Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism
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Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism

2015 Impact Factor: 4.929
2015 Ranking: 41/256 in Neurosciences | 22/133 in Endocrinology & Metabolism | 14/70 in Hematology
2016 Release of Journal Citation Reports, Source: 2015 Web of Science Data

Editors-in-Chief
Martin Lauritzen, MD Rigshospitalet - Glostrup and University of Copenhagen, Denmar
I. Mhairi Macrae Glasgow University, UK


eISSN: 15597016 | ISSN: 0271678X | Current volume: 37 | Current issue: 4 Frequency: Monthly
JCBFM is the official journal of the International Society for Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, which is committed to publishing high quality, independently peer-reviewed research and review material. JCBFM stands at the interface between basic and clinical neurovascular research, and features timely and relevant research highlighting experimental, theoretical, and clinical aspects of brain circulation, metabolism and imaging. The journal is relevant to any physician or scientist with an interest in brain function, cerebrovascular disease, cerebral vascular regulation and brain metabolism, including neurologists, neurochemists, physiologists, pharmacologists, anesthesiologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neuropathologists and neuroscientists.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism stands at the interface between basic and clinical neurovascular research, and features timely and relevant research highlighting experimental, theoretical, and clinical aspects of brain circulation, metabolism and imaging. The journal is relevant to any physician or scientist with an interest in brain function, cerebrovascular disease, cerebral vascular regulation and brain metabolism, including neurologists, neurochemists, physiologists, pharmacologists, anesthesiologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neuropathologists and neuroscientists.

Editorial Board
Nabil J. Alkayed Oregon Health & Sciences University, USA
Robert H. Andres Stanford University School of Medicine, USA
Cenk Ayata Massachusetts General Hospital, USA
Susanna Bacigaluppi University of Genova, Italy
Ferenc Bari University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Hungary
Jean-Claude Baron Institut national de la santé et de la recherce médicale U894, France
Frank C. Barone GlaxoSmithKline, USA
Barry J. Bedell Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Canada
Pablo Blinder University of California, San Diego, USA
Johannes Boltze Fraunhofer EMB, Germany
Cesar Borlongan University of South Florida, USA
Birger Brodin University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Robert Bryan Stanford University School of Medicine, USA
Daniel Bulte University of Oxford, UK
Eduardo Candelario-Jalil University of Florida, USA
Guodong Cao University of Pittsburgh, USA
Richard E. Carson Yale University, USA
Sebastian Cerdan Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas CSIC, Spain
Andreas Charidimou Massachusetts General Hospital, USA
J. Jean Chen University of Toronto, Canada
Jun Chen University of Pittsburgh, USA
Sunghee Cho Burke-Cornell Medical Research Institute, USA
Jurgen A.H.R Claassen Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Netherlands
Arthur Cooper New York Medical College, USA
Paul Cumming Ludwig Maximillian University, Germany
Adam Dénes The University of Manchester, UK
Kavi Devraj Goethe University Medical School, Germany
Mauro Di Nuzzo Enrico Fermi Center, Italy
Gerald Dienel University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, USA
Dalton Dietrich University of Miami, USA
Rick M. Dijkhuizen University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
Ulrich Dirnagl Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany
Doris Doudet University of British Columbia, Canada
Jens P. Dreier Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Germany
Lester R. Drewes University of Minnesota, USA
João M.N. Duarte École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland
Frank M. Faraci University of Iowa College of Medicine, USA
Tracy Deanne Farr University of Nottingham, UK
Bouchra Gharib Centre de Recherche en Neurobiologie et Neurophysiologie de Marseille, France
Albert Gjedde University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark
Grant Gordon University of Calgary, Canada
Edith Hamel Montreal Neurological Institute, Canada
Christoph Harms Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany
Jed A. Hartings University of Cincinnati, USA
James E. Holden University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
Chung Y. Hsu China Medical University, Taiwan
Fahmeed Hyder Yale University, USA
Costantino Iadecola Cornell University, United States
Hiroshi Ito Fukushima Medical University, Japan
Iwao Kanno National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan
Risto A. Kauppinen University of Bristol, UK
Richard F. Keep University of Michigan, USA
Seong-Gi Kim University of Pittsburgh, USA
Kazuo Kitagawa Tokyo Women's Medical University, Japan
Gitte Moos Knudsen Univ. Hospital Rigshospitalet, Denmark
Raymond C. Koehler Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, USA
Joseph C. LaManna Case Western Reserve University, USA
Adriaan A. Lammertsma VU University Medical Centre, Netherlands
Ute Lindauer Universitätsklinikum Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Germany
Eng H. Lo Massachusetts General Hospital, East, USA
Ming Lu University of Minnesota, USA
Andrew I. R. Maas Antwerp University Hospital (UZA), University of Antwerp (UA), Belgium
R. Loch Macdonald University of Toronto, Canada
Malcolm R. Macleod Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Silvia Mangia University of Minnesota, USA
Stephane Marinesco Université de Lyon, France
Abraham Martin CIC biomaGUNE, Spain
Kazuto Masamoto National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan
Christopher McCabe Glasgow University, UK
Mary C. McKenna University of Maryland, USA
Donald G. McLaren Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, USA
Torben Moos Aalborg University, Denmark
Ewald Moser Medical University of Vienna, Austria
Maiken Nedergaard University of Rochester Medical Center, USA
Mark Nelson University of Vermont, USA
Nozomi Nishimura Cornell University, USA
Thaddeus S. Nowak University of Tennessee, USA
Andre Obenaus Loma Linda University, USA
Matthias Van Osch Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands
Miguel A. Perez-Pinzon University of Miami, USA
Anna M. Planas Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas de Barcelona-SCIC, Spain
Nikolaus Plesnila University of Munich Medical Center, Germany
Ryszard M. Pluta National Institutes of Health, USA
William J. Powers University of North Crolina at Chapel Hill, USA
Gary A. Rosenberg University of New Mexico, USA
Egill Rostrup Glostrup Hospital, Denmark
Markus Schwaninger University of Heidelberg, Germany
Andy Y. Shih Med. Univ. of South Carolina, USA
Afonso C. Silva National Institutes of Health, USA
Itender Singh University of Rochester, USA
Mark Slifstein Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute, USA
Chris Sobey Monash University, Australia
Clemens Sommer University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany
Bojana Stefanovic Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Canada
Felipe Tancredi Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Brazil
Alberto Vazquez University of Pittsburgh, USA
Dean F. Wong Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, USA
Midori A. Yenari University of California, San Francisco, USA
John H. Zhang Loma Linda University, USA
Ping Zhou Weill Cornell Medicine, USA
Berislav V. Zlokovic University of Rochester, USA
Gregory Del Zoppo University of Washington, USA
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  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines & Editorial Policies Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

