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Cephalalgia Reports

Cephalalgia Reports

Published in Association with International Headache Society

eISSN: 25158163 | ISSN: 25158163 | Current volume: 3 | Current issue: 1

Cephalalgia Reports

  • Has the same internationally respected editorial team and rigorous peer review as Cephalalgia
  • Operates under an open access publishing model, where an article processing charge (APC)* enables the article to be free to access. Content published is available for anyone, anywhere to read, offering truly global dissemination. This includes those in developing countries and others who may not otherwise have access to the content, fulfilling one of the IHS's primary objectives to advance headache science, education, and management, and promote headache awareness worldwide
  • Published articles are made available with no subscription pay-walls; the full-text of articles are freely available online immediately upon publication
  • Cephalalgia Reports publishes under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC-BY-NC) which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. Though CC-BY-NC will be the default licence, Cephalalgia Reports will be able to accommodate authors who are required to publish under a CC-BY licence funder mandate, which allows use the work for commercial purposes
  • The journal publishes in full colour with no colour of page charges
  • Cephalalgia Reports uses a ScholarOne online manuscript and peer-review system; all papers are run through the iThenticate plagiarism software, then reviewed by at least two independent reviewers
  • Cephalalgia Reports has the same high-quality copy-editing, typesetting and online publication enjoyed by Cephalalgia

* The article processing charge (APC) is payable when a manuscript is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Please see further details here.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Published on behalf of the International Headache Society, Cephalalgia Reports is a peer reviewed, open access publication providing an international forum for original research papers, review articles, clinical perspectives, case reports, technical reports and short communications.

It actively encourages high quality papers in the following areas:
•Emerging observations with translational potential not yet realized
•Reports limited to regional relevance which may validate and add to existing studies
•RCTs with negative outcomes
•Confirmatory studies
•Technical reports
•Articles with a more clinical emphasis
•Pilot trials which may stimulate therapeutic innovation
•Scientifically rigorous pathophysiological and pharmacological studies

All articles are freely available online immediately upon publication.

All articles are rigorously peer-reviewed, and brought to publication as rapidly as possible.

For questions about submitting papers, or the suitability of your manuscript, please contact the Managing Editor, Wendy Krank:

Follow the journal on Twitter @cephreports.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Editor-in- Chief
Arne May Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Clinic Hamburg Eppendorf (UKE) Hamburg, Germany
Managing Editor
Wendy Krank Managing Editor, USA
Biostatistics Editor
James S. McGinley, PhD Vector Psychometric Group, USA
R.J. Wirth, PhD Vector Psychometric Group, USA
Historical Section Editor
Peter J. Koehler Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Studies, Maastricht University, Netherlands
Junior Editor
Mi Ji Lee Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, South Korea
Kuan Po Peng Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Clinic Hamburg Eppendorf (UKE) Hamburg, Germany
Publishing & Scientific Integrity Advisor
Peter J. Goadsby King's College London, UK
David W. Dodick Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, USA
Associate Editors
Frank Andrasik University of Memphis, USA
Massoud Ashina Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Rafael Benoliel Rutgers University, USA
Rami Burstein Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, USA
Shih-Pin Chen Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan
Gianluca Coppola Sapienza University of Rome Polo Pontino, Italy
Hans-Christoph Diener University Essen, Germany
Anne Ducros Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France
Stefan Evers University of Münster, Germany
Larus S. Gudmundsson University of Iceland, Iceland
Andrea Harriott Partners Healthcare System, USA
Andrew Hershey University of Cincinnati, USA
Jan Hoffmann Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, UK
Phillip R. Holland King's College London, UK
Timothy T. Houle Harvard Medical School, USA
Delphine Magis University of Liège, Belgium
Karl Messlinger University of Erlangen Nurenberg, Germany
Patricia Pozo-Rosich Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Spain
Ann Scher Uniformed Services University, USA
Todd Schwedt Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, USA
Am van den Maagdenberg Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands
Shuu-Jiun Wang Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan
Alessandro Zagami Prince of Wales Hospital, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Sydney, Australia
Deputy Associate Editor
Andrew Charles University of California, USA
  • ProQuest
  • Scopus
  • Cephalalgia Reports is a medical-neurological journal in the field of headache research, and is an official journal of the International Headache Society.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of Cephalalgia Reports will be reviewed.

    Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    The Journal requires that studies on headache and cervical pain adhere to the terminology, diagnostic disorders, and criteria within the ICHD (Cephalalgia. 2018 Jan;38(1):1-211) and studies on facial pain adhere to the terminology, diagnostic disordrs, and criteria within ICOP (Cephalalgia. 2020 Feb;40(2):129-221).​

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    If you have any questions about publishing with SAGE, please visit the SAGE Journal Solutions Portal

    Contact Cephalalgia Reports - email:

    Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Cephalalgia Reports

    1. Open Access
    2. Article processing charge (APC)
    3. Article Types
    4. Editorial policies

      4.1 Peer Review Policy
      4.2 Authorship
      4.3. Acknowledgements
      4.4 Funding
      4.5 Declarations of conflicting interests
      4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      4.7 Clinical trails

    5. Publishing policies
      5.1 Publication ethics
      5.1.1 Plagiarism
      5.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement

    6. Preparing your manuscript

      6.1 Formatting
      6.2 Research manuscript preparation guidelines
      6.3 Methodological/ Statistical Guidelines
      6.4. Writing your paper
      6.5 Make your article Discoverable
      6.6 Clinical Relevance bullet points
      6.7 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      6.8 Supplementary material
      6.9 Reference Style
      6.10 English language editing services

    7. Submitting your manuscript

      7.1 ORCID
      7.2 Information required for completing your submission
      7.3 Corresponding author contact details
      7.4 Permissions

    8. On acceptance and publication

      8.1 SAGE Production
      8.2 Online publication
      8.3 Promoting your article

    9. Further information

    1. Open Access

    Cephalalgia Reports is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution or author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.
    For general information on open access at SAGE please visit the Open Access page or view our Open Access FAQs.

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    2. Article processing charge (APC)
    If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons licence.

    Price Category  APC
    Full Price  $1,500
    IHS members  $1,000
    Junior IHS members and journal editorial board members


    Waivers: for authors from developing countries under the RESEARCH4LIFE scheme  



    The article processing charge (APC) is payable upon acceptance after peer review and is subject to value added tax (VAT) where applicable. If the paying author/institution is based in the European Union, to comply with European law, VAT must be added to the APC. Providing a VAT registration number will allow an institution to avoid paying this tax, except for UK institutions. Payments can be made in GBP or USD.

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    3. Article types

    Please read the following carefully and ensure that your submission meets the requirements to avoid automatic return or delay in the consideration of your paper.

    Cephalalgia Reports publishes original papers on all aspects of headache and actively encourages high quality papers in the following areas:

    Emerging observations with translational potential not yet realized
    Reports limited to regional relevance which may validate and add to existing studies
    RCTs with negative outcomes
    Confirmatory studies
    Technical reports
    Articles with a more clinical emphasis
    Pilot trials which may stimulate therapeutic innovation
    Scientifically rigorous pathophysiological and pharmacological studies

    Article Types accepted for submission:

    Letter to the Editor
    Clinical Correspondence (Case Report)
    Brief Report
    Original Article
    Book Review
    Historical Paper
    Technical Report
    Pilot Trial
    Regional Study
    Emerging Observations

    Original research papers
    If you are submitting a basic science research manuscript you are required to include two to five bullet points clearly summarizing the highlights of your research. This bullet points will appear at the end of your manuscript following the conclusion and prior to the reference list. Choose one of the following headings based upon the type of manuscript for your bullet points:

    Clinical based

    Clinical implications
    Public health relevance


    Basic science

    Article highlights
    Key findings

    The below table gives typical word counts for submissions to Cephalalgia Reports, however these are not set, fixed limits and the Editors can be flexible where necessary. Nevertheless, please do try to make your articles concise and make every effort to reduce the word count. Occasionally it may be necessary to go over the suggested word counts to accommodate important information but please note that Editors may still request that overly lengthy manuscripts are reduced in word count by the Authors.

    Table 1. Overview of recommended word counts for manuscript submissions to Cephalalgia Reports

    Summary table of article types:

    Original Research Paper   200 3,000 Up to 35 As necessary
    Reviews 200 3,500 Up to 45 As necessary 
    Case/short report 100 1,000 10 1-2
    Letter to the Editor n/a 500 3-5 n/a
    Personal viewpoints/ Future Perspectives n/a 1,500 10 1
    Editorial n/a 1,000 10 n/a

    * Excludes abstract, references, tables and legends
    ** For reference style please see section 9.3

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    4. Editorial policies

    4.1 Peer review policy
    Cephalalgia Reports operates a conventional single-blind reviewing policy in which the reviewer's name is always concealed from the submitting author.

