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Clinical Mental Health Counseling
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Clinical Mental Health Counseling
Elements of Effective Practice

Edited by:


October 2016 | 480 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Referencing the 2016 CACREP standards, Clinical Mental Health Counseling: Elements of Effective Practice combines solid foundational information with practical application for a realistic introduction to work in community mental health settings. Top experts in the field cover emerging models for clinical interventions as they explore cutting-edge approaches to CMH counseling. With case studies integrated throughout, students will be well prepared to move into practicum and internship courses as well as field-based settings.

“An instant classic. Young and Cashwell have assembled a stellar group of counselor education authors and produced an outstanding, comprehensive, and easy-to-read text that clearly articulates and elevates the discipline of clinical mental health counseling. This book covers everything a CMHC needs to hit the ground running in clinical practice!"

Bradley T. Erford, Loyola University Maryland, Past President of the American Counseling Association
 
Preface
 
About the Editors and Contributors
 
SECTION I FRAMEWORK OF CLINICAL MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING
Kerrie K. Fuenfhausen, Scott Young, Craig Cashwell, and Muthoni Musangali
1 History and Evolution of Clinical Mental Health Counseling
Foundational Principles of Counseling

 
Wellness Model of Mental Health

 
Developmental Perspective

 
Prevention and Early Intervention

 
Empowerment

 
Multicultural Worldview

 
History of CMH Counseling

 
Historical Influences

 
Professional Practice in CMH Counseling

 
Professional Identity

 
Qualifications

 
Models of Change

 
Roles and Functions of CMH Counselors

 
CMH Counselor Functions

 
CMH Counselor Roles

 
Populations Served

 
Case Study

 
References

 
Jamie Crockett
2 Legal and Ethical Issues 31
What Is Professional Conduct?

 
Consult, Consult, Consult!

 
Moral Principles

 
Professional Standards for Ethical Practice

 
Legal Considerations

 
Legal and Ethical Challenges

 
Ethical Decision Making

 
Multicultural and Social Justice Considerations

 
Case Studies

 
Select Resources for Ethical and Legal CMH Counseling Practice

 
References

 
Catherine Y. Chang, Simone Lambert, and Emily Goodman-Scott
3 Advocacy and Social Justice
The Case of Yolanda

 
Ecological View

 
Case Study Discussion

 
Understanding Advocacy and Social Justice

 
Case Study

 
Multicultural Competence and Culturally Responsive CMH Counseling

 
Case Study Discussion

 
Social Injustice and Mental Health

 
Privilege and Oppression

 
Privilege

 
Oppression

 
Racism and Sexism

 
Racism

 
Case Study Discussion

 
Sexism

 
Case Study Discussion

 
Advocacy and Social Justice Counseling

 
Client Advocacy

 
Case Study Discussion

 
Professional Advocacy

 
Case Study Discussion

 
Global Perspectives on Counseling

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
Amy Banner
4 Continuum of Care
Continuum of Care: One Size Does Not Fit All

 
Modalities of the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care

 
Individual Counseling

 
Group Counseling

 
Couple and Family Counseling

 
History of the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care

 
Ethical and Developmental Aspects of the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care

 
Services, Settings, and Roles Across the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care

 
Prevention and Education Services

 
Outpatient Services

 
In-Home Services

 
Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHPs) and Intensive Outpatient (IOP) Services

 
Inpatient Services

 
Residential Services

 
Aftercare

 
Crisis and Emergency Services

 
Professional Issues Affecting the CMH Counseling Continuum of Care

 
Case Study

 
References

 
 
SECTION II PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES OF CLINICAL MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING
Casey Barrio-Minton
5 Assessing Client Concerns
Assessment Foundations

