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Behavioral Neuroscience
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Behavioral Neuroscience
Essentials and Beyond

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December 2019 | 568 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
Behavioral Neuroscience: Essentials and Beyond shows students the basics of biological psychology using a modern and research-based perspective. With fresh coverage of applied topics and complex phenomena, including social neuroscience and consciousness, author Stéphane Gaskin delivers the most current research and developments surrounding the brain's functions through student-centered pedagogy. Carefully crafted features introduce students to challenging biological and neuroscience-based concepts through illustrations of real-life application, exploring myths and misconceptions, and addressing students' assumptions head on. 

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Preface
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
CHAPTER 1. Behavioral Neuroscience: Understanding Brain-Behavior Relationships
Introduction

 
 
Module 1.1. What Is Behavioral Neuroscience?
1.1.1 The Study of Brain-Behavior Relationships

 
1.1.2 A Quick Look at the Brain

 
1.1.3 Levels of Analysis: Putting Brain-Behavior Relationships in Perspective

 
1.1.4 A Closer Look at the Molecular Level: Genetics

 
 
Module 1.2. The Evolution of Brain-Behavior Relationships
1.2.1 Natural Selection

 
1.2.2 Neuroecology: How Natural Selection Accounts for Brain-Behavior Relationships

 
 
Module 1.3. The Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience
1.3.1 Antiquity

 
1.3.2 The Mind-Body Problem

 
1.3.3 Localization of Function

 
 
Module 1.4. Studying Brain-Behavior Relationships Today
1.4.1 Brain-Damaged Patients and Structural Brain Imaging

 
1.4.2 Lesioning, Stimulating, and Measuring the Brain’s Activity

 
1.4.3 Fields of Study Related to Behavioral Neuroscience

 
 
CHAPTER 2. Neurons and Glia
Introduction

 
 
Module 2.1. Putting Neurons Into Context
2.1.1 The Place of Neurons Within the Body

 
2.1.2 Cell Theory and the Neuron Doctrine

 
2.1.3 Studying Neurons

 
2.1.4 The Number of Neurons and Glia in the Brain

 
 
Module 2.2. The Structure of Neurons
2.2.1 The Prototypical Neuron

 
2.2.2 The Diversity of Neurons

 
 
Module 2.3. The Action Potential
2.3.1 A Little Bit of Chemistry

 
2.3.2 Initiation of Action Potentials

 
2.3.3 Propagation of Action Potentials

 
 
Module 2.4. Glia
2.4.1 Putting Glia Into Context

 
2.4.2 The Functions of Glia

 
 
CHAPTER 3. The Synapse, Neurotransmitters, Drugs, and Addiction
Introduction

 
 
Module 3.1. The Synapse
3.1.1 What Is a Synapse?

 
3.1.2 What Occurs at a Synapse?

 
3.1.3 Synaptic Integration

 
3.1.4 The Varieties of Synapses

 
 
Module 3.2. Neurotransmitters
3.2.1 What Are Neurotransmitters?

 
3.2.2 Neurotransmitter Systems: Pathways, Functions, and Receptors

 
 
Module 3.3. Drugs and Drug Addiction
3.3.1 What Is a Drug?

 
3.3.2 Drug Addiction

 
3.3.3 Neurobiological Models of Drug Addiction

 
3.3.4 Mechanisms of Action of Commonly Abused Drugs

 
 
CHAPTER 4. The Nervous System
Introduction

 
 
Module 4.1. Central Nervous System Development
4.1.1 Gastrulation

 
4.1.2 Neurulation

 
4.1.3 Differentiation of the Neural Tube Into the Primary Brain Vesicles

 
 
Module 4.2. The Fully Developed Brain
4.2.1 The Structures and Functions of the Forebrain: The Telencephalon

 
4.2.2 The Structures and Functions of the Forebrain: The Diencephalon

 
4.2.3 The Midbrain and the Hindbrain

 
4.2.4 The Spinal Cord

 
4.2.5 The Protected Brain

 
4.2.6 Hemispheric Specialization

 
 
Module 4.3. The Peripheral Nervous System
4.3.1 The Somatic Nervous System

 
4.3.2 The Autonomic Nervous System

 
 
CHAPTER 5. Neurodevelopment, Neuroplasticity, and Aging
Introduction

 
 
Module 5.1. Neurodevelopment
5.1.1 Neurogenesis, Cell Proliferation, Migration, Differentiation, and Synaptogenesis

 
5.1.2 Adult Neurogenesis

 
 
Module 5.2. Neuroplasticity
5.2.1 What Is Neuroplasticity?