    Generally, each manuscript is reviewed by at least two referees. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, and an editorial decision is generally reached within 2-4 weeks of submission.

    Please note that in any papers where the Editor-in-chief is an author the processing of the manuscript is handled by an Associate Editor and the Editor-in-chief is totally blinded from the procedure and will never have access to the peer reviewer details.

    4.2 Authorship
    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.
    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published,
    4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    4.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    4.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    •    Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input 
    •    Identify any entities that paid for this assistance 
    •    Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    4.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    4.4 Funding

    To comply with the guidance for Research Funders, Authors and Publishers issued by the Research Information Network (RIN), Cephalalgia Reports additionally requires all Authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. All research articles should have a funding acknowledgement in the form of a sentence as follows, with the funding agency written out in full, followed by the grant number in square brackets:

    This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number xxx].

    Multiple grant numbers should be separated by comma and space. Where the research was supported by more than one agency, the different agencies should be separated by semi-colon, with “and” before the final funder. Thus:

    This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Natural Environment Research Council [grant number zzzz]; and the Economic and Social Research Council [grant number aaaa].

    In some cases, research is not funded by a specific project grant, but rather from the block grant and other resources available to a university, college or other research institution. Where no specific funding has been provided for the research we ask that corresponding authors use the following sentence:

    This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

    IMPORTANT: If you have any concerns that the provision of this information may compromise your anonymity dependent on the peer review policy of this journal outlined above, you can withhold this information until final accepted manuscript.

    More information on the guidance for Research Funders, Authors and Publishers.

    4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of Cephalalgia Reports to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

    4.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    4.7 Clinical trials

    Cephalalgia Reports conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

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    5. Publishing policies

    5.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

    5.1.1 Plagiarism

    Cephalalgia Reports and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    5.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published, it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Cephalalgia Reports publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC), which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit SAGE's OA licenses page.

    Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.

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    6. Preparing your manuscript

    6.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    The text should be double-spaced throughout and with a minimum of 3cm for left and right hand margins and 5cm at head and foot. Text should be standard 10 or 12 point. SI units should be used throughout the text.

    Only electronic files conforming to the journal's guidelines will be accepted. Preferred formats for the text and tables of your manuscript are as noted above. It is important that all figures/images and tables are uploaded as separate files and are not embedded into the main text file. Please note that Cephalalgia Reports does not have a file category called "box". The file categories are main body, tables, figures, supporting documents. Please also refer to additional guidelines on submitting artwork and supporting files below.

    Any Original Research Papers submitted without a structured abstract will be returned to the author immediately without peer review, thus delaying the evaluation process of the manuscript.

    6.2 Research manuscript preparation guidelines
    General aspects

    Title: Use titles that describe the main aspect of your study, stimulate interest, are easy to read and concise, and state the design of the study (i.e., randomized controlled trial, case-control study, cohort study etc.). Main findings or interpretation of the study should not be included in the title.

    Abbreviations: Do not use abbreviations unless absolutely necessary. Often abbreviations make it difficult for readers to follow a paper, particularly if they are not experts in your field; consider abbreviating long names of chemical substances, genetic polymorphisms and terms for therapeutic combinations. It is appropriate to use abbreviations that are largely known, such as DNA. If abbreviations are used in tables or figures to save space, please explain all abbreviations in the legend.

    Introduction: Briefly introduce the background and significance to concisely set up the context of the specific research question for readers. Remember that your audience and the readership are generally knowledgeable about the issues related to common headache disorders and these aspects do not need to be repeated. Please abstain from using platitudes such as "Migraine affects 14% of the population" and "migraine is a disabling disease and/or affects a high percentage of people" in the structured abstract and throughout the manuscript. Economy of words is important and comments should be essential and specific to the subject matter of the manuscript and need for the study. End the introduction with a clear statement of the study’s objectives or hypotheses.

    Methods: For studies involving humans, describe how participants were selected and enrolled, and the sites or setting from which they were recruited. Describe study procedures including any details of interventions (if applicable), measurement and classification of main exposure (if applicable) and outcomes, and other data collection techniques. Consider the use of a figure to show study processes. Report how many individuals were eligible, how many declined to participate and how many were lost to follow-up. For studies that have numerical data and use statistical inference, include a section that describe all details of the statistical analyses (how groups were compared, model building strategies, specific software(s) used, etc.). See also specific statistical reporting guidelines below.

