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Assessing Teacher Dispositions

Assessing Teacher Dispositions
Five Standards-Based Steps to Valid Measurement Using the DAATS Model

Foreword by Richard C. Kunkel

July 2007 | 296 pages | Corwin
This companion volume to the authors' Assessing Teacher Competency provides schools of education, teacher induction programs, and school districts with the safe, valid, and reliable framework for assessing and measuring teacher dispositions that they have long sought. Teacher affect and disposition have always been more difficult to define and measure than teacher knowledge and skills (competency), but together those three measures define the standards of best practice set by NCATE, INTASC, and NBPTS. The authors' 5-step DAATS model for measuring teacher affect and dispositions is research based, field tested, and presented in a step-by-step sequence with worksheets, training activities, and examples from both pre-service and in-service settings. The DAATS model for assessing teacher dispositions may be used on its own, or it may be used in conjunction with the authors' CAATS model for assessing teacher competency (knowledge and skills) as part of a comprehensive assessment system.
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Boxes
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms
Foreword by Richard C. Kunkel
About the Authors
1. What Are Dispositions and Why Should We Measure Them?
What This Chapter Is About

The Importance of Measuring Dispositions

The Challenge

What Are Standards-Based Dispositions?

Hierarchical Relationships Among Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions

Remembering Bloom

Dispositions and Accreditation Requirements: Requirements and Definitions

Measuring Dispositions: Sources of Confusion

Measuring Dispositions: Morals, Ethics, or Standards Based?

Different Construct, Different Assessments, Similar Assessment Design Process

Wrap Up

Activity 1.1: Questions for Exploration

Activity 1.2: What Have You Noticed?

Activity 1.3: Assessment Belief Scale

Activity 1.4: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Objectives and Assessments

2. Methods for Assessing Dispositions
What This Chapter Is About

A Conceptual Framework for Measuring Dispositions

Measuring Teacher Dispositions: The State of the Art

Back to Basics: Bloom and Krathwhol

Available Methods for Measuring Dispositions or Affect

The Importance of Inference in Measuring Dispositions

Wrap Up

Activity 2.1: Questions for Exploration

Activity 2.2: Bloom and the INTASC Principles

Activity 2.3: Field Work

Activity 2.4: Review Your Feelings

3. DAATS Step 1: Assessment Design Inputs
Where We Have Been So Far

What This Chapter Is About

Why Are Purpose, Use, Propositions, and Content So Important?

DAATS Step 1A: Define the Purpose(s) and Use(s) of the System

DAATS Step 1B: Define the Propositions or Principles That Guide the System

DAATS Step 1C: Define the Conceptual Framework or Content of the System

DAATS Step 1D: Review Local Factors That Impact the System

Wrap Up

Worksheet 3.1: Purpose, Use, Propositions, Content, and Context Checksheet

Worksheet 3.2: Purpose, Use, Content, Draft

Worksheet 3.3: Propositions

Worksheet 3.4: Contextual Analysis

4. DAATS Step 2: Planning With a Continuing Eye on Valid Assessment Decisions
Where We Have Been So Far

What This Chapter Is About

DAATS Step 2A: Analyze Standards and Indicators

All Those Indicators

Why Bother?

DAATS Step 2B: Visualize the Teacher Demonstrating the Affective Targets

DAATS Step 2C: Select Assessment Methods at Different Levels of Inference

DAATS Step 2D: Build an Assessment Framework Correlating Standards and Methods

Wrap Up


Worksheet 4.1: Organizing for Alignment (Version 1)

Worksheet 4.2: Organizing for Alignment (Version 2)

Worksheet 4.3: Visualizing the Dispositional Statements

Worksheet 4.4: Selecting Assessment Methods for INTASC Indicators

Worksheet 4.5: Assessment Methods for INTASC Indicators: Blueprint

Worksheet 4.6: Cost/Benefit and Coverage Analysis of Assessment Methods

5. DAATS Step 3: Instrument Development
Where We Have Been So Far

What This Chapter Is About

DAATS Step 3A: Draft items for Each Instrument

Thurstone Agreement Scales

Questionnaires, Interviews, and Focus Groups

Observed Performance

Thematic Apperception Tests or Situation Reflection Assessment

DAATS Step 3B: Review Items for Applicability to Values, Domain Coverage, Job Relevance

Wrap Up

Worksheet 5.1: Creating Scales

Worksheet 5.2: Creating Questionnaires, Interviews, or K-12 Focus Group Protocols

