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International Relations since 1945
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International Relations since 1945
East, West, North, South

Eighth Edition


© 2017 | 328 pages | SAGE Publications Ltd

Introducing the key events and developments in international relations, this authoritative and engaging book provides students with a clear understanding of the contemporary issues in international politics. Putting the foundations and contexts of International Relations at your fingertips, this Eighth Edition:

  • Provides an account of the world as it has evolved up to 1945
  • Extended coverage of topics including population, gender and the environment
  • Includes expanded material on the theory of international relations
  • Includes new learning resources, including an ‘alternative perspectives’ box in each chapter
  • Supports research with fully updated and annotated further reading lists

Praised for its detail and tone, International Relations since 1945 is ideal for providing undergraduates with a historical background as they approach international relations.

 
1 The New World
The Rise and Fall of Great Powers  
The World in 1945  
The Literature  
 
2 The Cold War in Europe, 1945–1949
Political science and history  
Some Old and New Theories about the Cold War  
Some Structural Explanations for the Cold War  
Who Acted Where?  
US Policy  
Soviet Policy  
The Problem of Germany  
Motivating Forces behind US and Soviet Policies  
The United States  
The Soviet Union  
The Literature  
 
3 The Cold War Becomes Global, 1945–1962
The United States, the Soviet Union, and Asia, 1945–1950  
The Civil War in China  
Other Countries in Asia  
Signs of Re-evaluation in the Superpowers’ Asian Policies  
The Korean War  
Changes in US Policy in Asia  
The Soviet Union Tries to Play a Global Role  
A New Policy in Asia and the Middle East  
A New Policy in Africa  
The Cold War Reaches Latin America  
The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Third World: A Comparison  
The Literature  
 
4 Detente Between East and West, 1962–1975
Signs of Detente during the 1950s  
The Policy of Detente, 1962–1975  
Agreements and Contact between East and West  
Reasons for Detente  
Detente and Geographic Expansion of the East–West Conflict  
Respect for Each Other’s Vital Regions  
The Grey Zones between East and West  
The Middle East, 1967–1975  
The Vietnam War  
The Literature  
 
5 Renewed Tension Between East and West, 1975–1984
The Soviet Union: A New Globalism  
The United States: Reaction to Detente  
The Literature  
 
6 The End of the Cold War, 1984–1990
Different Theories about the End of the Cold War  
What Happened – and Why?  
The Literature  
 
7 Major Powers and Local Conflicts after the Cold War, 1990–2016
The Major Powers in the New World  
Hopes for Peace – and the Reality of Local Conflicts  
11 September 2001, Afghanistan and Iraq  
Barack Obama and the Greater Middle East  
The Literature  
 
8 The Arms Race, 1945–2016
Perspective and Motivating Forces  
Hiroshima, Atomic Weapons, and Conventional Forces, 1945–1949  
The US Turnabout, 1949–1953  
New Directions in US and Soviet Defense Policies  
The ‘New Look’  
The ‘New Look’ in the Soviet Union  
Kennedy, McNamara, and Flexible Response  
The Soviet Build-up  
The US Reaction  
The First Phase: Prior to 1973–1974  
The Second Phase: The Years up to 1984  
Cooperation, Disarmament and Rearmament Once More  
The Smaller Nuclear States  
The Literature  
 
9 The United States and Western Europe, 1945–2016
Expansion by Invitation, 1945–1950  
European Integration, 1945–1973  
Explanations for the US Stance  
US–European Relations, 1950–1973  
Cooperation Prior to 1962  
Political and Military Controversy, 1962–1973  
Economic Relations, 1962–1973  
The United States and Western Europe after 1973: New Tensions  
Expansion and Integration of the EC/EU  
From the Year of Europe to German Reuni?cation  
The US and the EU from Clinton to Donald Trump  
The Literature  
 
10 The Soviet Union/Russia and the (formerly) Communist Countries, 1945–2016
Expansion and Conformism, 1945–1953  
The Reins are Loosened (1953–1956) and Tightened (1956–1958)  
The Revolts in Poland and Hungary in 1956  
The Split between the Soviet Union and China  
From Cooperation to Armed Struggle  
Explanations for the Split  
Soviet Relations with Eastern Europe, 1958–1985  
Czechoslovakia – 1968  
Developments in Poland  
The Soviet Union and the Communist Movement Elsewhere  
The Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe  
The Fall of the Soviet Union  
Developments in Russia and Eastern Europe After the Fall of Communism  
The Literature  
 
11 The Rise of East Asia
The United States and Japan, 1945–2016  
1945–1960: Occupation and US Dominance  
1960–1990: Economic Strength and Greater Political Independence  
1990–2016: Economic Problems and Political Uncertainty  
The Sino–Soviet–US Triangle Since 1972  
East Asia in the New World System  
The Literature  
 
12 Decolonization
Changes on the International Level  
The National Level: Changes within the Colonial Powers  
British Policies  
French Policies  
Belgium and Portugal  
Why Different Attitudes?  
The Local Level: Independence Movements Grow Stronger  
The Three Stages  
Economic and Cultural Development  
The Influence of International Events  
The Nonaligned States in World Politics  
The Literature  
 
13 Economic Relations Between North and South, 1945–2016
Aid and Trade, 1945–2013  
1945–1955  
1955–1964  
1964–1981  
1981–2000  
2000–2016  
The Soviet Union and North–South Issues  
The Literature  
 
14 Two Theories on Development and Under-development
The Liberalist and the Structuralist Schools  
Discussion of Some Issues Central to Economic Development  
The North’s Development–The South’s Under-development?  
The Multinational Corporations  
Raw Materials and Processed Goods  
The Question of Dependence  
Population, Gender, Environment  
Production of Crude Oil  
Why Poverty?  
The Literature  
 
15 Globalization and Fragmentation
Globalization  
Regionalism  
Fragmentation  
Why both Globalization and Fragmentation?  
East, West, North, South  
Superpowers, States and Individuals  
The Literature  
 
16 Conclusion: The Future
Old and New Superpowers  
What will happen to the International System?  
The Literature  
Index  

East, West, North, South is a classic overview of international politics since the Second World War, and Geir Lundestad is one of the contemporary historians who are extensively read by peace researchers and international relations scholars. Always solidly grounded in empirical research and detail, his ability to provide sweeping analyses has great scholarly appeal among social scientists.

Henrik Urdal
Director, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)

Geir Lundestad’s book offers a thorough and very engaging account of world history since the end of World War II.  It combines rich historical detail with important theoretical perspectives on a broad range of issues and will therefore be essential reading for students and scholars of international relations.

Martin Senn
Universität Innsbruck

This new edition once again provides a coherent and accessible coverage of international relations since 1945 that is now better than ever. Reflecting years of research and experience, Geir Lundestad has penned a masterpiece that is a must-read for students and scholars interested in how contemporary global politics came about.

Simon Koschut
Freie Universitat

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter One: The New World


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