 
Purposes and Methods of Assessment

 
Clinical, Intake, and Diagnostic Interviewing

 
Types of Interviews

 
Initial or Intake Interview

 
Unstandardized Questionnaires and Checklists

 
Mental Status Examinations

 
Mini–Mental State Exam

 
Using Standardized Tests and Inventories to Inform Counseling

 
Broad-Symptom Inventories

 
Specific-Symptom Inventories

 
Structured Personality Inventories

 
Projective Techniques

 
Qualitative Assessment

 
Collateral Sources

 
Screening for High-Risk Situations

 
General Medical Conditions

 
Suicide Risk

 
Violence Risk

 
Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse

 
Substance Concerns

 
Cultural Bias in Assessment

 
Using Assessment to Inform Counseling

 
Case Study

 
References

 
Appendix: Current Concerns Questionnaire and Checklist (Adult)

 
Gary Gintner
6 Diagnosis
Psychopathology and Etiology

 
Mental Health and Mental Illness

 
Dimensions of Psychopathology

 
Etiological Factors and the Biopsychosocial Model

 
Diagnostic Issues With the DSM

 
DSM: A Look Backward

 
DSM-5

 
Diagnostic Process: Four Guiding Principles

 
Principle 1: Check the Adequacy of Your Information

 
Principle 2: Use Diagnostic Hierarchies for Differential Diagnosis

 
Principle 3: Resolve Diagnostic Uncertainty by Examining the Usual Suspects

 
Principle 4: Your Diagnosis Is a Hypothesis That May Need Correcting

 
Case Study

 
References

 
Daniel M. Paredes and Maria A. Brunelli Paredes
7 Treatment Planning
Determining Client Needs and Appropriate Services

 
Case of Tara

 
From Conceptualization to Treatment Planning

 
Personal Style

 
Counselor Theoretical Framework

 
Expectations of the Counselor’s Work Setting

 
Developing and Implementing Treatment Plans

 
Treatment Goals

 
Case of Joseph and Sophia

 
Treatment Objectives

 
Treatment Interventions

 
Additional Treatment Plan Components

 
Referral, Keeping a Resource List, and Application

 
Keeping a Resource List

 
Application

 
Case of Emily

 
Termination Versus Maintenance

 
Treatment Planning and Special Populations

 
Treatment Planning With Children and Adolescents

 
Treatment Planning With Mandated Clients

 
Case Study

 
References

 
Todd Lewis and John Culbreth
8 Psychiatry and Psychopharmacology
Brain Physiology, Neurotransmitters, and Medication: A Basic Overview

 
Mechanisms of Action

 
Why Use Medication in the Treatment of Mental Disorders?

 
Controversy in Using Medication in the Treatment of Mental Disorders

 
The Mental Health Counselor’s Dilemma

 
Classes of Psychotropic Medications, Their Effects, and Side Effects

 
Antidepressant Medications

 
Antianxiety Medications

 
Antipsychotic Medications

 
Bipolar Medications

 
Working Effectively With Psychiatrists

 
Making Medication Referrals

 
Medication Compliance

 
Assessing and Managing Side Effects

 
Working Effectively With Clients and Medication

 
Talking to Clients About Medication

 
Medication Advocacy

 
Legal and Ethical Issues With Psychopharmacology

 
Case Study

 
References

 
Laura Welfare, Paige Greason, and Keith Mobley
9 Managed Care, Billing, and Documentation
Managed Care

 
Managed Care Laws and Legislation

 
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

 
HIPAA Privacy Rule

 
HIPAA Security Rule

 
HIPAA Enforcement

 
Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act

 
Affordable Care Act

 
Managed Care: Becoming an Approved Provider

 
Insurance: Private and Public Payers

 
Private Insurance

 
Government-Sponsored Insurance

 
Self-Pay and Other Means

 
Maintaining Records

 
Importance of Paperwork

 
Administrative and Clinical Documentation Practices

 
Clinical Documentation Practices

 
Intake Assessment Forms

 
Screening and Outcome Measures

 
Clinical Case Notes

 
Conclusion

 
Case Study 1: Navigating Insurance Coverage

 
Case Study 2: Writing Eff ective Case Notes

 
References

 
Appendix: Personal History and Intake Form

 
Amber L. Pope and Allison Marsh Pow
10 Crisis Management and Disaster Relief
Differentiating Crisis Management and Disaster Relief

 
Crisis Management

 
What Is a Crisis?

