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Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Founded by Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation

eISSN: 15648265 | ISSN: 03795721 | Current volume: 45 | Current issue: 1 Frequency: Quarterly

The Food and Nutrition Bulletin (FNB) is a peer-reviewed, academic journal published quarterly. It was founded by the Nevin S. Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation.

The FNB is one of the leading resources used by researchers, academics, nutrition policy makers and planners in over 125 countries to obtain the most current research and policy information related to nutrition in developing countries. The FNB publishes articles by researchers from around the world that explore critical nutrition issues and potential solutions that developing countries face: undernutrition, malnutrition, nutrient bioavailability, food safety, etc.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Dr. Corey O'Hara International Development Enterprises, Nacala, Mozambique
Senior Associate Editor
Dr. Irwin H. Rosenberg Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
Associate Editors
Dr. Barbara A. Bowman Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services (Ret.), USA
Dr. Daniel Hoffman Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA
Dr. Beatrice Lorge Rogers Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
Managing Editor
Katy Tomaino Fraser CUNY Urban Food Policy Institute, CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, New York, NY, USA
Editorial Board
Dr. Lindsay Allen USDA, ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Dr. Erick Boy-Gallego HarvestPlus-International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA
Dr. Saskia de Pee United World Food Programme, Rome, Italy
Dr. Olga García-Obregón, PhD Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro Querétaro, México
Dr. Shibani Ghosh Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
Dr. Ángel Gil Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
Dr. Lawrence Haddad Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN), Geneva, Switzerland
Dr. Davidson H. Hamer Boston University Schools of Public Health and Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Dr. John Hoddinott Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
Dr. Anna Lartey University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, West Africa, Ghana
Dr. Sun-Eun Lee Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA, USA
Dr. Reynaldo Martorell Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Dr. Ellen Messer Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University / Department of Gastronomy and Food Studies, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
Dr. Simin Nikbin Meydani Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
Dr. Joshua W. Miller Dept. of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA
Dr. Eva Monterrosa Sr. Programme Manager, Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland
Dr. Denish Moorthy John Snow Inc. (JSI) Research and Training Institute, Washington, D.C., USA
Dr. Lynette M. Neufeld Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN), Geneva, Switzerland
Dr. Akoto Osei Department of Social Affairs, African Union Commission, Ethiopia
Dr. Helena Pachon Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Dr. Amanda Palmer Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
Dr. Gretel H. Pelto Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
Dr. Karen Peterson Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Dr. Jorge L. Rosado University of Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico
Dr. Manuel Ruz University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Dr. Susan C. Scrimshaw Co-Chair, Nevin Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation, Boston, MA, USA
Geoffry Smith Essential Micronutrients Foundation, Singapore
Dr. Sherry A. Tanumihardjo University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA
Dr. Aron M. Troen Institute of Biochemistry Food Science and Nutrition, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Dr. Helen Young Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA
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  • Editorial Office
    Food and Nutrition Bulletin
    Corey O’Hara, Editor-in-Chief

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Food and Nutrition Bulletin's submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    There are no fees payable to submit in this Journal. FNB has a page charge of US $150.00 per printed page for unsolicited articles.Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    If you have any questions about publishing with Sage, please visit the Sage Journal Solutions Portal

    Sage Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

    Formatting Quick Reference Guide

    • Microsoft Word or LaTex document format
      • Double-spaced
      • 1-inch margins
      • Consecutive line numbering throughout document
      • Text: any standard font, preferably 12-point serif (e.g. Times, Palatino, Garamond)
      • Heading 1 (eg, Abstract, Keywords, Intro, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgment, References): 14 point bold
      • Heading 2: 12 point bold
      • Heading 3: 12 point bold italic
    • Separate cover page with title, first and last name of all authors, numbered list of affiliations (organization, city/state, country)
      • Please use superscript numerals to indicate author affiliations
      • Please do not indicate university departments or other sub-institutional affiliations
      • Corresponding author should be indicated, with mailing address and email
    • Structured abstract
      • Typically includes Background, Objective, Methods, Results, Conclusions for original research articles
      • Reasonable variation accepted as needed for other article types (policy, reviews, meeting reports)
    • Tables on separate pages at the end of the manuscript file
    • Photos and illustrations in TIFF, JPEG, PDF, or EPS formats at 300 dpi; MS Office files also accepted
    • Keywords and brief highlights requested during submission

    Please review full submission guidelines below for additional information, including peer review policy, publication ethics, prior publication policy, Open Access policy, and authorship guidelines. Please contact the Managing Editor (see below) with questions.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
      1.4 Submissions
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Disclaimer
      2.2 Peer review policy
      2.3 Authorship
      2.4 Acknowledgements
      2.5 Funding
      2.6 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.7 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.8 Reporting guidelines
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information


    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    The Food and Nutrition Bulletin (FNB) is a peer-reviewed academic journal focusing on human nutrition research and nutrition policy issues in the developing world. We promote and publish original science and policy research and analysis examining multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate global hunger and malnutrition. Building the capacity of the next generation is a critical part of our mission, and we welcome articles by emerging and developing-world researchers.