    This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    The Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (JCBFM) features international peer-reviewed contributions highlighting experimental, theoretical, and clinical aspects of brain circulation, imaging and metabolism. It is truly relevant to any physician or scientist with an interest in brain function, including neurologists, neurochemists, physiologists, pharmacologists, anesthesiologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neuropathologists, and neuroscientists. The Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (JCBFM) stands at the interface between basic and clinical neurovascular research.

    PUBLICATION PAGE CHARGES (Do not apply to invited authors)
    After final layout for publication, each page of an article will incur a fixed charge of:
    £62 per page for members of the ISCBFM
    £83 per page for non-members
    This charge is fully inclusive of colour reproduction of all colour images in print, HTML and PDF formats. It covers also a proportion of the costs of processing and producing the article for publication.

    OPEN ACCESS
    Upon acceptance of a manuscript, authors will be charged a one-time article processing charge (APC) to be paid by the author, institution or funder. This fee covers the cost of publication and ensures that articles will be freely available in perpetuity.
    - The full price article processing charge (APC) is £1,600 + VAT where applicable*
    - The discounted article processing charge (APC) for ISCBFM members is £1,350+ VAT where applicable*
    *If the paying author/institution is based in the European Union, to comply with European law, Value Added Tax (VAT) must be added to the APC. Providing a VAT registration number will allow an institution to avoid paying this tax, except for UK institutions. An invoice will be issued in GBP.

    For further information click to 5.3 Open access and author archiving

    Page charges will not apply to open access papers where the author is paying an article processing charge.

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the journal’s submission site https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jcbfm to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism will be reviewed. Papers judged by the Editors to be of insufficient general interest or otherwise inappropriate are rejected promptly without external review.

    Originality: A submitted manuscript must be an original contribution not previously published (except as an abstract or preliminary report), must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere, and, if accepted, must not be published elsewhere in similar form, in any language, without the consent of Sage Publications. Each person listed as an author is expected to have participated in the study to a significant extent. Although the Editors and referees make every effort to ensure the validity of published manuscripts, the final responsibility rests with the authors, not with JCBFM, its Editors or the publisher.

    1. Article types
    2. Preparing your manuscript
      2.1 Word processing formats
      2.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      2.3 Supplementary material
      2.4 Journal layout
      2.5 Reference style
      2.6 English language editing services
    3. Submitting your manuscript
      3.1 How to submit your manuscript
      3.2 How to submit your revised manuscript
    4. Editorial Policies
      4.1 Peer review policy
      4.2 Authorship
      4.3 Acknowledgments
      4.4 Funding acknowledgements
      4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      4.7 Clinical Trials
      4.8 Reporting Guidelines
      4.9 Animal Experiments
      4.10 Image integrity
      4.11 Availability of data and materials
      4.12 Sharing materials
      4.13 Pre-print servers
    5. Publishing Policies
      5.1 Publication Ethics
         5.1.2 Correction and retraction process
      5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      5.3 Open Access and author archiving
      5.4 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 SAGE Production
      6.2 Access to your published article
      6.3 Online First publication
    7. Further Information

    1. Article types

    Although the Editors and referees make every effort to ensure the validity of published manuscripts, the final responsibility rests with the authors, not with JCBFM, its Editors, or the publisher. For further details on how to layout the article please see 2.4 Journal layout.

