted.

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite/reject any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    2.1.1 Declarations

    **Please note that all manuscripts should be accompanied by aseparate document entitled Declarations**

    Please read the Declarations guidelines for authors, available here carefully before submitting your Declarations document.

    This should be submitted under the file designation ‘Declarations’. This must include each of the below headings with the corresponding information. Please note that manuscripts which do not include these Declarations will be returned. These headings will be published at the end of every accepted manuscript, where one of these headings is not applicable please indicate as such under the heading.

    1. Conflicting interests 
    2. Funding 
    3. Informed consent
    4. Ethical approval
    5. Guarantor 
    6. Contributorship
    7. Acknowledgements

    Example of a completed Declarations document:

    Conflicting interests: MS is an employee of XXX. BF has received grants from XXX. 
    Funding: This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number XXX]
    Informed consent: Written informed consent was obtained from the patient(s) for their anonymized information to be published in this article.
    Ethical approval: Ethical approval for this study was obtained from *NAME OF ETHICS COMMITTEE OR INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (APPROVAL NUMBER/ID)*.
    Guarantor: BF
    Contributorship: BF and NP researched literature and conceived the study. MS was involved in protocol development, gaining ethical approval, patient recruitment and data analysis. BF wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors reviewed and edited the manuscript and approved the final version of the manuscript
    Acknowledgements: We would like to thank XXX XXXX for his assistance and guidance in this research.
    Please read the following information carefully for additional information regarding these declarations.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    (i)    Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    (ii)    Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    (iii)    Approved the version to be published,
    (iv)    Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    •    Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input 
    •    Identify any entities that paid for this assistance 
    •    Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.4 Funding

    Chronic Illness requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Chronic Illness to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the ARRIVE guidelines.

    2.7 Clinical trials

    Chronic Illness conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives


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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Chronic Illness and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway.

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Chronic Illness offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    All submissions should be written in a clear and succinct manner, following the style of the journal. The title page should include a descriptive title, authors’ surnames and forenames, address of each author and full address, telephone, fax and email contacts for the corresponding author. In text: tables and figures are either inserted as part of a sentence, for example table 1 or in parentheses for example (figure 1). Each table should carry a descriptive heading. Each figure should be submitted electronically.

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines. 

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    Images should be supplied as bitmap based files (i.e. with .tiff or .jpeg extension) with a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per inch). Line art should be supplied as vector-based, separate .eps files (not as .tiff files, and not only inserted in the Word or pdf file), with a resolution of 600 dpi. Images should be clear, in focus, free of pixilation and not too light or dark.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    4.4 Reference style

    Chronic Illness adheres to the Sage Vancouver reference style. View the Sage Vancouver guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the Sage Vancouver EndNote output file

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Chronic Illness is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    If you would like to discuss your paper prior to submission, or seek advice on the submission process please contact the Editor-in-Chief, Matthew Sorenson (

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.


    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. 

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Chronic Illness editorial office as follows:

    Matthew Sorenson, Editor in Chief

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