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Culturally Diverse Counseling
Theory and Practice

  • Elsie Jones-Smith - Diplomate in Counseling Psychology, American Board of Professional Psychology


January 2019 | 672 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Culturally Diverse Counseling: Theory and Practice adopts a unique strengths-based approach in teaching students to focus on the positive attributes of individual clients and incorporate those strengths, along with other essential cultural considerations, into their diagnosis and treatment. With an emphasis on strengths as recommended in the 2017 multicultural guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association (APA), this comprehensive text includes considerations for clinical practice with twelve groups, including older adults, immigrants and refugees, clients with disabilities, and multiracial clients. Each chapter includes practical guidelines for counselors, including opportunities for students to identify and curb their own implicit and explicit biases. A final chapter on social class, social justice, intersectionality, and privilege reminds readers of the various factors they must consider when working with clients of all backgrounds.
 
Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
Chapter 1. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy: The Journey
Introduction: The Journey to Becoming a Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapist  
The Profound Influence of Culture  
Our Brains Are Culturally Connected  
Affirming Each Person’s Importance  
The Integration of Culturally Responsive and Strengths-Based Therapy  
Brief History and Overview of the Multicultural Movement  
Mastering the Multicultural Counseling Competencies  
Ethical Issues and Multiculturalism  
The Evidence-Based Movement in Multicultural Counseling  
Beginning the Cultural Competency Journey  
Levels of Counselor Competency Development  
Clinical Skill Development: Cultural Awareness and Knowledge  
Major Barriers to Culturally Competent Counseling  
Neuroscience, the Brain, and the Invisible Neural Barrier of Ethnic/Racial Bias  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 2. Cultural Meaning Systems, Cultural Trust, and Cultural Humility
Introduction  
Cultural Principles  
The Iceberg Concept of Culture  
Emic and Etic Perspectives on Culture  
Culture and Neuroscience  
Neuroscience and Cultural Differences  
The Globalization of Culture  
Culture and the Process of Identity Development: The Tripartite Model  
The Ethnic Self: Ethnicity as a Schema  
Research on the Positive Benefits of a Cultural Identity  
Does One Have to Be of the Same Cultural/Ethnic/Racial Background to Counsel Clients Effectively?  
Assimilation, Marginalization, Acculturation, and Acculturative Stress  
Culturally Responsive Counseling: Reaching Across Barriers  
Understanding Clients’ Cultural Stories  
Culturally Competent Clinical Knowledge  
Culturally Responsive Knowledge Skills for the Initial Interview  
Cultural Trust: A Critical Issue in Culturally Diverse Counseling  
Cultural Empathy and Cultural Competence  
Levels of Culturally Competent Clinical Responding  
The Culturally Competent Skill of Counselor Cultural Humility  
Toward a Model for Evaluating Culturally Competent Clinical Skill Development of Counselors  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 3. Neuroscience, Multiple Cultural Identities, and Cultural Strengths
Introduction  
Neuroscience, CACREP Standards, and Major Counseling Associations  
Foundational Concepts in Neuroscience for Counselors  
The Brain  
Mapping the Cultural Architecture of the Brain  
Cultural Identity Formation and Neuroscience  
Brain Regions and Cultural Identity  
Some Important Findings in Cultural Neuroscience  
Cultural Identity and the Cultural Formulation Interview for the DSM-5  
The Negativity Bias of the Brain: Findings in Neuroscience  
Is the Brain Hardwired to See the Glass Half Empty or Half Full?  
Mental Health From a Neuroscientific Perspective  
Neuroimaging Techniques and the Brain  
Neuroscience: Psychotherapy Changes Your Brain  
The Therapeutic Relationship From a Neuroscientific Perspective  
Neuroscience and the Culturally Responsive Counselor  
Mirror Neurons and Counselors  
What Happens When a Counselor Focuses on a Client’s Negative Life Events?  
Neuroscience and Multiple Cultural Identities  
What Is a Multicultural Identity?  
The Need for Clinicians to Adopt a Multicultural Identity  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 4. Strengths-Based Development, Culture, and Clinical Practice
Introduction  
Culture, the Brain, and Strengths Development  
The Neurobiology of Human Strengths Development  
Strengths and the Brain’s Pruning Process  
Relational Components of Strengths Development  
Attachment Theory and Strengths Development  
Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment: The Foundation for Understanding Individual Strengths Development  
Significance of Attachment Relationships and Strengths Development  
Strengths Development and the Importance of a Trusted Relationship  
Strengths Development and Attention  
Attachment Patterns Across Cultures  
Significance of Cultural Attachment, Migration, and Acculturation  
Strengths Development, the Narrative Process, and the Mind  
Strengths as Dialogic Conversations With the Self  