    Before submitting your manuscript to Food and Nutrition Bulletin, please ensure you have read the Aims and Scope.

    1.2 Article Types

    The FNB accepts original scientific articles relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate global hunger and malnutrition. Animal studies without a direct human application, food science with no relevance to hunger/malnutrition, and scientific articles of limited geographic or disciplinary interest are not within scope of the FNB and will not be peer reviewed. Any disciplinary or conceptual approach relevant to problems of world hunger and malnutrition is welcome, and controversy over some of the articles is anticipated. All potentially acceptable manuscripts are peer-reviewed.

    In addition to original scientific research, we encourage submission of multidisciplinary food and nutrition policy analysis relating to current scientific inquiry in food and nutrition, including specific policy development and application as well as opportunities and barriers within food and nutrition policy environments.

    We accept narrative reviews of literature on topic areas of relevance to our international readership, with an emphasis on multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate global hunger and malnutrition. We particularly encourage systematic reviews and meta-analyses that follow the PRISMA guidelines and authors should include the PRISMA checklist with their submission.

    Short communications are papers that explore a topic with customary scientific or analytical rigor but do not require extensive analysis and discussion of the data. Short communications may convey useful information that is not sufficient in scope for a full article. This may take the form of updates to a previously published article or timely updates to ongoing work.

    Meeting reports include proceedings of scientific conferences, summaries or re-printed reports from international research organizations, and consensus statements emerging from high-level scientific symposia. Meeting reports are assessed for quality by our Editorial Office but are not peer reviewed.

    The editors have decided to expand the scope of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin by inviting research papers that specifically focus on humanitarian crises. We are introducing a new manuscript category: Field Reports harken back to the earliest years of the FNB by describing emergent, urgent situations that threaten food security and nutrition. Release of these short, non-peer-reviewed papers will be expedited to ensure timeliness and, we hope, amelioration through recognition by the broad global community of compelling opportunities for intervention and prevention.

    In addition to original research articles, the FNB publishes occasional letters to the Editor pertaining to previously published articles. These will be printed if judged to have an adequate basis and to be of sufficient general interest.

    Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. The author should disclose to the Editor any prior publication of any portion of the manuscript and cite any portion of the material previously published. For more information, visit the Prior Publication page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The editors of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin (FNB) welcome contributions relating to human nutrition research and nutrition policy issues in the developing world. Submission of an article does not guarantee publication; acceptance depends on the judgment of the editors and reviewers as to its relevance and quality.

    Please review carefully and prepare your manuscript according to these guidelines. Manuscripts that do not conform to these guidelines will be returned to the corresponding author for correction. In addition to reviewing these guidelines, contributors should examine recent issues of the FNB for content and style.

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: Help Readers Find Your Article.

    1.4 Submissions

    Manuscripts should be submitted electronically at Authors will be required to set up an online account on the Sage Track system powered by ScholarOne. Submission of a manuscript implies commitment to publish in the journal. Authors submitting manuscripts to the journal should not simultaneously submit them to another journal, nor should manuscripts have been published elsewhere in substantially similar form or with substantially similar content. Submissions to the FNB undergo a rigorous peer review process that may require substantial time before a final decision is able to be made on a manuscript.

    1.4.1 Page charges

    The FNB has a page charge of US $150.00 per printed page for unsolicited original research articles. Page charges do not apply to solicited articles. Authors contributing to special issues and supplements are not responsible for page charges.

    1.4.2 Waivers

    Authors from developing countries who do not have support to cover page charges may submit a page charge waiver form, available at the submission site link above. This must be completed and submitted with the manuscript. Each waiver request will be decided on a case-by-case basis by the FNB editors. Articles acknowledging financial support and/or affiliation with large NGOs or government or academic institutions will not be eligible for waivers. It is expected that authors will include publication costs when applying for research grants, and authors who publish regularly in the FNB should not expect to receive more than one page charge waiver.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Disclaimer

    It is expressly understood that articles published do not represent the views of the FNB or the Nevin S. Scrimshaw International Nutrition Foundation. The views expressed and the accuracy of the information on which they are based are the responsibility of the authors. Some articles in the FNB are reports of international committees and working groups and represent the consensus of the individuals involved; whether they also represent the opinions or policies of the sponsoring organizations is expressly stated.