    Article Type Word Limit Tables/Figures
    Original Articles are full-length reports of current research. Abstract: 200 words maximum
    Article: 6,000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures
    Up to 7 in total
    Review Articles (including Systematic Reviews) are comprehensive analyses of specific topics Abstract: 200 words maximum
    Article: 8,000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures
    Up to 10 in total
    Mini Review Articles should focus on a clearly defined topic of current interest, and describe recent developments in the field. Abstract: 100 words maximum
    Article: 2,500 words including abstract, introduction and conclusion but excluding references, tables and figures
    Up to 2 in total
    Opinion Articles represent an opportunity to present particular views on a topic using the review format. Abstract: 200 words maximum
    Article: 8,000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures
    Up to 10 in total
    Brief Opinion Articles should present a particular view on a hot topic using the mini review format. Abstract: 100 words maximum
    Article: 2,500 words including abstract, introduction and conclusion but excluding references, tables and figures
    Up to 2 in total
    Rapid Communications are intended to disseminate information as quickly as possible due to the new research and information presented. Abstract: 200 words maximum
    Article: 6,000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures
    Up to 7 in total
    Brief Communications are short research articles Abstract: 100 words maximum
    Article: 2,000 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures
    Up to 2 in total
    Commentary Articles put an original article in context and expand on how the findings are relevant Abstract: 100 words maximum
    Article: 1,500 words including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures
    Up to 2 in total
    Negative Results Reports are intended to provide a forum for data that did not substantiate the alternative hypothesis (i.e. a difference between the experiment groups), and/or did not produce published findings. Since the net effect of a Negative Result is to discourage repetition, the standards for acceptance will be highly demanding. Typically, Type II error considerations are mandatory. Submission consists of: A) One-page Summary to appear in the print edition only: 500 words maximum including abstract but excluding references, tables and figures. Structure of Summary: Title page, abstract, keywords, summary text, disclosure of interests statement, reference list, list of figure legends if any, tables if any in editable format. Up to 2 (figures+tables) in separate image files named “summary fig X” and B) Full text paper to appear online only. In preparing this manuscript follow the guidelines for Original Articles. Up to 2 in total in summary; up to 7 in full text paper

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    2. Preparing your manuscript

    2.1 Word processing formats

    Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are Word DOC, RTF, XLS. LaTeX files are not accepted. The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point. 

    2.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.  

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. Colour reproduction of images in print is covered by the page charges for publication of a manuscript.

    2.3 Supplementary material

    Authors submitting supplementary information must include the following statement with the main document, before the reference list:

    Supplementary material for this paper is available at: http://jcbfm.sagepub.com/content/by/supplemental-data.  

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images, etc.) alongside the full-text of the article. These will be subjected to peer review alongside the article, but are not published in print.  

    Authors should submit supplementary information files in the final format as they are not edited and will appear online exactly as submitted. Supplementary material should be uploaded if possible as one supplementary file including figure and movie legends. Movies and extensive tables should be uploaded in separate supplementary files.

    Supplementary files must be as small as possible so that they can be downloaded quickly. Images should not exceed 640 x 480 pixels. For movies we recommend 480 x 360 pixels as the maximum frame size and a frame rate of 15 frames per second.  If applicable to the presentation of the information, use a 256-color palette.  Please consider the use of lower specification for all of these points if the supplementary information can still be presented clearly. Our recommended maximum data rate is 150 KB/s.

    2.4 Journal Layout

    JCBFM conforms to the SAGE House Style, please review the guidelines on SAGE UK House Style.

    Components of original articles should be in the following order:

    • Title page
    • Unstructured abstract
    • Five key words
    • Introduction
    • Material and Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Acknowledgements
    • Author Contribution statement (only for original research papers, not for reviews)
    • Disclosure/Conflict of Interest
    • Sentence regarding supplementary information on JCBFM website, if any
    • References
    • Figure legends
    • Tables (in editable format, either in main document or as separate main document files)
    • Figures (in separate image files, not inserted in main document)

    Cover letter
    A cover letter to the Editors should state that the material is original research, has not been previously published and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration of JCBFM.

    Title page of manuscript
    The title page should include (a) the complete manuscript title; (b) all authors’ full names (listed as first name, middle initial, last name) and affiliations; (c) the name, postal address for correspondence, telephone number, and e-mail address; and (d) the sources of funding that require acknowledgment (see section 4.4 for further details). Please ensure that all forms of support are acknowledged, including pharmaceutical and industry support, on the cover page;  (e) a running headline of no more than 50 characters (including spaces) should be supplied which conveys the essential message of the paper.

    If authors regard it as essential to indicate that two or more co-authors are equal in status, they may be identified on the manuscript title page by an asterisk symbol with the caption “These authors contributed equally to this work” immediately under the author affiliations list.

    Please note that the title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring that readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting the SAGE Journal Author Gateway for guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

    Unstructured abstract and keywords on a separate page following title page.
    The abstract should be unstructured, factual and comprehensive. The use of abbreviations and acronyms should be limited and general statements (e.g. “the significance of the results is discussed”) should be avoided. Five keywords should be provided in alphabetical order below the abstract.