Western and Eastern Views on Human Strengths: The Chinese Perspective  
How Do I Make Culturally Responsive Counseling Strengths-Based?  
The Philosophy of Strengths-Based Therapy  
Cultural Mindsets  
Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Practice  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 5. The Strengths-Based Therapy Model and Culturally Responsive Counseling
Introduction  
The Revised Strengths-Based Therapy Model  
Strengths-Based Therapy Techniques  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 6 Culturally Responsive Assessment and the Cultural Formulation Interview
Introduction  
General Assessment Principles in Counseling and Psychotherapy  
Clinical Issues in Conducting a Qualitative, Culturally Responsive Assessment  
The DSM-5 and the Cultural Formulation Interview  
The Four Domains of the Cultural Formulation Interview  
Cultural Genogram: An Assessment Tool  
The Strengths-Based Therapy Model’s Assessment Process  
Creating a Strengths Genogram  
Assess the Client’s Potential for Self-Harm and Risk to Others  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 7. Culturally Responsive Case Conceptualization and Treatment Planning
Introduction  
Case Conceptualization: Some General Elements  
Culturally Responsive Case Conceptualization  
Case Conceptualization and the Cultural Formulation Interview  
Strengths-Based Case Conceptualization  
Strengths-Based Treatment Plans  
Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy Techniques  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 8. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for African Americans
Introduction  
The African American Population: Some Basic Demographics  
Historical and Psychosocial Issues for Blacks: Oppression, Discrimination, and the Legacy of Slavery  
African Americans and Cultural Values  
Cultural Strengths of African Americans  
NTU: An Afrocentric Model for Counseling African Americans  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 9. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for American Indians and Alaska Natives
Introduction  
Defining Group Membership  
Demographic and Population Statistics  
Who Is an “Authentic” or “Real Indian”?  
Socioeconomic Status  
Theory of Historical Trauma Among American Indians  
Ethnic/Racial Stereotypes, Racism, and Microaggressions  
Worldview  
Family Structure: The Tribe as Family  
Cultural Identity  
Cultural Values  
Cultural Strengths  
Healing: The Circle and Medicine Wheel in Indian Life  
Counseling Applications of the Circle and Medicine Wheel  
Mental Health Challenges  
Counseling Approaches for American Indians and Alaska Natives  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 10. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders
Introduction  
Demographic and Population Statistics  
Historical Changes in the Asian American Profile  
Socioeconomic Status of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: 2013  
Asian Americans as the “Model Ethnic Minority”: Myth or Reality?  
Ethnic/Racial Stereotypes, Racism, and Microaggressions  
Cultural Issues of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders  
Asian American and Pacific Islander Communication: High-Context Culture  
Cultural Identity of Asian Americans: No One Identity Model for All  
Cultural Strengths and Contributions of Asian Americans  
Acculturation and Cultural Issues Affecting Mental Health  
Cultural Factors in Counseling Asian Americans  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 11. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Hispanic and Latino/a Americans
Introduction  
Hispanic/Latino American Cultural Values  
Acculturation Conflicts for Hispanic/Latino Americans  
Cultural Identity of Hispanics and Latinos  
Hispanic/Latino Cultural Strengths  
Hispanic/Latino Physical and Mental Health Issues  
Counseling Approaches for Working With Hispanic/Latino Clients  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 12. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Arab and Muslim Americans
Introduction  
Microaggressions Against Arab and Muslim Americans  
Cultural Values and Worldview of Arabs and Muslims  
Acculturation: Patterns and Conflicts  
Mental Health Issues for Arab and Muslim Americans  
Counseling Arab and Muslim Americans  
Counseling Arab and Muslim Americans: Some Recommendations  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 13. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for White Americans of European Ancestry
Introduction  
Socioeconomic Status of White Americans  
Ethnic Group Saliency for White Americans  
The White American Worldview  
Models of White Racial Identity Development  
The Hardiman White Racial Identity Model  
The Helms Model of White Identity Development  
Counseling White Americans of European Ancestry  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 14. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Women
Introduction  
Demographics of American Women  
Socioeconomic Status of U.S. Women  
Microaggressions Against Women and Gender Inequality  
The Mental Health Issues of Women  
Counseling Approaches for Women: Feminist Therapy  
Dissatisfaction With Existing Psychological Theories  
Dissatisfaction With Diagnostic Categories and Mother Blaming  
Traditional Theories Versus Feminist Therapies: Six Characteristics  