    Results: Fully describe the sample and setting of the study (if applicable) and provide characteristics of your study population. Present the finding of the primary outcome first followed by the result of secondary outcomes, exploratory outcomes, and subgroup analyses. Consider presenting main results in tables or figures and avoid repeating the same numbers in text, tables, and figures.

    Discussion: We encourage authors to structure the discussion and cover the following aspects: Summary of the main findings (primary outcomes first followed by secondary outcomes), discussion on how the findings compare with previously published studies, a brief description on potential biological mechanisms (if applicable), clinical, scientific and/or public health implications, strengths and limitations, unanswered questions and suggestions for further targeted research (if applicable).

    Funding: For all studies, include a statement describing all and any funding sources and the role of each funding source for the study. If the study had no external funding source or if the funding source had no role in the study, state so explicitly.

    Ethics or Institutional Review Board Approval: Please clearly indicate that the study obtained appropriate approval (or a statement and explanation of why it was not required), including the name of the ethics committee(s) or institutional review board(s), the number/ID of the approval(s). For human studies, please also add a statement that participants gave informed consent before taking part.

    Study Protocol: If your study protocol is registered (, etc.), please provide the registration number (required for intervention studies). The trail registration number should appear in the manuscript following the abstract. We encourage the registration of observational study protocols.

    Specific reporting aspects:

    Reports of clinical trials should adhere to the tenets of the CONSORT statement (JAMA 2001; 285: 1987-1991). A flow chart MUST be provided describing the progress of patients through the trial.

    A checklist of CONSORT requirements MUST be completed and uploaded into the manuscript files system. Alternatively, the forms may be sent to the Editorial Office by post, fax or scanned copies of the hand-signed forms can be e-mailed.

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should adhere to the principles of the PRISMA statement (BMJ 2009; 339:b2535). The PRISMA flow diagram MUST be provided and the checklist MUST also be completed. Both forms MUST be completed and uploaded into the manuscript files system. Alternatively, the forms may be sent to the Editorial Office by post or scanned copies of the hand-signed forms can be e-mailed.

    These SQUIRE guidelines provide a framework for reporting formal, planned studies designed to assess the nature and effectiveness of interventions to improve the quality and safety of care. The checklists and guidelines are available here. Please include a completed SQUIRE checklist at manuscript submission.

    The STROBE Statement is referred to in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The STOBE checklist MUST be completed and uploaded into the manuscript files system. Alternatively, the forms may be sent to the Editorial Office by post or scanned copies of the hand-signed forms can be e-mailed.

    Reporting checklists: Completed applicable checklists and appropriate documentation (flow diagram etc.) should be uploaded with your submission.

    ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments)

    CARE (for preparing reporting case reports that to provide more complete and transparent reporting for brief reports manuscripts. Consider the CARE manuscript template available on their site)

    CONSORT Statement (for reporting of randomized controlled trials: please use the appropriate extension to the CONSORT statement, including the extension for writing abstracts)

    MOOSE (for reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies). Cephalalgia Reports requires a copy of this completed checklist for meta-analyses of observational studies. Upload the document along with your manuscript submission. Download the MOOSE checklist

    PRISMA (for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials).

    SQUIRE (for reporting improvements in quality and safety of care)

    STARD (for reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies)

    STREGA (for reporting of gene-disease association studies) STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association studies – an extension of the STROBE statement

    STROBE (for reporting of observational studies in epidemiology) Checklist for cohort case-control, and cross-sectional studies

    6.3 Methodological/Statistical Guidelines

    Percentages: Report percentages to maximal of one decimal place (i.e., XX.X%). In studies with <300 participants it is recommended to show full numbers (i.e., XX%).

    P values: In the Methods section, please indicate whether you have calculated two- or one-tailed P values and which cut-off you have set for statistical significance. Please report all P values. Showing “n.s.” for not significant is not acceptable. For P values between 0.001 and 0.10, please report the value with three decimal places. For P values greater than 0.10, please report P values with two decimal places. For P values less than 0.001, report as “P<0.001.” Exceptions are genome-wide association studies. Do not only show P values for group differences but show the appropriate effect measure (i.e., relative risk, absolute risk, difference of means etc.).

    Relative risk estimates: Show all relative risk estimates with appropriate (i.e., 95%) confidence intervals. Do not show more than two decimal places. In smaller studies, there is often only power to show one decimal place.

