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Published in Association with American Society of Craniofacial Surgeons

John A. van Aalst, MD Cincinnati, OH

eISSN: 27325016 | ISSN: 27325016 | Current volume: 5 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: 3 Times/Year
FACE is a peer reviewed online journal founded as the official organ of the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons (ASMS) and of the American Society of Craniofacial Surgeons (ASCFS). This quarterly publication is dedicated to the advancement of the Art and Science of all facets of facial surgery through the dissemination of cutting-edge, evidence-based, data-driven manuscripts from global experts in their respective fields. FACE is an authoritative reporting platform that is Fast, Accurate, Comprehensive, and Educational, expanding knowledge and disclosing discoveries, novel procedures, and ideas, through original articles, brief communications, systematic reviews, case reports, book reviews, and editorials. Pertinent fields for publication in FACE include Clefts, Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Orthognathic Surgery, Craniofacial Basic Science, Aesthetic Surgery, Head and Neck Cancer Reconstruction, Facial Trauma, Gender Reaffirmation, Health Disparities, as well as Government Policy and Advocacy. The objective and aspiration of FACE is to educate and inform our readers in order to improve patient care, improve practitioner and trainee education, and enhance public health.

The mission of the Journal FACE is to publish peer-reviewed manuscripts from worldwide sources of the highest quality in order to communicate transformative knowledge and discoveries pertinent to all aspects of the art and science of the field of the entire breadth of facial surgery, including all soft and skeletal tissues. The intention of FACE is to better inform clinicians of relevant specialties, scientists, students and trainees in order to enlighten our readers and promote cutting-edge ideas and treatment that will benefit the patients for whom we care.

John A. van Aalst, MD Private Practice, Walton, KY, USA
ASMS President
Reza Jarrahy, MD University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
ASCFS President
Bill Hoffman, MD University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Awards Committee Chair
Laura S. Humphries, MD University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA
Section Editors: Aesthetic Surgery
Francis A. Papay, MD Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA
Gaby Doumit, MD Cleveland Clinic and University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
Section Editors: Basic Science
Timothy W. King MD, PhD University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
Russell R. Reid, MD, PhD University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Section Editor: Book Reviews
Jack C. Yu, MD Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA
Section Editors: Business/Finance
Devra B. Becker, MD University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Alexander Y. Lin, MD, MBA University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Section Editors: Craniofacial/Orthognathic
James P. Bradley, MD Northwell Health, New York, NY, USA
Anand R. Kumar Pediatrix Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of Savannah, Savannah, GA, USA
Mark M. Urata, MD University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Section Editors: Cleft Surgery
Joseph K. Williams, MD Atlanta Plastic Surgery, Atlanta, GA, USA
Stacey Francis, MD Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Section Editor: Development
Raymond Harshbarger, MD, FACS Dell Medical School, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA
Section Editor: Diversity
Noopur Gangopadhyay Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Section Editor: Ethics
Christian J. Vercler, MD University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Section Editors: Gender Reassignment
William Y. Hoffman, MD University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
James C. Lee, MD Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Kaiser Permanente School of Medicine and Keck School of Medicine at USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA
John Henry N. Pang, MD University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Section Editors: Government Policy/Advocacy
Arun K. Gosain, MD Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
Delora L. Mount, MD Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA
Section Editors: Head and Neck Cancer
Brian Gastman, MD Cleveland Clinic, Beachwood, OH, USA
Brian T. Andrews, MD University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA
Section Editor: Health Disparities
Thomas A. Imahiyerobo, MD Columbia University Irving Medical Center and Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital, New York, NY, USA
Section Editor: In Your Face
Janice Lalikos, MD UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA
Section Editors: Orthodontics
Kaitrin Kramer, PhD Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA
Paola Carvajal Monroy, PhD Erasmus Medical Center and Sophia's Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Michelle Scott, MD Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Section Editors: Pediatrics
Gregory Pearson, MD, FAAP, FACS Columbus, OH, USA
Matthew E. Pontell, MD Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Christopher M. Runyan, MD, PhD Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Section Editor: Reviews
Peter J. Taub, MD Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
Section Editor: Speech and Language Pathology
David J. Zajac, PhD UNC Adams School of Dentistry and UNC Medical Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Section Editors: Trauma
Michael R. Christy, MD Long Island Plastic Surgical Group, Garden City, NY, USA
Jesse Goldstein, MD University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Chad A. Purnell, MD University of Illinois Health Center, Chicago, IL, USA
Davinder J. Singh, MD Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA
International Editors
Karoon Agrawal, MS, MCh National Heart Institute, New Delhi, India
Peter Anderson, MD Cleft & Craniofacial Unit of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
Atakiltie Baraki, PhD Smile Train, Nairobi, Kenya
Fateme Derakhshandeh, PhD Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Phuong Dinh, MD Hanoi Children's Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam
Cassio Raposo do Amaral, MD, PhD Hospital Sobrapar, Campinas, Brazil
Amir Elbabary, MD Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Omri Emodi, MD Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel
Khaldoun Jalal Haddadin, MD King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan
Lun-Jou Lo, MD Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Irene Mathijssen, MD, PhD Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Ahmad Moukhlalati, MD Shifa Hospital, Gaza City, Gaza
Solomon Obiri-Yeboah, MD Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana
Fadekemi Oginni, MD Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife, Nigeria
Ikram Seif, MD Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Gokhan Tumcbilek, MD, PhD Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
Divya Narain Upadhyaya, MCh, FACS King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India
Tien-Hsiang Wang, MD Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Issam Zahiri, MD University of Tunis, El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia
Editorial Board
Karin M. Muraszko, MD University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Emeritus Editorial Board Members
Steven R. Buchman, MD University of Michigan and C. S. Mott Children's Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Founding Editors
Kant Y. Lin, MD University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
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