Key Concepts of Feminist Therapy  
Gender Role Stereotyping Across Cultures  
The Social Construction of Gender  
Gender and Power Differentials  
Feminist Therapy Approaches  
Goals of Feminist Therapy  
The Role of Men in Feminist Therapy  
Techniques of Feminist Therapy  
Feminist Therapy and Multicultural Therapy  
Integration of Feminist Therapy With Other Approaches  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 15. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for LGBTQ Individuals
Introduction  
Demographic and LGBTQ Population Data  
Socioeconomic Status  
Discrimination and the Gay Rights Movement  
LGBTQ Identity Development  
Transgender Identity Development  
Coming Out and Gender Identity Development for Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals  
Coming Out for People of Color: A “Tricultural Experience”  
LGBTQ Youth and Schools  
LGBTQ Families: Some Facts  
Mental Health Issues and the LGBTQ Community  
Top 10 Physical and Mental Health Concerns of LGBTQ College Students  
Strengths of LGBTQ Populations  
Counseling Members of the LGBTQ Community  
The Therapeutic Process in Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy  
Role of the Therapist in Working With LGBTQ Clients  
Gay Affirmative Psychotherapy  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 16. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Individuals With Disabilities
Introduction  
Definition of Disability and the Americans With Disabilities Act  
Demographics of People With Disabilities  
Socioeconomic Status  
Major Categories of Disabilities  
Models of Disability  
Disability as a Multicultural Issue  
Privilege and People With Disabilities  
Microaggressions Toward People With Disabilities  
Spread: A Form of Ableism  
Interaction Strain and People With Disabilities  
Identity Development and People With Disabilities  
Experiencing a Disability Identity After Trauma  
Strengths of People With Disabilities  
Counseling Approaches for Individuals With Disabilities  
People With Disabilities and Risk for Abuse  
Empowerment  
Family Counseling and People With Disabilities  
Disability Affirmative Therapy and Disability Orientation  
Olkin’s Model of Disability and Counseling Approach  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 17. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Older Adults
Introduction  
Demographics for Older Adults  
Western and Eastern Cultural Views on Aging  
Ageism  
Microaggressions and the Older Adult  
Mental Health Issues of the Older Adult  
Depression and Older Adults  
Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Cognitive Impairments  
Substance Abuse and Older Adults  
Sexuality and the Older Adult  
The Strengths-Based Therapy Model and the Older Adult  
Phases of Strengths-Based Therapy for Older Adults  
Additional Strengths Assessment Issues  
A Final Note on Clinical Intervention and Treatment Issues  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 18. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Immigrants and Refugees
Introduction  
Refugee, Asylee, and Immigrant: Some Working Definitions  
Microaggressions, Hate Crimes, and Discrimination Against Immigrants and Refugees  
Mental Health Issues of Immigrants and Refugees  
Mental Health Issues and Pre- and Postmigration  
Competency Assessment for Practitioners Working With Refugees and Immigrants  
Counseling and Therapy Models for Working With Refugees With PTSD  
Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 19. Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy for Multiracial People
Introduction  
Models of Multiethnic/Multiracial Identity Development  
Competencies for Counseling Multiracial Individuals  
Psychotherapy With Multiethnic/Multiracial People  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Chapter 20. Social Class, Social Justice, Intersectionality, and Privilege
Introduction  
Social Class and Culturally Responsive Counseling  
The Neuroscience of Poverty and Social Class  
Neuroscience, Social Class, and Empathy  
The Social Justice Movement in Counseling  
Intersectionality, Social Class, and Social Justice  
Internalized Oppression: Social Class and Ethnicity/Race  
Privilege, Race, and Social Class  
Summary of Multidimensional Privileges in a Society  
Social Class and Cultural Strengths: Antidote for Internalized Oppression and Stereotype Threat  
Summary of Key Points  
Discussion Questions  
Key Terms  
References and Suggested Reading  
 
Index

Supplements

Instructor Resource Site

Visit study.sagepub.com/jonessmithcdc to access the password-protected instructor resources that accompany this text.

  • A test bank provides a diverse range of pre-written options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation.

“Understanding cultural perspectives of our clients is a continuous challenge. Elsie Jones-Smith succinctly presents a multicultural strength-based model to ease the unique challenges in working with diverse clients. Empower yourself to empower your clients.”

Dr. Sorie Koroma
University of Massachusetts

“A transformational book regarding multicultural therapy.”

Tomasina L. Cook
Niagara University

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 1: Culturally Responsive Strengths-Based Therapy


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