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Biological Research For Nursing

Biological Research For Nursing

Integrating Biobehavioral Research into Health Care

eISSN: 15524175 | ISSN: 10998004 | Current volume: 26 | Current issue: 1S Frequency: Quarterly

One of the greatest challenges in nursing today is how to integrate information from many basic disciplines—biology, physiology, chemistry, engineering, education, communication, and the social sciences—into nursing research, theory, and clinical practice. Biological Research for Nursing is the only publication that helps nurse researchers, educators, and practitioners meet this important challenge by focusing on biological and physiological changes in healthy and unhealthy populations from a nursing perspective.

Published quarterly, this journal offers peer-reviewed original and systematic review articles focused on:

  • Normal and abnormal biological phenomena, such as stress, pain management, and wound healing.
  • Improvements in healthcare interventions/techniques developed through biological and physiological research.
  • New methods, instruments, and techniques for biological and physiological health research.
  • Pathophysiology and the biological foundations of nursing practice.
Biological Research for Nursing features original research papers, systematic reviews/meta-analyses/theoretical articles, and conference summaries that relate to nursing care written by scientists and researchers in nursing and the basic sciences, such as:

  • Genetics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Microbiology
  • Reproduction
  • Neuroscience
  • Pharmacology
  • Infectious Disease
  • Oncology
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Pulmonary Disease
  • Immunology
  • Endocrinology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Hematology
  • Neonatology
  • Nephrology
  • Nutrition and Exercise

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Created to fill the gap between nursing science and basic science, Biological Research for Nursing offers a lively forum for empirical and methodological issues related to normal and abnormal physiological functions that can affect nursing care. Published quarterly, the scope of the journal includes but is not limited to:

  • Normal and abnormal biological phenomena, such as stress, pain management, and wound healing.
  • Improvements in healthcare interventions/techniques developed through biological and physiological research.
  • New methods, instruments, and techniques for biological and physiological health research.
  • Pathophysiology and the biological foundations of nursing practice.
Carolyn B. Yucha, RN, PhD, FAAN Professor and Dean Emeritus, School of Nursing, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Associate Editor
Barbara St. Pierre Schneider, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor, Endowed Chair, University of Texas, Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA
Managing Editor, Emeritus
Marnie Wiss, BA Gainesville, FL, USA
Founding Editors
Patsy A. Perry, PhD, RN Arizona State University, USA
Christine E. Kasper, PhD, RN, FAAN, FACSM Graduate School of Nursing at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Editorial Board
Sheila A. Alexander, PhD, RN, FCCM Associate Professor, School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Flávia Figueiredo Azevedo, PhD Professor, Nursing Department, Technical High School of Campinas (COTUCA), State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Sivia Barnoy, RN, PhD Associate Professor, Nursing Department, School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Robert L. Burr, MSEE, PhD Research Professor Emeritus, Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Informatics, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
Barbara Waag Carlson, PhD, RN Robert and Doris Klabzuba Professor of Nursing and Associate Dean for Research, Fran and Earl Ziegler College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA
Ann Cashion, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor Emerita, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA
Omar Cauli, PharmD, MD, PhD Associate Professor and Director of Master in Nursing Oncology, Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Catherine Cherwin, PhD, RN Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
Yvette Conley, PhD, FAAN Professor of Nursing and Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
María Correa-Rodríguez, PhD, RN Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada, Spain
Elizabeth J. Corwin, PhD, RN, FAAN Vice Dean for Research, Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, NY, USA
Patricia Cowan, PhD, RN, FAAN Dean and Professor, College of Nursing, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
Chad L. Cross, PhD, PStat® Associate Graduate Faculty Professor, School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Deana Davalos, PhD Professor, Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO, USA
Georgina L. Dobek, DVM, DACLAM Director, Department of Comparative Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA
Jennifer R. Dungan, PhD, RN Associate Professor, Department of Biobehavioral Nursing Science, University of Florida College of Nursing, Gainesville, FL, USA
Melissa Spezia Faulkner, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Lewis Distinguished Chair in Nursing, Byrdine F. Lewis College of Nursing & Health Professions, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Du Feng, PhD Professor, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Maureen Wimberly Groër, PhD, RN, FAAN Gordon Keller Professor, College of Nursing, University of South Florida, Tampa, Tampa, FL, USA
Margaret McLean Heitkemper, PhD, RN, FAAN Elizabeth Sterling Soule Chair and Chairperson, Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Informatics, Co-Director, Center for Innovation in Sleep Self Management, School of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Kathleen Insel, PhD, RN Professor, College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Paule Valery Joseph, PhD, MS, FNP-BC, CTN-B Lakser Clinical Research Scholar, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD, USA
Maria Dyah Kurniasari, PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga City, Central Java, Indonesia
Deborah A. Lekan, PhD, RN-BC Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA
Adetola Louis-Jacques, MD Assistant Professor, Morsani College of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Nursing, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA
Donna McCarthy, PhD RN Professor Emeritus, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, USA
Victoria Menzies, PhD, APRN, FAAN Associate Professor, College of Nursing, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Christine Miaskowski, RN, PhD, FAAN Professor and Vice Chair for Research, Department of Physiological Nursing, American Cancer Society Clinical Research Professor and Sharon Lamb Endowed Chair in Symptom Management Research, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, USA
Todd B. Monroe, PhD, RN, FNAP, FGSA, FAAN Distinguished Professor of Aging Research, The Ohio State University College of Nursing, Columbus, OH, USA
Tiffany A. Moore, PhD, RN Associate Professor, College of Nursing, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
Madalynn Neu, PhD, RN, FAAN Associate Professor, College of Nursing, University of Colorado, Nurse Scientist, Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA
Karen Pridham, PhD, RN, FAAN Helen Denne Schulte Professor Emerita, School of Nursing, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Gholam Rasul Mohammad Rahimi, PhD Vahdat Institute of Higher Education, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran
Sharon L. Ruyak, PhD, CNM, RN Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
Karen L. Saban, PhD, RN, APRN, CNRN, FAHA, FAAN Professor and Associate Dean of Research and Scholarly Innovation, Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Joseph I. Shapiro, MD Dean and Professor of Medicine, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA
Leslie-Faith Taub, PhD, ANP-C, GNP-BC, CDE, CBSM, CME (DOT), FAANP Clinical Associate Professor and Director, Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Program, Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, USA
Pei-Shan Tsai, PhD, RN, BCIA Distinguished Professor, School of Nursing, Dean, Office of Global Engagement, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
Reba Umberger, PhD, RN, CCRN-K Loewenberg College of Nursing, University of Memphis, Tennessee, USA
JoEllen Wilbur, PhD, APN, FAAN Professor and Endowed Independence Foundation Chair in Nursing, Associate Dean for Research, College of Nursing, Rush University, Chicago, IL, USA
Michelle L. Wright, PhD, RN, FAAN Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA
Feng Zhang, PhD, RN Associate Professor and Academic Leader, Department of Nursing, Xingling College, School of Nursing, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
  • Clarivate Analytics: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)
  • EBSCO: Academic Search Premier
  • EBSCO: Business Source - Main Edition
  • EBSCO: Health Source - Nursing/Academic Edition
  • Index Medicus
  • PubMed Central: NIH Participation
  • PubMed: MEDLINE
  • SciSearch
  • Scopus
  • Vocational Search
  • Please read the guidelines below then visit the Biological Research For Nursing (BRN)’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    Sage Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of BRN will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that BRN will consider submissions of papers that have been posted on preprint servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If an article that has been posted to a preprint server is accepted for publication, the author may reuse their work according to the journal's author archiving policy. Additionally, if accepted, authors must include a link on their preprint to the final version of the paper.


    1. What do we publish?
    1.1 Aims & scope
    1.2 Writing your paper

    2. Editorial policies
    2.1 Peer review policy
    2.2 Authorship
    2.3 Acknowledgments
    2.4 Funding
    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
    2.7 Clinical trials
    2.8 Reporting guidelines
    2.9 Research data

    3. Publishing policies
    3.1 Publication ethics
    3.2 Contributors’ publishing agreement
    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    4. Preparing your manuscript
    4.1 Manuscript checklist
    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    4.3 Supplemental material
    4.4 Reference style
    4.5 English language editing services

    5. Submitting your manuscript
    5.1 ORCID
    5.2 Information required for completing your submission
    5.3 Permissions

    6. On acceptance and publication
    6.1 Sage production
    6.2 Online First publication
    6.3 Access to your published article
    6.4 Promoting your article

    7. Further information 


    1. What do we publish?


    1.1 Aims & scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to BRN, please ensure that you have read the Aims & Scope. Manuscripts will be initially reviewed by the editor to ensure appropriateness for the journal. Note that BRN only publishes manuscripts that have a biological or physiological focus or measure.

    1.2 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.


    2. Editorial policies


    2.1 Peer review policy

    BRN adheres to a rigorous double-anonymize reviewing policy in which the identity of both the reviewer and author are always concealed from both parties.

    As part of the submission process you will be invited to provide the names of peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the following: 

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    You will also be invited to indicate peers whom you do not wish to review your manuscript (opposed reviewers).

