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Journal of Travel Research

Journal of Travel Research

Published in Association with: Travel and Tourism Research Association

eISSN: 15526763 | ISSN: 00472875 | Current volume: 63 | Current issue: 6 Frequency: 8 Times/Year

The Journal of Travel Research (JTR) is the premier, peer-reviewed research journal focusing on the business of travel and tourism development, management, marketing, economics and behavior. JTR provides researchers, educators, and professionals with up-to-date, high quality research on behavioral trends and management theory for one of the most influential and dynamic industries. Founded in 1961, JTR is the oldest of the world’s top-ranked scholarly journals focused exclusively on travel and tourism, reflecting the worldwide importance of tourism, both economically and socially.

Published by SAGE, an international leader in social science and business publishing, JTR publishes the most current and influential scholarship on travel and tourism.

The Journal of Travel Research publishes state-of-the-art research on the most important trends and issues in travel and tourism. JTR offers an international and multidisciplinary perspective on the best development and management practices by publishing research which enhances knowledge of important travel and tourism phenomena. JTR thereby contributes to the development of theory which enables improvements in tourism development policy and strategy; managerial practice; economic, social and environmental outcomes; and education and training programs.

All manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Travel Research are double-blind, peer-reviewed by leading tourism scholars. The JTR editorial review board includes top tourism scholars identified on the basis of their current research and scholarly contributions.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The mission of the Journal of Travel Research is to be the premier, peer-reviewed research journal focused on the business of travel and tourism development, management, marketing, economics and behavior. Given the multifaceted, multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder character of the tourism economy, this focus implies a concern for both the public and private sector spheres of interest as well as economic, socio-cultural, political, environmental, legal, technological, and demographic issues. Specific goals are to be international in scope with geographic diversity, to be multidisciplinary with diversity in research topics and methodologies, and to be germane to the needs of the travel and tourism industry and its stakeholders.

All manuscripts published in the Journal of Travel Research are double-blind, peer-reviewed by accomplished scholars in the topical area. The standard for publication in the Journal of Travel Research is that a paper must make a substantive contribution, either theoretically or methodologically, to the travel and tourism research literature. Additionally, a paper should specify its contribution to pragmatic tourism management concerns and practice.

Published manuscripts must be on research of the highest standards, on topics of major significance and widespread interest, and relevant to the progress of this important global sector.