    2.2 Peer review policy

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin operates a conventional single-anonymous reviewing policy in which the reviewer’s name is always concealed from the submitting author. Submissions to the FNB undergo a rigorous peer review process that may require substantial time before a final decision is able to be made on a manuscript.

    2.2.1 Peer reviewer recommendations

    All submissions must be accompanied by a list of suggested peer reviewers. Corresponding authors should provide a list of suggested reviewers that includes the reviewers’ names, affiliations, and email addresses upon submission. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers: the reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission, should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors, and should not be from the same institution as any of the authors.

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite/reject any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for FNB can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    2.3 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    (i) Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    (ii) Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    (iii) Approved the version to be published,
    (iv) Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.

    2.4 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    2.4.1 Third party submissions
    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.4.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.5 Funding

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    2.6 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Food and Nutrition Bulletin to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

    2.7 Research ethics and patient consent

    For investigations of human subjects, authors should state in the Methods section whether and how study participants or their representatives gave informed consent (verbal or written) and describe how the study investigators protected the rights of participants as described in the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number. If an Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board was not consulted in preparation of the research, we urge you to contact the editors prior to submission of your manuscript.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

    2.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

            2.9. Research data

    At Sage we are committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research. Where relevant, FNB encourages authors to share their research data in a suitable public repository subject to ethical considerations and to include a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file. Authors should also follow data citation principles. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway, which includes information about Sage’s partnership with the data repository Figshare.


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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below. Please note that  Food and Nutrition Bulletin may accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the journal's author archiving policy.

    If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    Language: All submissions must be in English. For articles submitted by authors whose native language is not English, we ask that the language be reviewed by a native speaker or a professional English-language editor before submission. Authors seeking assistance with editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting may consider using Sage Language Services, available via the Sage Author Gateway.

    Style: Manuscripts will be edited largely in accordance with the AMA Manual of Style (10th edition; 2007).

    Format: Manuscripts should be prepared on a computer in Microsoft Word, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins.

    Conflicts of interest and other disclosures: Authors must confirm upon submission that the manuscript is an original work and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere. Authors must also explicitly address any potential financial or other conflicts of interest in a cover letter accompanying submission of their manuscript. Finally, the corresponding author will need to verify that each author listed has seen and approved the form and content of the submitted article.

    Listing of authorship and contributions: In keeping with editorial best practices, FNB strongly encourages authors to provide a brief description of the scope of contribution of each author. This should be included in the Acknowledgments section, or a separate Authorship section at the end of the paper. A student is usually listed as principal author on any publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis. Additionally, upon manuscript acceptance, authors will need to sign a statement that confirms that all who contributed to the research are listed and acknowledged. For further information on authorship guidelines, please see the ICMJE guidelines.

    Abstract: A structured abstract of no more than 250 words should be included at the beginning of the manuscript, in the following format:

    • Background: The context of the problem that was investigated, with relevant historical information.
    • Objective: A one- or two-sentence description of the purpose of the study and what the authors expected to find.
    • Methods: Outline of study design, subject selection, analytical methods, and data analysis.
    • Results: What was found based on the data. Give specific data and their statistical significance here if possible.
    • Conclusions: Provide a one- or two-sentence description of the conclusions, based on the results.

    Emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. Do not include any information that is not given in the body of the article. Do not cite references or use abbreviations or acronyms in the abstract.

    Keywords: Authors should provide a minimum of four key words for the article.

    Plain Language Summary / Highlights: Please include a Plain Language Title and Summary in your manuscript, between the scientific abstract and keywords. Plain language titles (max 50 words) and plain language summaries (max 300 words) are descriptions of the paper that are easily understandable, and will be viewed by researchers and clinicians, as well as the public plus the media. The PLS should avoid any technical terminology and the reporting of statistics. Please do not simply duplicate your abstract in this field. Detailed instructions can be found in the submission guidelines and the Sage Author Gateway. Editorials and Letters to the Editor do not require a Plain Language Summary.