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite/reject any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    BRN is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third-party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for the journal can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship by meeting all of the following criteria:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published,
    4. Participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.3 Acknowledgments

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgments separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    •    Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input 
    •    Identify any entities that paid for this assistance 
    •    Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g., from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgments section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance—including the individual’s name, company and level of input—and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    BRN requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding. If there was no outside funding support, state, “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.”

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of BRN to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors, enabling a statement to be carried within the pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a Declaration of Conflicting Interests statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgments and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state, “The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest.” For guidance on conflict-of-interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    All papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent, but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    2.7 Clinical trials

    BRN conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure, and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure, and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    2.9. Research data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

    3. Publishing policies


    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    BRN and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism and other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an author, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgment, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to, publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction), retracting the article, taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies, or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or, if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement      

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement, which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and license to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    BRN offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.


    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission


    4.1 Manuscript checklist

    Manuscripts submitted should conform to the following:

    • Manuscripts should be written in English, and all copy should be double spaced. Style should conform generally to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition).
    • Manuscripts should generally be no more than 25 pages in length, including text, references, figures and tables. Reports of pilot or feasibility studies should be no longer than 15 pages. Authors submitting manuscripts that exceed these page limits should send a query letter via email to the editor-in-chief explaining the need for additional length. Any information that compromises the anonymity of the author(s) should be removed or anonymised. This version will be sent to the peer reviewers.See for detailed guidance on making an anonymous submission.
    • A separate file containing a title page, including the title and a short running title, all authors’ names (indicate which author will serve as corresponding author), and the institution(s) from which the paper originates should be uploaded. Include also affiliation, position, and e-mail address for each author and a current mailing address and phone and fax numbers for the corresponding author. Indicate total number of pages, illustrations, and tables. Any funding or other acknowledgments should also be included in this file. This material will be kept separate from the rest of the manuscript throughout the double-anonymize review process.
    • Manuscripts should begin with a succinct abstract, not to exceed 250 words, in a form acceptable to most abstracting services, followed by three to six keywords.
    • References should be listed sequentially in alphabetical order according to the last name of the first author. References should include only sources that are cited in the text. Additionally, only papers published or in press may be included in the reference list. Papers should be cited in the text by author(s) and year.
    • Tables and illustrations should be submitted on separate pages in a form appropriate for direct reproduction. These pages may be embedded at the end of the main manuscript file or may be submitted as separate files. In preparing figures, authors should consider page format and letter size after final reproduction.
    • A list of figure captions should follow the references. A brief title and description of each illustration should be included. These are to be typed consecutively on the same page(s).
    • Abbreviations should be introduced in parentheses after the first occurrence of the term being abbreviated.

    For reports of empirical studies, include the following:

    • An introduction that provides a brief review of background material and clearly delineates the purpose of the study.
    • A materials and methods section that provides sufficient detail for qualified investigators to replicate the study. Reference to published procedures by appropriate and succinct summary with citation is encouraged but should not be used to replace adequate methodological description. The journal endorses the Declaration of Helsinki and the U.S. National Institutes of Health Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. It is an expectation that authors have conscientiously and consistently followed principles and practices in accord with these documents in experiments involving human subjects and experimental animals.
    • A results section that provides a clear and concise description of the findings with appropriate reference to illustrations and tables.
    • A discussion section that includes a summary of the main findings, their relation to other published work in the area, and a statement of their significance, including relevance to nursing practice.

    For theoretical, methodological, and invited papers:

    • The papers should be organized in an appropriate, logical format for the material being addressed.
    • Theoretical papers will be evaluated on their relevance to the focus of the journal, internal consistency, and the extent to which they contribute to advancement of knowledge of biological issues related to health and/or illness.

    Authors of systematic reviews or meta-analyses:

    • Should utilize the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) checklist and flow diagram to maximize the transparency of reporting in these manuscripts.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines  

    Figures supplied in color will appear in color online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For specifically requested color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g., datasets, podcasts, videos, images, etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files

    4.4 Reference style

    BRN adheres to the APA 7 reference style. View the APA guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.


    5. Submitting your manuscript

    BRN is hosted on Sage Track, a web-based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process, Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes one researcher from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that with your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all coauthors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account, and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all coauthors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway


    6. On acceptance and publication           


    6.1 Sage production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal Sage Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly in the proofs or sent to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details, are correct and that funding and conflict of interest statements, if any, are accurate. 

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

    6.4.1 Make your article discoverable

    For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online


    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the BRN editorial office as follows:

    Carolyn B. Yucha, RN, PhD, FAAN, Editor

    Individual Subscription, E-access

    Individual Subscription, Print Only

    Individual Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

    Institutional Subscription, E-access

    Institutional Subscription, Print Only

    Institutional Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

    Individual, Single Print Issue

    Institutional, Single Print Issue