    Materials/subjects and methods section
    This section should contain sufficient detail, so that all experimental procedures can be reproduced, and include references. Methods, however, that have been published in detail elsewhere should not be described in detail. Authors should provide the name of the manufacturer and their location for any specifically named medical equipment and instruments, and all drugs should be identified by their pharmaceutical names, and by their trade name if relevant.

    2.5 Reference Style

    JCBFM adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference style, please review the guidelines on SAGE Vancouver to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style. If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Vancouver output file here.

    2.6 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services and our SAGE Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    3. Submitting your manuscript

    3.1 How to submit your manuscript

    JCBFM is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jcbfm to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an existing account.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    3.2 How to submit your revised manuscript

    Authors submitting a revised manuscript after review are asked in the submission process to include a point-by-point response to reviewers’ comments. It is imperative that your response be entered as editable text into the box provided for it. This text may in addition be uploaded as a file with embedded figures and/or tables if authors consider it necessary (File name: Author response to referees, file type: Other).

    Papers revised after a decision may NOT be submitted as new manuscripts. This also applies to revisions after a reject-with-resubmission decision. Revisions submitted as new papers will be unsubmitted by the Editorial Office. If you encounter difficulties submitting your revision please contact the Editorial Office for help.

    Authors should submit two copies of the revised manuscript: one clean document (file type: Main Document) and one showing highlighted changes made in response to reviewers' comments (file type: Other). Changes should be indicated using colour markings of the text. Please do not use underlining or the track changes function to highlight changes. Comment boxes are allowed. If the paper is accepted, the clean document only will be forwarded to the publisher.

    3.3 Corresponding author contact details

    Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors.

    3.4 Publication of Twitter Handles

    JCBFM has its own Twitter account @_JCBFM and JCBFM Facebook Page. Authors and readers are invited to join the ongoing discussion on these social media pages on quality issues and overcoming the ‘transitional roadblock” in the field of biomedicine. 

    As a way of encouraging ongoing discussion within the field, JCBFM authors are offered the option of providing their Twitter handle to be published alongside their name and email address within their article. This way, JCBFM readers who have questions or thoughts regarding your paper can tweet you directly. Providing a Twitter handle for publication is entirely optional, if you are not comfortable with JCBFM promoting your article along with your personal Twitter handle then please do not supply it.

    By providing your personal twitter handle you agree to let JCBFM and SAGE Publications use it in any posts related to your journal article. You may also be contacted by other Twitter users. JCBFM and SAGE Publications will have no control over you or your tweets at any time. If you would like guidance on how to promote your article yourself on Twitter or other Social Media channels please visit http://www.uk.sagepub.com/journalgateway/files/using_social_media_to_promote.doc.

    To include your Twitter handle within your article please provide this within the SAGE Track Submission form when prompted and on the separate title page in the format outlined below (please refrain from adding this to the manuscript itself to facilitate anonymous peer review).

    As an example of how to supply this information please see the example below:

    Joe Bloggs, Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital, Town, Zip code, USA.
    Email: JoeBloggs@email.com
    Twitter: @drjoebloggs

    4. Editorial policies

    4.1 Peer review

    JCBFM operates a single-blind reviewing policy in which the reviewers’ identities are concealed from the author. Manuscripts sent out for peer review are evaluated by at least one independent reviewer (normally two, sometimes more). Reviewers have access to all materials that may be relevant to the evaluation of the manuscript, including supplementary material for e-only publication.  

    You will be asked at the submission site to provide the names of five peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript, two of whom must be members of the JCBFM Editorial Board. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below:  

    • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
    • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
    • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    Please note that the Editors welcome and will consider recommendations made, but are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    The Editors then make a decision based on the reviewers' evaluations:  

    • Accept, with or without editorial revisions.   
    • Revise, with the author addressing concerns raised by the reviewers before a final decision is reached. 
    • Reject, but indicate to the authors that further work might justify a resubmission.   
    • Reject outright, typically on grounds of specialist interest, lack of novelty, insufficient                   conceptual advance or major technical and/or interpretational problems.   

    Anonymity and Confidentiality: All details about submitted manuscripts are kept confidential and no comments are issued to outside parties or organizations about manuscripts under consideration or if they are rejected. Editors are restricted to making public comments on a published article’s content and their evaluation.  We do not release reviewers' identities to authors, except when reviewers specifically ask to be identified. 

    We ask reviewers not to identify themselves to authors without the Editors' knowledge. If they wish to reveal their identities while the manuscript is under consideration, this should be done via the Editor; if this is not practicable, we ask authors to inform the Editor as soon as possible after the reviewer has revealed his or her identity. We deplore any attempt by authors to confront reviewers or try to determine their identities. Our own policy is to neither confirm nor deny any speculation about reviewers' identities, and we encourage reviewers to adopt a similar policy. 

    Upon accepting an invitation to evaluate a manuscript, reviewers must keep the manuscript and associated data confidential, and not redistribute them without the journal’s permission. If a reviewer asks a colleague to assist in assessing a manuscript, confidentiality must be ensured and their names must be provided to the journal with the final report.   