    Tables and Figures: Tables should be placed on separate pages at the end of the manuscript file. Table titles should clearly reflect the data or analysis shown. Footnotes should be keyed to the relevant data points by letters or symbols. The original data files for figures that use bar graphs, scatterplots, or other graphic representations of data must be included as part of the initial submission. Please double-check your data for accuracy and consistency with the text.

    Units of measure: All measurements should be expressed in metric units. If other units are used, their metric equivalent should be indicated.

    Currency: Whenever monetary values are listed, they should also include the equivalent in US dollars.
    Abbreviations: Please spell out all abbreviations used on the first reference.

    Cover page: Please format the cover page and text of your manuscript as follows:

    • Title in 14 point bold
    • First and last name of all authors with superscripted affiliations
    • Numbered list of affiliations, which should include just the name of the organization, city, and state and/or country. University departments, etc should not be included.
    • Corresponding author information, including name, mailing address, and email.

    Heading levels in the text:

    • Heading 1 (eg, Abstract, Keywords, Intro, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgment, References) should be in 14 point bold.
    • Heading 2 should be in 12 point bold.
    • Heading 3 should be in 12 point bold italic.
    • Please do not use numbers to designate order in headers or titles.

    Footnotes: If possible, please keep footnotes concise and to a minimum.

    References: In-text references should be numbered in consecutive order, and should be denoted with superscripts. For more detailed information, please see References section below.

    Authors’ Note: If the material in the article has been previously presented or is planned to be published elsewhere in the future—in the same or modified form—a note should be included giving the details.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    Please submit photos and illustrations in TIFF, JPEG, PDF, or EPS formats. MS Office files (Word, Powerpoint, Excel) are also accepted. All figures should be submitted in their original format and with a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Line art should be supplied with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi. Images supplied in colour will be published in colour online and black and white in print at no charge, and may be printed in colour for a fee. Images should be comprehensible in black and white as well as in colour. The captions should reflect this by not using words indicating colour. Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    4.4 Reference style

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin adheres to the AMA reference style. View the AMA guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    • We prefer that authors use citation software like EndNote® or the Endnote feature in MS Word, or the free, open-source software package Zotero, when compiling references. If references are created manually, the author will be responsible for renumbering all references in the text and reference section if changes are required.
    • References should be listed at the end of the article and should comply with the AMA Manual of Style (10th Edition). Citation examples are listed below.
    • Please number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text and tables and figure legends by superscripted Arabic numerals. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the first mention of the relevant table or figure in the text.
    • Be sure that all references are complete and current; the accuracy of references is the responsibility of the author. Please double-check that reference numbers correspond to the correct numbers in the text.
    • Unpublished papers and papers submitted for publication but not yet accepted should not be listed as references. They may be listed in the text only as “unpublished data.”

    Reference Examples:

    Journal article
    Nakaki T, Saito K, Ida-Yonemochi H, Nakagawa E, Kenmotsu S, Ohshima H. Contribution of donor and host mesenchyme to the transplanted tooth germs. J Dent Res. 2015;94(1):112-120.

    Journal article published online ahead of print
    Burrus MT, Werner BC, Starman JS, et al. Chronic leg pain in athletes [published online August 25, 2014]. Am J Sports Med. doi:10.1177/0363546514545859

    Goldberg L, Elliot DL. Exercise for Prevention and Treatment of Illness. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Co; 1994.

    Chapter in book
    Gamble VN. On becoming a physician: a dream not deferred. In: White EC, ed. The Black Women’s Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves. Seattle, WA: Seal Press; 1990:52-64.

    Internet source
    World Food Programme. Food quality control. Food specifications: Oil (fortified). Accessed June 4, 2012.
    (If original URLs are very long [more than one standard line], it is recommended that authors include shortened URLs when possible. Shortened URLs can be created from sites such as or

    Items presented at a meeting but not published
    Durbin D, Kallan M, Elliott M, Arbogast K, Cornejo R, Winston F. Risk of injury to restrained children from passenger air bags. Paper presented at: 46th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement for Automotive Medicine; September 2002; Tempe, AZ.

    Thesis or dissertation
    Heinig MJ. Relationship of Energy and Protein Intake and Complementary Feeding to Growth Patterns of Breastfed and Formula-fed Infants [dissertation]. Davis, CA: University of California; 1992.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit FNB's peer review site to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID IDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID ID you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID ID will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID ID is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway.

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Food and Nutrition Bulletin editorial office as follows:

    Corey O’Hara

    7.1 Appealing the publication decision

    Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at


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