 
5.2.2 Structural Remodeling

 
5.2.3 Synaptic Plasticity

 
5.2.4 Cortical Plasticity

 
5.2.5 When Cortical Plasticity Goes Overboard

 
 
Module 5.3. The Aging Brain: Adolescence and Old Age
5.3.1 The Adolescent Brain and Behavior

 
5.3.2 Normal Aging of the Brain

 
5.3.3 Disease in the Aging Brain

 
 
CHAPTER 6. Sensation and Perception 1: Vision and Hearing
Introduction

 
 
Module 6.1. Vision
6.1.1 The Beginnings of an Image

 
6.1.2 Phototransduction

 
6.1.3 Acuity and Sensitivity

 
6.1.4 Receptive Fields

 
6.1.5 Color Vision

 
6.1.6 Visual Processing Beyond the Retina

 
 
Module 6.2. Hearing
6.2.1 Physical and Perceptual Dimensions of Sound

 
6.2.2 The Ear

 
6.2.3 Auditory Processing Beyond the Basilar Membrane

 
 
CHAPTER 7. Sensation and Perception 2: Taste, Smell, and Touch
Introduction

 
 
Module 7.1. Taste
7.1.1 What Is Taste and What Is It Made Of?

 
7.1.2 Gustatory Chemoreceptors

 
7.1.3 Taste Receptor Cells and Their Mechanisms

 
7.1.4 Taste Perception: Beyond Taste Receptor Cells

 
 
Module 7.2. Smell
7.2.1 What Is Smell and What Is It Made Of?

 
7.2.2 Olfactory Receptor Neurons

 
7.2.3 Beyond the Olfactory Bulb

 
7.2.4 Pheromones

 
 
Module 7.3. Touch
7.3.1 What Is Touch and What Is It Made Of?

 
7.3.2 Mechanoreceptors

 
7.3.3 Conduction and Mechanoreceptors

 
7.3.4 Beyond Mechanoreceptors

 
7.3.5 Pain

 
 
CHAPTER 8. Sensorimotor Systems
Introduction

 
 
Module 8.1. This Is What Makes You Move
8.1.1 Muscles and Muscle Contraction

 
8.1.2 Innervation of Muscle Cells

 
8.1.3 How Muscles Contract

 
 
Module 8.2. Spinal Control of Movement
8.2.1 Spinal Reflexes

 
8.2.2 Motor Programs

 
 
Module 8.3. Cortical Control of Movement and Sensorimotor Integration
8.3.1 Proprioception

 
8.3.2 The Descending Pathways

 
8.3.3 Anatomy of Voluntary Movement

 
8.3.4 Putting It All Together

 
 
CHAPTER 9. Motivation: Theories, Temperature Regulation, Energy Balance, and Sleep
Introduction

 
 
Module 9.1. Theories of Motivation
9.1.1 What Is Motivation?

 
9.1.2 Need Reduction Theory

 
9.1.3 Arousal Theory

 
9.1.4 Pleasure Seeking and Reward

 
 
Module 9.2. Physiological Mechanisms
9.2.1 Temperature Regulation

 
9.2.2 Energy Balance, Hunger, and Eating

 
 
Module 9.3. Regulation of Sleep and Wakefulness
9.3.1 What Is Sleep?

 
9.3.2 Homeostatic and Circadian Influences on Sleep and Wakefulness

 
9.3.3 The Neurochemistry and Physiology of Wakefulness and Sleep

 
 
CHAPTER 10. Hormones: Social and Reproductive Behavior
Introduction

 
 
Module 10.1. What Are Hormones?
10.1.1 Hormones and Their Discovery

 
10.1.2 Types of Hormones and the Roles of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

 
10.1.3 Steroid and Nonsteroid Hormones

 
10.1.4 The Actions of Specific Pituitary Hormones

 
 
Module 10.2. Hormones and Behavior
10.2.1 Social Behavior

 
10.2.2 Sexual and Reproductive Behavior

 
 
Module 10.3. Organizing Effects of Hormones and Sexual Orientation
10.3.1 The Organizing Effects of Hormones

 
10.3.2 Sexual Orientation

 
 
CHAPTER 11. Emotions
Introduction

 
 
Module 11.1. What Are Emotions?
11.1.1 Emotions, Emotional Experience, and Emotional Expression

 
11.1.2 Theories of Emotions

 
 
Module 11.2. Emotions: Where in the Brain?
11.2.1 Emotional Networks in the Brain

 
11.2.2 Emotions and the Amygdala

 
11.2.3 Emotions and the Amygdala in Humans

 
 
Module 11.3. Emotions and Decision Making: Beyond the Amygdala
11.3.1 The Prefrontal Cortex

 
11.3.2 The Somatic-Marker Hypothesis

 
 
Module 11.4. Aggression
11.4.1 What Is Aggression?

 
11.4.2 Aggression in the Brain

 
11.4.3 Aggression: Testosterone, Cortisol, and Serotonin

 
 
CHAPTER 12. Memory and Memory Systems
Introduction

 
 
Module 12.1. Memory and Memory Systems
12.1.1 What Is Memory?

