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Six Principles for Teaching English Language Learners in All Classrooms

Six Principles for Teaching English Language Learners in All Classrooms

September 2008 | 168 pages | Corwin
Schools are not able to provide specialized classrooms for all English learners, especially when several languages besides English are spoken by ELLs. While the ELL population continues to grow, most teachers are monolingual and have little or no training on how to teach these students. This book uses a model that was designed around the five CREDE (Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence) standards for effective pedagogy: (1) joint productive activity; (2) language learning; (3) contextualization; (4) rigorous curriculum; and (5) instruction conversations. These five standards correspond to the authors' first five principles. The sixth principle --engaging families of english language learners --has also been found to have a positive impact on students' academic success. The book includes an array of powerful examples taken from a diverse range of K - 12 settings. The examples provide clear illustrations of teaching strategies that support the authors' principles. K - 12 teachers will discover that while these principles are particularly effective when applied to English Learners, they will ultimately be of benefit to all learners.
1. Introduction
English Language Learners of All Kinds

Language Learning: How Does It Happen?


All Teachers as Teachers of English Language Learners

A Look Back Is a Look Forward

Overview of the Book

Cast of Characters

A Note for Readers

2. Six Principles for Teaching English Language Learners: The Instructional Model
The CREDE Five Pedagogy Standards

The Model Enacted in Seventh Grade

Reflection on Cori's Teaching

Cori and the CREDE Standards

Joint Productive Activity


Language and Literacy

Rigorous Curriculum

Instructional Conversation

This Seems Overwhelming: Can I Do It?

Scaffolding the Five Standards

3. Joint Productive Activity (JPA) and English Language Learners
Reflection on Vickie's Lesson

Rationale/Definition of JPA

Is This JPA? Indicators of Joint Productive Activity

Classroom Culture

The Juggling Act: Grouping and Scheduling of JPA

Example of JPA in Study of Race and Racism

Reflection on Justin's Teaching

JPA in Middle School ESL: Learning From Our Mistakes

Reflection on Jayne's Teaching

Assessing JPA in Your Teaching

Teaching Tips for JPA

4. Contextualization and English Language Learners: Making Learning Meaningful
Reflection of Johanna's Teaching

Meaning of Contextualization

Are We Connecting? Indicators of Contextualization

Examples of Contextualization

Contextualization in Middle School Language Arts

Contextualization in Kindergarten

Contextualization in Fourth-Grade Science and Mathematics

Reflection on Examples

Assessing Contextualization of Lessons

Teaching Tips

5. Language and Literacy for ELLs
Rationale/definition of Developing Language and Literacy

Indicators of Language and Literacy Teaching

The Case for Home Language Development

Reading Instruction and ELLs

Georgia's Second Grade

Mary's Fourth Grade

Writing in Middle School

Writing Across the Curriculum

Tips for Language and Literacy Teachers

Assessing Your Language and Literacy Teaching

6. Engaging Students With Rigorous Curriculum: High Expectations for English Language Students
Meaning of Rigorous Curriculum

Indicators of Rigorous Curriculum

Examples of Rigorous Curriculum

Rigorous Curriculum Enacted in Kindergarten

Rigorous Curriculum Enacted in Middle Grades Language Arts

Reflection on Examples

Questions to Guide Planning

Teaching Tips

Assessing Your Rigorous Curriculum

7. Instructional Conversation (IC)
Rationale and Definition of IC

How Does IC Differ From Traditional Teaching?

Beyond Discussion: Indicators of Instructional Conversation

Assistance Through Good Questioning

Think-Pair-Share Strategy

Examples of IC

Instructional Conversation in Middle School

Instructional Conversation With Young Children

Tips for Instructional Conversation

Assessing Your IC

8. Engaging Families of English Language Learners
Importance of Involving Families

Successful Ways to Involve Families of English Language Learners

Communicating With Families

Involving Families in Classrooms

Increasing Help at Home

Engaging Families in Workshops and Other School Events

Visiting in Students' Homes

Challenges to Involving Families

Tips for Engaging Families

Assessing Your Family Involvement

9. Conclusion
Beyond a Model Approach

Compatible Views

Development of CREDE Standards

Preparation of Teachers and Teacher Educators

Concluding Remarks


"A highly accessible and practical resource for applying sociocultural theory to both pedagogy and parent involvement. It begins with theory, but then provides excellent examples of how the principles might be meaningfully applied in real classrooms."

Robert Rueda, Professor
University of Southern California

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