Worksheet 5.3: Creating an Affective Behaviour Checklist

Worksheet 5.4: Creating an Affective Behaviour Rating Scale

Worksheet 5.5: Creating a Tally Sheet for Affective Observation

Worksheet 5.6: Checklist for Reviewing Scale Drafts

Worksheet 5.7: Review Sheets for Questionnaires and Interviews

Worksheet 5.8: Review Sheets for K-12 Focus Group Protocols

Worksheet 5.9: Checklist for Reviewing Observations and Behavioral Checklists

Worksheet 5.10: Coverage Check

Worksheet 5.11: Rating Form for Stakeholder Review

6. DAATS Step 4: Decision Making and Data Management
Where We Have Been So Far

What This Chapter Is About

DAATS Step 4A: Develop Scoring Rubrics

Dichotomous Response Scoring Keys

Rating Scale Rubrics

DAATS Step 4B: Determine How Data Will Be Combined and Used

Need for Shared Data

Data Storage

Data Aggregation

Maximizing the Utility of the Data for Decision Making

DAATS Step 4C: Develop Implementation Procedures and Materials

Preponderance of the Evidence vs. Cut Scores

Advising and Due Process

Scoring Procedures


Wrap Up

Worksheet #6.1: Explanation of Dichotomous Scoring Decisions

Worksheet #6.2: Rubric Design

Worksheet #6.3: Sample Format for Candidate/Teacher Tracking Form

Worksheet #6.4: Format for Data Aggregation

Worksheet #6.5: Sample Disposition Event Report

Worksheet #6.6: Management Plan

7. DAATS Step 5: Credible Data
Where We Have Been So Far

What This Chapter Is About

What Is Psychometric Integrity and Why Do We Have to Worry About It?

DAATS Step 5A: Create a Plan to Provide Evidence of Validity, Reliability, Fairness, and Utility

Elements of a Plan

Element 7.1: Purpose and Use

Element 7.2: Construct Measured

Element 7.3: Interpretation and Reporting of Scores

Element 7.4: Assessment Specifications and Content Map

Element 7.5: Assessor/Rater Selection and Training Procedures

Element 7.6: Analysis Methodology

Element 7.7: External Review Personnel and Methodology

Element 7.8: Evidence of Validity, Reliability, and Fairness (VRF)

Psychometric Evidence Collected Already

Next Steps in Collecting Evidence of Validity, Reliability, and Fairness

Future Studies

DAATS Step 5B: Implement the Plan Conscientiously

Wrap Up

Worksheets and Examples

Worksheet 7.1: Assessment Specifications

Worksheet 7.2: Analysis of Appropriateness of Decisions for Teacher Failures

Worksheet 7.3: Analysis of Rehire Data

Worksheet 7.4: Program Improvement Record

Worksheet 7.5: Expert Rescoring

Worksheet 7.6: Fairness Review

Worksheet 7.7: Analysis of Remediation Efforts and EO Impact

Worksheet 7.8: Psychometric Plan Format

Example 1: Logistic Ruler for Content Validity

Example 2: Computation of the Lawshe (1975) Content Validity Ratio

Example 3: Disparate Impact Analysis

Example 4: Computation of Cohen's Kappa (1960) for Inter-rater Reliability

Example 5: Two Pearson Correlation Coefficients and Scatterplots: Disposition Scores Correlated with PRAXIS and Portfolio Scores

Example 6: Spearman Correlation Coefficient and Scatterplot: Disposition Scores Correlated With Principal Ratings

Example 7: Correlation Matrix and Scatterplots Knowledge, Impact, Dispositions, Skills (KIDS)

Example 8: T-Test Comparing Dispositions of Mathematics and Science Teachers

Example 9: DIF Analysis for Programs

8. Using Teacher Scores for Continuous Improvement
What This Chapter Is About

Reasons Why We Use the Rasch Model

The Classical Approach

A Quick Overview of Where Rasch Fits Into the Grand Scheme of IRT Models

Rasch: The Basics

Getting Started

Differences That Item Writers Make

Guttman Scaling

A Sample Rasch Ruler

From Pictures to Numbers

The Fit Statistic

Gain Scores " Real or Imagined'

Ratings and Raters

Learning More About Rasch

Wrap Up

Activity #1: Decision-Making Tool for Measurement

9. Legal Integrity
What This Chapter Is About

Why Not Portfolios?

Why the Pied Piper?

What IF?? A Legal Scenario: Mary Beth JoAnne Sues XYZ University

MBJ Helps Us to Understand the Convergency of Psychometrics and Legal Requirements

Background Facts

Scenario #1

Scenarios #2, 3, and 4

Psychometric Issues and Legal Challenges in the Real World

Legal Issues and Precedents

Three Landmark Dispositions Cases in Two Years

Tide Changing in NCATE

Standards Are the Vanguard!

MBJ Revisited

End Note

Resource I. DAATS Steps and Worksheets
Resource II. INTASC Disposition Indicators

"The text has been well researched, is standards-based, and includes activities, worksheets, definitions, and rubrics. It addresses a topic that has been a mystery to assessment gurus."

Marilyn K. Troupe, Director, Division of Educator Preparation
Kentucky Education Professional Standards Board

“We have all been through statistics classes and measurement classes, but this text actually helps us apply measurement ideas to the concept of dispositions. It should be extremely helpful to education faculty as well as to their liberal arts and science counterparts who often do not understand the concept of dispositions or why they are important and need to be measured or how one even begins to develop an assessment system that includes such measurements.”

Martha Gage, Director of Teacher Education and Licensure
Kansas State Department of Education

"School leaders will find an important, key tool to assessing teacher dispositions. It's been field-tested, so it isn't just theory. An essential guide."

California Bookwatch, August 2007

"This book is chock full of worksheets, assessment design techniques, staff discussion and training activities, and a variety of examples as to how the above can be used for pre-and in-service settings, with or without a statistical focus. This is not a book written for the average consumer, but rather for teacher educators, assessment designers, and K-12 school administrators and staff developers. From an instructor’s perspective, sections of the text would be excellent as an introduction to quantitative research methods for the social sciences."

Teachers College Record, August 2008

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