Nancy G. McGehee Virginia Tech, USA
James F. Petrick Texas A&M University, USA
Past Editors
Geoffrey I. Crouch La Trobe University, Australia
Charles R. Goeldner University of Colorado, USA
Richard R. Perdue Virginia Tech University, USA
Editorial Policy Board
Kathleen L. Andereck Arizona State University West, USA
Richard R. Perdue Virginia Tech University, USA
Muzaffer Uysal University of Massachusetts, USA
Editorial Review Board
karen Pei-Sze Tan Middle Tennessee State, USA
Graziano Abrate University of Piemonte Orientale, Italy
Issahaku Adam University of Cape Coast, Ghana, Africa
Jorge Araña Universidad de Las palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Albert Assaf University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Guy Assaker Lebanese American University, Lebanon
George Athanasopoulos Monash University, Australia
Carla Barbieri North Carolina State University, USA
Giovanni Bella University of Cagliari, Italy
Pierre Benckendorff University of Queensland, Australia
Stefanie Benjamin University of Tennessee, USA
Pietro Beritelli University of St Gallen, Switzerland
Bynum Boley University of Georgia, USA
Soyoung Boo Georgia State University, USA
Kelly Bricker Arizona State University, USA
Daniela Buzova University of Valencia, Spain
Wenjie Cai University of Greenwich, UK
Robin Chark University of Macau, Macau SAR, China
Chun-Chu "Bamboo" Chen Washington State University, USA
Ganghua Chen Sun Yat-sen University, China
Jason Chen University of Surrey, UK
Nan Chen Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Choongbeom Choi University of Nevada, Las Vegas, USA
Scott Cohen University of Surrey, UK
Antónia Correia Universidade Europeia, Portugal
John Crotts College of Charleston, USA
Glauber Eduardo de Oliveira Santos University of São Paulo, Brazil
Giacomo Del Chiappa University of Sassari, Italy
Ning Deng Bejing International Studies University, China
Astrid Dickinger MODUL University, Austria
Alana Dillette San Diego State University, USA
Tarik Dogru Florida State University, USA
Yuksel Ekinci University of Portsmouth, UK
Youngjoon Choi Ewha Ewha Womans University, Korea
David Fennell Brock University, Canada
Paolo Figini University of Bologna, Italy
Raffaele Filieri Audencia Business School, France
Isabelle Frochot Universite de Savoie, France
Jennifer Frost Latrobe University, Australia
Rachel Fu University of Florida, USA
Matthias Fuchs Mid-Sweden University, Sweden
Jie Gao San Jose State University, USA
Sarah Gardiner Griffith University, Australia
Ulrike Gretzel University of Southern California, USA
Daniel Guttentag College of Charleston, USA
Kirstin Hallmann German Sport University Cologne, Germany
Jin-Xing Hao Beihang University, China
Zeya He Shandong University, China
Juan Maria Hernandez University of Las Palmas, Spain
Sameer Hosany Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Yuansi Hou University of Macau, China
Cathy H. C. Hsu Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Songshan (Sam) Huang Edith Cowan University, Australia
Kam Hung Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Twan Huybers University of New South Wales, Australia
Muhammad Ismail Hossain University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Guoqiong Ivanka Huang Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Evan Jordan Indiana University, USA
Alexander Josiassen Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Marion Karl University of Surrey, UK
Dae-Young Kim University of Missouri, USA
Hany Kim Pusan National University, South Korea
Jae-Eun Kim University of Auckland, New Zealand
Jungkeun Kim Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Myungja Kim Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Peter Kim Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Seongseop "Sam" Kim Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Andrei Kirilenko University of Florida, USA
Whitney Knollenburg North Carolina State University, USA
Florian Kock Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Nada Kulendran Victoria University, Australia
Patrick L'Espoir Decosta Australian National University, Australia
Christian Laesser University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Kun Lai Sun Yat-sen University, China
Rob Law University of Macau, China
Jenny (Jiyeon) Lee University of New South Wales, Australia
Seoki Lee Pennsylvania State University, USA
Timothy Lee University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia
Patrick Legohérel University of Angers, France
Laura Lesar Flinders University, Australia
Xi Yu Leung University of North Texas, USA
Michael Lever University of Guelph, Canada
Maria Lexhagen Mittuniversitetet, Sweden
Gang Li Deakin University, Australia
Gang Li University of Surrey, UK
Hengyun Li Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Mimi Li Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Xiang (Robert) Li Temple University, USA
Shanshan Lin Zhejiang University, China
Nathan Line Florida State University, USA
Stephen W. Litvin College of Charleston, USA
Hongbo Liu University of Surrey, UK
Judith Mair University of Queensland, Australia
Marcello Mariani University of Reading, UK
Lorenzo Masiero University of Bologna, Italy
Carla Massidda University of Cagliari, Italy
Anna Mattila Pennsylvania State University, USA
Fang Meng University of South Carolina, USA
Tanja Mihalic University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Birgit Muskat Australian National University, Australia
Sarah Nicholls Swansea University, UK
Juan Luis Nicolau Virginia Tech, USA
Robin Nunkoo University of Mauritius, Mauritius
Hossein Olya University of Sheffield, UK
Irem Önder MODUL University, Austria
Harmen Oppewal Monash University, Austalia
Bing Pan The Pennsylvania State University, USA
Sangwon Park Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Mike Peters University of Innsbruck, Austria
Nicolas Peypoch University of Perpignan Via Domitia, France
Christoff Pforr Curtin University, Australia
Girish Prayag University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Nina Katrine Prebensen University of South-Eastern Norway, Norway
Elisabetta Raguseo Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Haywantee Rumi Ramkissoon University of South Australia, Australia
S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh Edith Cowan University, Australia
Arie Reichel Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Stephan Reinhold Linnaeus University, Sweden
Manuel Alector Ribeiro University of Surrey, UK
Brent Ritchie University of Queensland, Australia
Shrabani Saha Lincoln University, New Zealand
Neelu Seetaram Leeds Beckett University, UK
Tina Šegota University of Greenwich, UK
Mojtaba Shahvali Breda University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Abhinav Sharma Florida State University, USA
Hakseung Shin Hanyang University, Korea
Mariana Sigala University of New Castle, Australia
Wayne Smith Ryerson University, Canada
Kevin Kam Fung So Oklahoma State University, USA
Haiyan Song Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Joelle Soulard University of Illinois, USA
Svetlana Stepchenkova University of Florida, USA
Jason Stienmetz MODUL University, Austria
Courtney Suess-Raeisinafchi Texas A&M University, USA
Babak Taheri Texas A&M University, USA
David Tan American University of the Middle East, Kuwait and Macquarie University, Australia
Dewi Tojib Monash Business School, Australia
Serene TSE Ningbo University-University of Angers, China
Charis Tucker University of Illinois, USA
Vincent Tung Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Natan Uriely Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
Giampaolo Viglia University of Portsmouth, UK
Huy Quan Vu Deakin University, Australia
Gabrielle Walters University of Queensland, Australia
Dan Wang Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Yichuan Wang Sheffield University Management School, UK
Ying Wang The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
Yuan Wang East China Normal University, China
Philipp Wassler University of Bergamo, Italy
John Williams University of Otago, New Zealand
IpKin Anthony Wong University of Macau, China
Emma Wood Leeds Beckett University, UK
Kyle Woosnam University of Georgia, USA
Doris Chenguang Wu Sun Yat-sen University, China
Laurie Wu Temple University, USA
Mao-Ying Wu Zhejiang University, China
Zheng Xiang Virginia Tech, USA
Honggen Xiao Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Alan Xiling Xiong Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, China
Fiona Yang University of Macao, China
Wan Yang California Polytechnic Pomona, USA
Yang Yang Temple University, USA
Emily Yeager East Carolina University, USA
Florian Zach Virginia Tech, USA
Bozana Zekan MODUL University, Austria
Honglei Zhang Nanjing University, China
Ye Zhang Florida Atlantic University, USA
Yingsha Zhang Sun Yat-sen University, China
Qilou Zou Jiangsu Second Normal University, China
Suiwen Zou University of Illinois, USA
Bing Zuo Sun Yat-sen University, China
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