 
Crisis Counseling

 
Range of Individual Crises

 
Principles of Crisis Management

 
Crisis Management Planning

 
Emergency and Disaster Relief

 
Impact of Crises and Disasters

 
Factors Influencing Mental Health After an Emergency or Disaster

 
Groups at Risk

 
Emergency and Disaster Response

 
Immediate Interventions

 
Intermediate and Long-Term Interventions

 
Disaster Mental Health Training

 
Impact of Crisis Counseling and Disaster Relief Work on CMH Counselors

 
Case Study 1: Crisis Management

 
Case Study 2: Disaster Mental Health

 
References

 
 
SECTION III MAXIMIZING YOUR EFFECTIVENESS AS A CLINICAL MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELOR
DiAnne Borders
11 The Importance of Clinical Supervision to Effective Practice
Models of Clinical Supervision

 
Developmental Models

 
Discrimination Model

 
Peer Models

 
Group Supervision Models

 
Triadic Supervision

 
Maximizing Your Supervision Experience

 
Practice Self-Assessment and Create Learning Goals

 
Prepare for Supervision

 
Take Risks

 
Practice Self-Reflection

 
Consider Power and Authority; Evaluation and Feedback

 
Practice Peer Feedback in Triadic and Group Supervision

 
Bring Difficult Topics to Supervision

 
Poor Supervision

 
Conclusion

 
Case Study

 
References

 
Gerard Lawson and Jennifer M. Cook
12 Wellness, Self-Care, and Burnout Prevention
CMH Counseling Risks and Challenges

 
High-Touch Hazards

 
Burnout

 
What Burnout Looks Like

 
Burnout Prevention

 
Vicarious Traumatization

 
Symptoms and Signs of Vicarious Trauma

 
Addressing Vicarious Trauma

 
Compassion Fatigue

 
Compassion Fatigue Described

 
Contributing Factors to Compassion Fatigue

 
Identifying Compassion Fatigue

 
Counselor Wellness

 
Mindfulness

 
Mindfulness Defined

 
Balance

 
Career-Sustaining Behaviors

 
Healthy Habits

 
Case Study

 
References

 
Kelly L. Wester and Tamarine Foreman
13 Using Research to Improve Clinical Practice
Research Defined and Described

 
Ways of Knowing

 
Evidence-Based Practice

 
Scientist-Practitioner Model

 
Case Study

 
Step 1: Assess the Client

 
Step 2: Create a Well-Formulated Question

 
Step 3: Conduct a Search for Evidence

 
Step 4: Select and Access Articles to Read

 
Step 5: Evaluate and Appraise the Quality of Research

 
Step 6: Synthesize Information

 
Step 7: Clinical Application

 
Step 8: Evaluation

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
 
SECTION IV CURRENT AND FUTURE TRENDS IN CLINICAL MENTAL HEALTH PRACTICE
Jane E. Myers and Laura Jones
14 The Applications of Neuroscience to Clinical Mental Health Counseling
Neuroscience in Counseling

 
Neural Anatomy

 
Neuroscience and the Therapeutic Relationship

 
Therapeutic Process and Neuroplasticity

 
Neurofeedback: One Application of Neuroscience in Practice

 
What Is Neurofeedback and How Does It Work?