    4.2 Authorship

    JCBFM encourages transparency by requiring and publishing author contributions statements in all original research articles. A statement of authors’ responsibilities must be included in all manuscripts containing original research (not in reviews) above the reference list, specifying the contribution of every author, omitting none. Moreover, upon acceptance of a paper, a JCBFM Authorship Form must be sent by the corresponding author as an e-mail to the Editors. In this form, all authors must state their specific contributions to the manuscript and sign the form. Again, no author may be left out. If more than one form is necessary to include all authors, the corresponding author is responsible for collating and scanning all forms into one file and dispatching it to the Editorial Office.

    The list of authors in the manuscript should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept and design, acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above, and each should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.
    Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    4.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair that provided only general support.

    4.4 Funding acknowledgements

    JCBFM requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Please note: JCBFM requires this information at first submission and in all following versions of the manuscript.

    4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests 

    It is the policy of JCBFM to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state explicitly that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. If a conflict exists for some but not all authors, list the authors and conflicting interests, followed if applicable by “all other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest”.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    4.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    All papers reporting experiments on human subjects must state in the methods section that the relevant ethics committee or institutional review board provided (or waived) approval.   The full proper name of the institution committee or review board must be provided, in addition to the approval number.

    In addition, authors must provide the proper name of the ethical guidelines or standards that governed conduct of the study (the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional)) or the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (and as revised in 1983).

    It must be confirmed that written, informed consent was obtained from all subjects or their legal representatives. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that a patient anonymity is carefully protected. Authors should mask patients’ eyes and remove patients’ names from figures unless they obtain written consent from the patients or their legal guardian. Authors should be guided by the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals. Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    4.7 Clinical trials

    JCBFM endorses the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment. However, consistent with the AllTrials campaign, retrospectively registered trials will be considered if the justification for late registration is acceptable. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract. Authors reporting phase II and phase III randomized controlled trials should refer to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) recommendations to facilitate the complete and transparent reporting of trial findings. Reports that do not conform to the CONSORT guidelines and Checklist may need to be revised before formal review. 

    4.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart as a cited figure, and a completed CONSORT checklist as a supplementary file.

    For guiding principles for reporting statistical methods and results please consult the SAMPL Guidelines for Biomedical Journals: http://www.equator-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/SAMPL-Guidelines-3-13-13.pdf

    For example, authors reporting tumor markers prognostic studies are encouraged to follow the REMARK guidelines for complete and transparent reporting.

    For describing human biospecimens, we recommend referring to the BRISQ reporting
    guidelines (Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality) and ensuring at least Tier 1 characteristics are provided (doi: 10.1002/cncy.20147).  

    All authors reporting systematic reviews should refer to the PRISMA guidelines.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    4.9 Animal Experiments

    For experiments involving animals (or material from animals, such as cell cultures, brain slices) submitted for publication, the following must be stated explicitly in the Material and Methods section:

    • the full proper name (NOT “local” ethics committee) of the institutional or licensing committee which approved the experimental protocols and any relevant details regarding animal welfare and drug side effects;
    • the name of the guidelines/regulations which governed how the experiments were CONDUCTED;
    • a statement confirming that the experiments have been REPORTED following/in compliance with the ARRIVE guidelines (Animal Research: Reporting in Vivo Experiments) for how to REPORT animal experiments https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines. This means that you will be required to confirm compliance with the ARRIVE guidelines both in the submission site, where you will be asked to fill out a detailed check sheet, and in the Materials and Methods section of your manuscript.

    4.10 Image integrity and standards

    Images submitted with a manuscript for review should be minimally processed (for instance, to add arrows to a micrograph). Authors should retain their unprocessed data and metadata files, as Editors may request them to aid in manuscript evaluation. If unprocessed data is unavailable, manuscript evaluation may be stalled until the issue is resolved.
    A certain degree of image processing is acceptable for publication, but the final image must correctly represent the original data and conform to community standards. The guidelines below will aid in accurate data presentation at the image processing level:

    • Authors should list all image acquisition tools and image processing software packages used. Authors should document key image-gathering settings and processing manipulations in the Methods section.
    • Images gathered at different times or from different locations should not be combined into a single image, unless it is stated that the resultant image is a product of time-averaged data or a time-lapse sequence. If juxtaposing images is essential, the borders should be clearly demarcated in the figure and described in the legend.
    • Touch-up tools, such as cloning and healing tools in Photoshop, or any feature that deliberately obscures manipulations, is to be avoided.
    • Processing (such as changing brightness and contrast) is appropriate only when it is applied equally across the entire image and is applied equally to controls. Contrast should not be adjusted so that data disappear. Excessive manipulations, such as processing to emphasize one region in the image at the expense of others (for example, through the use of a biased choice of threshold settings), is inappropriate, as is emphasizing experimental data relative to the control.

    For gels and blots, positive and negative controls, as well as molecular size markers, should be included on each gel and blot – either in the main figure or an expanded data supplementary figure. The display of cropped gels and blots in the main paper is encouraged if it improves the clarity and conciseness of the presentation. In such cases, the cropping must be mentioned in the figure legend.