    The term relative risk is often used as a generic term for odds ratios, hazard ratios, or rate ratios. We encourage using the precise term depending on the model used to calculate the relative risk measure (i.e., odds ratio for logistic regression models, hazard ratio for Cox proportional hazard models). If you use the term “relative risk” as a generic term, please indicate in the Methods section what relative risk stands for (i.e., we used a logistic regression model to calculate odds ratios as a measure of the relative risk).

    Absolute event rate: Please indicate in the Table(s) or text how many people had the outcome event(s) of interest according to the exposure or intervention status. In other words, do not show just the relative risk estimate or proportions without showing how many people went into the calculation.

    Absolute risks: Please consider showing absolute risk (i.e., risk difference, attributable risk, etc.) in addition to showing relative risk estimates. Often relative risk are large when there is only a small absolute effect (i.e., in setting were either the exposure or the outcome are rare), which can lead to over interpretation of findings. On the other hand, please keep in mind that absolute effects assume causality in a specific setting when interpreting absolute effect estimates. So caution should be used before making strong inference, in particular from observational research (i.e., XX% of the outcome events are explained by the exposure or XX% of the outcome can be avoided when the exposure is eliminated).

    Trend: use the word trend only when you have tested a trend across a specific variable (i.e., dose response) and report an appropriate P value for trend.

    Model building: We discourage the use of “stepwise” or automated selection procedure methods (i.e., such as forward or backward selection procedures) to build multivariable models. Exceptions are studies aiming to build prediction or prognostic models or studies that are set up to generate hypotheses for subsequent research (i.e., hypothesis generating studies, data mining, etc.). Regardless of the approach, the authors should clearly state in the Methods section how a multivariable model was built.

    Subgroup analyses: It is encouraged to limit the number of subgroup (or stratified) analyses. Subgroup analyses should be pre-specified and based on biological or clinical plausibility. P values of appropriate test for interaction should be provided. The inclusion of any not pre-specified subgroup or stratified analyses must be accompanied by a correction for multiple comparisons (e.g. Bonferroni).

    Missing data: Please report the amount of missing data and how you dealt with this.

    6.4 Writing your paper

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

    6.5 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

    Title page
    The title should be concise with no abbreviations. Please provide the surname, initials, department, institution, city and country of each author, and the name, email address, full mailing address, telephone number and fax number of the corresponding author. List six to eight keywords.

    The second page of the manuscript must contain only the abstract or summary. Given that Cephalalgia Reports is a journal devoted to headache and facial pain, readers are familiar with these diseases. Generally please avoid platitudes such as "migraine is a disabling disease and/or affects a high percentage of people" in the abstract and throughout the manuscript. The journal author guidelines require a structured abstract using 3 or 4 paragraphs without cite of references or abbreviations. Word count is not more than 250 words.

    Any papers received without a structured abstract will be returned to the corresponding author.

    6.6 Clinical relevance bullet points

    In order to ensure that your research is of interest to as wide an audience as possible it is important that you provide two to five bullet points summarizing your manuscript. Bullet points are fragment sentences and not paragraphs.

    If your article is clinically based use bullet points with either one of these headings: Clinical Implications or Public Health Relevance. The bullet point box is created by the publisher once the manuscript is accepted and sent to Production. Use bullet points with headings such as Article Highlights or Key Findings for research that is basic science based.

    Please include the manuscript bullet points in the main body of the manuscript after the conclusion and prior to the reference list. The authors are required to provide the same bullet points during Step 5 of the manuscript submission process.

    6.7 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online and in the print issue. There is no charge for reproducing figures in colour in the printed version.

    6.8 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files. 

    In some cases, the Editor of the journal may request, on acceptance, that figures/tables are moved to supplementary files if a large number of files appear in the manuscript. In these cases, we ask that the author supplies the items as individual files along with a title and description for all supplementary items.
     These supplementary files will not appear in the print version of the journal but will be available as additional files in the online version of the journal.
     A full guide on supplementary material can be found here

    6.9 Reference style

    Cephalalgia Reports operates a SAGE Vancouver reference style. Click here to review the guidelines on SAGE Vancouver to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you should download the SAGE Vancouver EndNote output file.

    Please include only one reference list. The source for any table and/or figures should be included in the main reference list and not as separate references. 

    All tables and figures should be numbered consecutively and cited in the text as Table 1, Table 2 etc. or Figure 1, Figure 2 etc. (Table and Figure should be spelled out in full, not abbreviated).