 
Case Study

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
Amanda L. Giordano, Philip B. Clarke, Cheryl L. Fulton, and Tammy H. Cashwell
15 Emerging Approaches to Clinical Mental Health Counseling
Motivational Interviewing

 
The Basics of MI

 
Support for MI

 
MI in Practice

 
Case Study

 
Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy

 
The Basics of EFT

 
Stage 1: Deescalation of Negative Cycles of Interaction

 
Stage 2: Changing Interactional Positions

 
Stage 3: Consolidation and Integration

 
Support for EFT

 
EFT in Practice

 
Case Study

 
Dialectical Behavior Therapy

 
The Basics of DBT

 
Support for DBT

 
DBT in Practice

 
Case Study

 
Interpersonal Psychotherapy

 
The Basics of IPT

 
Support for IPT

 
IPT in Practice

 
Case Study

 
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)

 
The Basics of TF-CBT

 
Support for TF-CBT

 
TF-CBT in Practice

 
Case Study

 
Mindfulness

 
The Basics of Mindfulness

 
Support for Mindfulness

 
Mindfulness in Practice

 
Case Study

 
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

 
The Basics of ACT

 
Support for ACT

 
ACT in Practice

 
Case Study

 
Spirituality in Counseling

 
The Basics of Spirituality in Counseling

 
Support for Spirituality in Counseling

 
Spirituality in Counseling in Practice

 
Case Study

 
Conclusion

 
References

 
 
Index

“Having gathered a plethora of established experts in the field of mental health counseling, the editors packed this book with content that will meet or exceed the curricular needs of any graduate counseling course; ‘comprehensive’ is an understatement!”

W. Bryce Hagedorn
University of Central Florida

“An instant classic. Young and Cashwell have assembled a stellar group of counselor education authors and produced an outstanding, comprehensive, and easy-to-read text that clearly articulates and elevates the discipline of clinical mental health counseling. This book covers everything a CMHC needs to hit the ground running in clinical practice!”

Bradley T. Erford
Loyola University Maryland, Past President of the American Counseling Association

“A ‘must-have’ resource for anyone looking for a comprehensive and reader-friendly clinical mental health counseling text! The introductory chapter provides a solid context for the ensuing chapters that focus on specific topics (such as legal/ethical issues, diagnosis, supervision), all authored by leading experts. It’s all here—everything that learners need to know as they embark on their professional journeys to becoming CMHCs.”

Barbara Herlihy
University of New Orleans

Clinical Mental Health Counseling: Elements of Effective Practice is a great text for introducing students to the roles and functions of clinical mental health counseling. The authors have organized the material in a clear and engaging level which makes it appropriate for students. I particularly appreciate the documentation and evidence-based sections.”

Alfonzo Haralson
Jackson State University

“The authors have succeeded in building a very comprehensive book, focused on the CACREP standards, that is up to date and gives new and also practical information regarding the profession.  There are some chapters that are very unique for an introductory textbook (e.g., chapters devoted to billing, documentation, psychopharmacology, neuroscience, a full chapter on research). There is also some cutting-edge information included on evidence based practices. Usually, there isn’t an entire chapter devoted to advocacy. Thus, instructors have to supplement the information in textbooks with the ACA Advocacy Competencies and various articles and examples. The chapter on advocacy is a treasure because it is comprehensive and really introduces the students to the counselor advocacy role up front!”

Heather Trepal
University of Texas at San Antonio

“The authors were able to invite contributors that are known experts in their field. They write from a strong theoretical base and are practitioners in their areas of expertise.”

Judith G. Miranti
Xavier University of Louisiana

“This book provides the most comprehensive knowledge, skills, and applications about mental health practice in community settings.” 

Kananur V. Chandras
The Fort Valley State University

“By offering a text that can provide a thorough foundation for counselor trainees, Young & Cashwell have offered Counselor Educators a much-needed tool for bridging a significant gap in counselor training.”

Kathleen Woods
Chadron State College

Clinical Mental Health Counseling: Elements of Effective Practice is current, thorough, and student friendly.”

Lakitta Johnson
Jackson State University

Clinical Mental Health Counseling: Elements of Effective Practice is a comprehensive overview of a complex topic.”

Robert C. Schwartz
University of Akron

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