    • Vertically sliced gels that juxtapose lanes that were not contiguous in the experiment must have a clear separation or a black line delineating the boundary between the gels.
    • Cropped gels in the paper must retain important bands.
    • Cropped blots in the body of the paper should retain at least six band widths above and below the band.
    • High-contrast gels and blots are discouraged, as overexposure may mask additional bands.
    • Authors should strive for exposures with grey backgrounds. Immunoblots should be surrounded by a black line to indicate the borders of the blot, if the background is faint.
    • For quantitative comparisons, appropriate reagents, controls and imaging methods with linear signal ranges should be used.

    Microscopy adjustments should be applied to the entire image. Threshold manipulation, expansion or contraction of signal ranges and the altering of high signals should be avoided. If ‘pseudo-coloring’ and nonlinear adjustments (for example ‘gamma changes’) are used, this must be disclosed. Adjustments of individual color channels are sometimes necessary on ‘merged’ images, but this should be noted in the figure legend. We encourage inclusion of the following with the final revised version of the manuscript for publication:

    • In the Methods section, specify the type of equipment (microscopes/objective lenses, cameras, detectors, filter model and batch number) and acquisition software used. Although we appreciate that there is some variation between instruments, equipment settings for critical measurements should also be listed.
    • The display lookup table (LUT) and the quantitative map between the LUT and the bitmap should be provided, especially when rainbow pseudo-color is used. It should be stated if the LUT is linear and covers the full range of the data.
    • Processing software should be named and manipulations indicated (such as type of deconvolution, three-dimensional reconstructions, surface and volume rendering, 'gamma changes', filtering, thresholding and projection).
    • Authors should state the measured resolution at which an image was acquired and any downstream processing or averaging that enhances the resolution of the image.

    The data will be published in the online version of JCBFM, or detailed information provided in the articles on how the data can be obtained.

    Examples of data types include but are not limited to: statistical data files, replication code, text files, audio files, images, videos, appendices, and additional charts and graphs necessary to understand the original research. The Editors may also grant exceptions for data that cannot legally or ethically be released. All data submitted should comply with Institutional or Ethical Review Board requirements and applicable government regulations. For further information, please contact the Editorial Office.

    4.11 Availability of data and materials

    An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in the JCBFM is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers without undue qualifications.

    • Any restrictions on the availability of materials or information must be disclosed to the Editors at the time of submission.
    • Any restrictions must also be disclosed in the submitted manuscript, including details of how readers can obtain materials and information.
    • If materials are to be distributed by a for-profit company, this must be stated in the paper.
    • Supporting data must be made available to Editors and peer-reviewers at the time of submission for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript. Peer-reviewers may be asked to comment on the terms of access to materials, methods and/or data sets; JCBFM reserves the right to refuse publication in cases where authors do not provide adequate assurances that they can comply with the journal's requirements for sharing materials.

    After publication, readers who encounter refusal by the authors to comply with these policies should contact the chief Editors of the journal. In cases where Editors are unable to resolve a complaint, the journal may refer the matter to the authors' funding institution and/or publish a formal statement of correction, attached online to the publication, stating that readers have been unable to obtain necessary materials to replicate the findings. Details about how to share some specific materials, data and methods can be found in the sections below. The preferred way to share large data sets is via public repositories. Some of these repositories offer authors the option to host data associated with a manuscript confidentially, and provide anonymous access to peer-reviewers before public release.

    These repositories coordinate public release of the data with the journal's publication date either advance online publication (Online First) or, through print/online publication. This option should be used when possible, but it is the authors' responsibility to communicate with the repository to ensure that public release is made promptly on the journal's Online First (or print/online) publication date. Any supporting data sets for which there is no public repository must be made available as Supplementary Information files that will be accessible on http://jcbfm.sagepub.com upon publication. In cases where it is technically impossible for such files to be provided to the journal, the authors must make the data available to Editors and peer-reviewers at submission, and directly upon request to any reader on and after the publication date, the author providing a URL or other unique identifier in the manuscript.

    Authors are strongly recommended to deposit their original datasets to a recommended data repository as part of the manuscript submission process. We encourage submission of datasets to recognized repositories where possible, such as FIGSHARE (https://figshare.com/) or DRYAD (http://www.datadryad.org/).

    4.12 Sharing materials

    A condition of publication in JCBFM is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to others without undue qualifications. It is acceptable to request reasonable payment to cover costs of distribution and reagents may be made available via commercial or non-commercial third party providers. Authors reporting new chemical compounds integral to the conclusions of the paper must provide the chemical structure, synthesis and characterization of the compounds with sufficient experimental details to allow other researchers to reproduce the synthesis and characterization.

    For biological materials such as mutant strains and cell lines, JCBFM requires authors to use established public repositories when one exists (for example, Jackson Laboratory, the European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA), the European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program (EUCOMM), the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP), Addgene, RIKEN Bioresource Centre, the Mutant Mouse Regional Resource Centers, American Type Culture Collection (Americas), American Type Culture Collection (Asia/Europe), UK Stem Cell Bank), and provide accession numbers in the manuscript.