    Examples: figures/tables should be referenced in the text as follows:
    Figure 1, or Figures 1 and 2, or Figures 2 to 4, or Figure 1(a) and (b), or Figure 2(a) to (c).
    Table 1, or Table 2 and 2, or Table 2 t o4, or Table 1(a) and (b), or Table 2(a) to(c).
    Where the figure citation is not part of the sentence it should be placed in parentheses.

    6.10 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    7. Submitting your manuscript

    Before submitting your manuscript, please ensure you carefully read and adhere to all the guidelines and instructions to authors provided below. Manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned to your Author Center.

    Specifically, please upload the elements of the manuscripts as single file(s) and in the correct format using the file extension guide herein below:

    Document Files: .docx, .xlsx, .pptx, .doc; .htm; .ppt; .pdf; .rtf; .tex; .txt; .wpd; xls.

    Image Files: . ai (PDF types only. Post-script types not supported); .cgm; .dcx; .dib; .dicom; .epdf; .epi; .eps, eps2; .espf; .epsi; .fig; .fits; .fpx; .gif; .hpgl; .jpg; .jpeg; .ico; .mng; .pbm; .pcd; .pcds; .pcx; .pgm; .ppm; .png; .pnm; .ps, .ps2; .sun; .tga; .tif; .vicar; .vid; .viff; .xbm; .xpm; .xwd.

    Follow these recommendations to ensure that your files will properly convert to HTML and PDF:


    • File names do not include special characters, i.e. no ASCII;
    • File names are less than 25 characters long;
    • File names follow a simple format, i.e. "mymanuscript.doc".


    • Do not embed fonts;
    • Remove macros;
    • Remove hyperlinks from the main body;
    • Remove Field Codes (placeholders in Microsoft Word for data that might change in a document);
    • Verify your spreadsheet files only have single tab;
    • Reminder, use short file names without symbols.


    • Remove thumbnails from image files;
    • Verify your images are in single, flattened layer (e.g. no multi-pages TIFs);
    • Images must arrive as 300 dpi.


    .mp4, .mov
    To ensure an expedient review of all manuscripts, and to assist the Editor and Associate Editors in allocating the most appropriate and knowledgeable reviewers for your manuscript, please list five key references from your reference list, along with the senior author’s email address and contact information from each of these five references. The key references are reported in the database only (Step 4), please do not include the key references within the main body of the manuScripts.

    Cephalalgia Reports is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created. For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    Submitting a new manuscript through the online system:

    When making a submission, the following separate, unpaginated documents should be uploaded. The lines should not be numbered as this occurs within the online pdf. Please do not submit one combined document. The separate files will be combined into a pdf in the online system.

    1. Title page (title, names of authors, affiliations, keywords, corresponding author)
    2. Main document (includes structured abstract, main text, acknowledgements, references)
    3. Tables (each as a separate Word document)
    4. Figure legends (Word document)
    5. Figures (as separate tiff, jpg or eps files)
    6. Any supplementary files

    Submitting a Revision:
    Authors submitting revised manuscripts should follow the submission instructions available in the Author Centre and submit through the SAGE track system. To create a revision, go to the ‘Manuscripts with Decisions’ option in your Author Dashboard and select ‘create a revision in the ‘Action’ column. The main body of the revised manuscript should arrive in tracked changes. Enter the Response to Reviewers in the database. The authors should upload a separate file that is labeled Response to Reviewers as a supporting document. It is recommended the authors upload a clean version with all tracked changes accepted as a supporting document file. Should the revised manuscript include a change in authorship please include an Author change form to ensure that all authors are in agreement for the change in authorship.

    All manuscripts must be submitted via the online system.

    If you would like to discuss your manuscript prior to submission, please refer to the contact details below.

    Wendy Krank
    Managing Editor
    Cephalalgia Editorial Office

    7.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities ensuring that their work is recognised.

    We encourage all authors to add their ORCIDs to their SAGE Track accounts and include their ORCIDs as part of the submission process. If you don’t already have one you can create one here.

    7.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    7.3 Corresponding author contact details

    Provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. Academic affiliations are required for all co-authors. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    7.4 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway

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    8. On acceptance and publication

    If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the contributor’s publishing agreement. Once your manuscript files have been check for SAGE Production, the corresponding author will be asked to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link. Once the APC has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and can appear online within an average of approximately 30 days. Please note that no production work will occur on your paper until the APC has been received.

    8.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.

    8.2 Online publication

    One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.

    8.3 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    9. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Cephalalgia Reports editorial office as follows:

    Wendy Krank
    Managing Editor
    Cephalalgia Reports Editorial Office

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