 
12.1.2 The Stages of Memory

 
12.1.3 The Registers of Memory

 
12.1.4 Working Memory and the Brain

 
 
Module 12.2. Long-Term Memory
12.2.1 What Is Long-Term Memory?

 
12.2.2 The Neuroanatomy of Long-Term Memory

 
 
Module 12.3. Memory Consolidation
12.3.1 What Is Memory Consolidation?

 
12.3.2 Theories of Memory Consolidation

 
 
Module 12.4. Navigating Through Space: Spatial Memory
12.4.1 What Is Spatial Memory? The Hippocampus as a Navigational Device

 
12.4.2 Cells for Space: An Internal GPS

 
12.4.3 The Hippocampus and Nonspatial Memory

 
 
Module 12.5. Learning: The Acquisition of Memories
12.5.1 What Is Learning?

 
12.5.2 Nonassociative Learning

 
12.5.3 Associative Learning

 
12.5.4 Synaptic Plasticity: Neurons That Wire Together Fire Together

 
 
CHAPTER 13. Attention and Consciousness
Introduction

 
 
Module 13.1. Attention
13.1.1 What Is Attention?

 
13.1.2 Concepts in the Study of Attention

 
13.1.3 Attention: Where in the Brain?

 
13.1.4 Disorders of Attention

 
 
Module 13.2. Consciousness
13.2.1 What Is Consciousness?

 
13.2.2 The Problems of Consciousness

 
13.2.3 The Neural Correlates and Contents of Consciousness

 
13.2.4 A Neurobiological Theory of Consciousness

 
13.2.5 Disorders of Consciousness

 
13.2.6 Hidden Consciousness

 
13.2.7 Free Will

 
 
CHAPTER 14. Psychological Disorders
Introduction

 
 
Module 14.1. What Is a Psychological Disorder?
14.1.1 Defining Psychological Disorder

 
14.1.2 The Interacting Factors Behind Psychological Disorders

 
 
Module 14.2. Anxiety Disorders and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
14.2.1 Anxiety, Fear, and Anxiety Disorders

 
14.2.2 The Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders

 
14.2.3 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

 
14.2.4 The Neurobiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

 
 
Module 14.3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
14.3.1 What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder?

 
14.3.2 The Neurobiology of Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder

 
 
Module 14.4. Major Depressive Disorder
14.4.1 What Is Major Depressive Disorder?

 
14.4.2 The Neurobiology of Major Depressive Disorder

 
 
Module 14.5. Schizophrenia
14.5.1 What Is Schizophrenia?

 
14.5.2 The Neurobiology of Schizophrenia

 
 
CHAPTER 15. Social Neuroscience
Introduction

 
 
Module 15.1. What Is Social Neuroscience?
15.1.1 Social Neuroscience: The Chicken or the Egg?

 
15.1.2 The Social-Neuroscientific Perspective

 
 
Module 15.2. Self-Awareness
15.2.1 What Is Self-Awareness?

 
15.2.2 Self-Awareness: Where in the Brain?

 
 
Module 15.3. Theory of Mind and Empathy
15.3.1 What Is Theory of Mind?

 
15.3.2 Theory of Mind: Where in the Brain?

 
15.3.3 Empathy

 
 
Module 15.4. Social Pain
15.4.1 Two Dimensions of Physical Pain

 
15.4.2 Social Pain: Does It Really Hurt?

 
 
Module 15.5. Altruism
15.5.1 What Is Altruism?

 
15.5.2 Altruism: Where in the Brain?

 
 
Module 15.6. Cooperation and Trust
15.6.1 Game Theory

 
15.6.2 Game Theory and the Brain?

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Author Index
 
Subject Index

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"This textbook covers behavioral neuroscience from a research-driven perspective, while highlighting new findings in the field and discussing case studies related to the topic. It gives a fresh perspective and different lens on the field than what you would traditionally find in a behavioral neuroscience textbook, like the inclusion of neuromarketing."

Amanda ElBassiouny
Spring Hill College

"Behavioral Neuroscience provides a broad overview of physiological psychology that can serve as a foundation for learning about brain-behavior relationships and emerging subfields and applications of neuroscience."

Suzanne Clerkin
Purchase College, State University of New York

"This textbook's coverage goes into depth on the topics important to any psychology or biology student. It contains up-to-date research and covers multiple modalities. Supplementary materials are available and this is a fresh alternative to the textbooks currently available."

Tifani Fletcher
West Liberty University

"This is a very good introductory text on bio-psych. It is thorough, research-based, and has good ancillary resources, particularly for a new instructor."

Dennis J. Trickett
University of the Cumberlands

Sample Materials & Chapters

Chapter 11. Emotions

Chapter 13. Attention and Consciousness


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