    Cell lines:
    The distribution of human cell lines used in research should not be hindered by restrictions from donors. Researchers developing cell lines must investigate and disclose any restrictions associated with the human or other tissue they are using, particularly if someone else collected the samples, if the samples come from multiple clinical sources or if they come from several legal jurisdictions. If a scientist needs to create cell lines that might be used for as-yet-unforeseen purposes, only tissue with no restrictions should be used. Authors of papers that involve consent forms must, at time of submitting the manuscript, make Editors aware of any limits that result from those forms.

    Flow cytometry:
    Every manuscript that contains flow cytometry experiments should identify in the Methods section all antibody reagents by clone identifier, vendor and fluorochrome. Authors should identify the instrument and software used to collect and analyse experimental data. Axes labels for plots or graphs depicting flow cytometry data should state the marker (for example, CD4) and the axes scales (log or linear) should be clearly visible. Authors should provide numerical analysis for the number of cells analysed and the absolute numbers or percentages (with statistics stated in either the text, legend or in a supplementary table) of the relevant cell population(s) within post-sort fractions. Hints for good general practice in the description of flow cytometry experiments can be found at the MIFlowCyt Standards section of SourceForge.

    For papers describing a new cell population or for which a given sorted cell population is critical to the main message imparted by the new work, authors should describe in a supplementary figure or two the full gating strategy used for the experiments described in the manuscript. A figure depicting the 'gates' used to identify sorted subsets is useful and should be provided to the referees on request. These data would include preliminary forward and side scatter gates of the starting cell population, indicating where boundaries between 'positive' and 'negative' staining cell populations are defined. For preliminary sorts that use 'cocktails' of antibodies to exclude certain cell populations, for example, lineage-minus (Lin-), the antibodies and fluorochromes that are contained in the 'cocktail' need to be specified for the 'dump' channel.

    For further information about accessibility of biological data and materials, see the following: Cech, T. R. (2003), Sharing Publication-Related Data and Materials: Responsibilities of Authorship in the Life Sciences. DOI: 10.17226/10613.

    Sharing data sets
    A condition of publication in JCBFM is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to others without undue qualifications. Data sets must be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to Editors and peer-reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript. For the following types of data set, submission to a community-endorsed, public repository is mandatory. Accession numbers must be provided in the paper. Examples of appropriate public repositories are listed below.

    DNA and protein sequences
    Protein sequences: Uniprot
    DNA and RNA sequences: Genbank/European Nucleotide Archive(ENA)/DDBJ, Protein DataBank, UniProt.
    DNA and RNA sequencing data (traces for capillary electrophoresis and short reads for next-generation sequencing): NCBI trace and short-read archive, ENA's Sequence Read Archive.
    When publishing reference genomes, the assembly must be made available in addition to the sequence reads.

    This policy includes even short stretches of novel sequence information such as epitopes, functional domains, genetic markers, or haplotypes. Short novel sequences must include surrounding sequence information to provide context.

    The sequences of all RNAi, antisense and morpholino probes must be included in the paper or deposited in a public database, with the accession number quoted. When an unpublished library is included in the paper, at minimum the sequences of the probes central to the conclusions of the paper must be presented.

    Simple genetic polymorphisms should be submitted to dbSNP. For data linking genotyping and phenotyping information, we strongly recommend submission to dbGAP or EGA, two repositories that have mechanisms for access control for human health-related phenotypes.

    Macromolecular structures
    Authors of papers describing structures of biological macromolecules must provide atomic coordinates and related experimental data (structure factor amplitudes/intensities for crystal structures, or restraints for NMR structures) upon request of Editors for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript, if they are not already freely accessible in a publicly available and recognized database (for example, Protein DataBank, Uniprot, Nucleic Acids Database or Biological Magnetic Resonance Databank). Electron microscopy-derived density maps and coordinate data must be deposited in EMDB.

    Where there is no public repository and if the data sets are too large to submit to the journal online, authors should either consult the journal Editorial Office for advice or provide five separate copies of these data to the Editors in an appropriate format (for example, CD or DVD) for the purposes of peer-review.
    If authors wish to deposit work into a Protein DataBank (PDB) please contact the Editorial Office.

    Microarray data
    MIAME-compliant microarray data: deposit in GEO or ArrayExpress upon submission to the journal. Data must be MIAME-compliant, as described at the MGED web site specifying microarray standards.

    Crystallographic data for small molecules
    Manuscripts reporting new three-dimensional structures of small molecules from crystallographic analysis should include a .cif file and a structural figure with probability ellipsoids for publication as Supplementary Information. The structure factors for each structure should also be submitted.  Both the structure factors and the structural output must have been checked using the IUCR's CheckCIF routine, and a PDF copy of the output must be included at submission, together with a justification for any alerts reported. Crystallographic data for small molecules should be submitted to the Cambridge Structural Database and the deposition number referenced appropriately in the manuscript. Full access must be provided on publication.

    Other datasets
    In addition to the above-mentioned mandatory requirements for data submission to community-endorsed public databases, JCBFM strongly recommends deposition of other types of data sets into appropriate public repositories that are at an earlier stage of development. Examples of such repositories that facilitate sharing large data sets, some of which can offer the option of anonymous referee access to data before publication, include:

    For proteomics data: PRIDE , PeptideAtlas, Tranche
    For protein interaction data: IMEx consortium of databases including DIP, IntAct and MINT
    For chemical compound screening and assay data: PubChem
    Other databases recommended include IntAct and the Global Proteome Machine Organization.
    Earth sciences databases recommended include Pangaea, the publishing network for geoscientific and environmental data; PetDB, for geochemical data of rocks on the ocean floor; and GEOROC, geochemistry of rocks from the oceans and continents.
    See also: World Data Center system; National Climatic Data Center.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics: NucAstroData; Plasma gate; Smithsonian/NASA astrophysics data system; SIMBAD astronomical database; UK solar system data centre.
    Physics: NIST physical reference data; Hepdata reaction data.
    Biology: NBII; ITIS (taxonomy); NCBI taxonomy; Species 2000; National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis; Dryad.

    4.13 Pre-print servers

    In the case of working manuscripts  or early drafts of manuscripts  posted on a pre-print servers: Authors should alert the Editor when submitting their manuscript if they have posted it on a pre-print server. Authors should not post an updated version of their manuscript on the pre-print server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's self-archiving policy.

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    5. Publishing policies

    5.1 Publishing ethics

    SAGE and JCBFM are committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the JCBFM Editorial Policies Document, the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway

    5.1.1 Plagiarism

    The Journal and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. The JCBFM uses CrossCheck to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. To find out more visit the CrossCheck website.

    5.1.2 Correction and retraction process  

    Content published as Online First (OF) is final and cannot be amended. The online and print versions are both part of the published record hence the original version must be preserved and changes to the paper should be made as a formal correction. If an error is noticed in an OF article, a correction should accompany the article when it publishes in print. An HTML (or full-text) version of the correction will also be created and linked to the original article. If the error is found in an article after print publication the correction will be published online and in the next available print issue. Please note the following categories of corrections to print and online versions of peer reviewed content:  

    • Erratum - Notification of an important error made by the journal that affects the publication record or the scientific integrity of the paper, or the reputation of the authors, or of the journal.  
    • Corrigendum - Notification of an important error made by the author that affects the publication record or the scientific integrity of the paper, or the reputation of the authors or the journal.  
    • Retraction - Notification of invalid results. All co-authors must sign a retraction specifying the error and stating briefly how the conclusions are affected.  

    Decisions about corrections are made by the Editor (sometimes with peer-reviewers' advice) and this sometimes involves author consultation. Requests to make corrections that do not affect the paper in a significant way or impair the reader's understanding of the contribution (a spelling mistake or grammatical error, for example) are not considered. In cases where co-authors disagree about a correction, the Editors will take advice from independent peer-reviewers and impose the appropriate correction, noting the dissenting author(s) in the text of the published version.

    5.2 Contributor’s Publishing Agreement  

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway.

    5.3 Open access and author archiving

    For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit SAGE Publishing Policies on our Journal Author Gateway.

    JCBFM offers optional open access publishing via the SAGE Choice programme. For more information please visit the SAGE Choice website.

    Page charges will not apply to open access papers where the author is paying an article processing charge.

    Upon acceptance of your manuscript, you will be charged a one-time article processing charge (APC) to be paid by you, your institution or funder. This fee covers the cost of publication and ensures that your articles will be freely available in perpetuity.
    - The full price article processing charge (APC) is £1,600 + VAT where applicable*
    - The discounted article processing charge (APC) for ISCBFM members is £1,350+ VAT where applicable*

    *If the paying author/institution is based in the European Union, to comply with European law, Value Added Tax (VAT) must be added to the APC. Providing a VAT registration number will allow an institution to avoid paying this tax, except for UK institutions. An invoice will be issued in GBP.

    5.4 Permissions

    Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 JCBFM Authorship Form required

    Once a manuscript is accepted, a JCBFM Authorship form is required in addition to the SAGE Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. The corresponding author is responsible for sending a completed Authorship Form to the Editors. In this form, all authors must state their specific contributions to the manuscript and sign the form. Hand written signatures are required and no author may be left out. If all authors cannot fill out and sign the same form, the corresponding author is responsible for collecting authors’ forms. They must then be compiled and scanned into one PDF file, and e-mailed to the Editorial Office. Failure to promptly return the form will delay publication.

    6.2 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly. The Production Editor informs authors after publication once their paper is available online.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Online First publication

    Online First allows final revision articles (completed articles in queue for assignment to an upcoming issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a final journal issue which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. For more information please visit our Online First Fact Sheet

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    7. Further Information

    Online First allows final revision articles (completed articles in queue for assignment to an upcoming issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a final journal issue which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. For more information please visit our Online First Fact Sheet Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Editorial Office: katherine.knaust@charite.de or lene.rask.01@regionh.dk.

    For inquiries related to advertising, reprints or publishing a supplement, please contact the publisher’s office: Tamara.Haq@sagepub.co.uk.

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