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Behavior and Sequential Analyses
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Behavior and Sequential Analyses
Principles and Practice



March 2003 | 384 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
This book provides a step-by-step approach to the principles and practices of direct observation and behaviour analysis research and evaluation procedures. Emphasis is on computer-facilitated methods designed to collect and analyze both the multiple characteristics of behaviour and events of interest and the time-based or sequential characteristics of behaviour and event relationships. Particularly designed for highly interactive applied settings, the methods and procedures outlined are presented in an introductory manner that should, nonetheless, still prove relevant to advanced students and seasoned researchers across the social and behavioural sciences and education. The text includes background and philosophy of applied behaviour analysis methodology, procedures for observation system construction and recommendations for handling reliability and treatment fidelity issues, a variety of data recording methods and research design types, graph preparation and visual and statistical discrete and sequential data analysis procedures, and an overview of recommended research, evaluation, and instructional applications for education, psychology and social science settings. The book contains references to software resources, including the BEST and BESTPCC data collection and analysis package developed by the authors, highlighting technological innovations in methods for this field. BEST is distributed by Scolari, the software division of SAGE Publications (www.scolari.co.uk).
 
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
 
DEDICATION
 
FOREWORD BY TOM SHARPE
 
PART I: BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS: HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION
 
CHAPTER ONE: History and Evolution
Terms and Study Guide

 
A Brief History of Behavior Analysis

 
Science as a Direct Observation, Descriptive Enterprise

 
Toward a Multiple Research Method Compatibility Theory

 
Some Myths About Behavior Analysis Debunked

 
Overview of Behavior Analysis Principles and Practice

Overview

Overview

Overview

Overview

Overview

 
 
CHAPTER TWO: A Behavior and Sequential Analyses Primer
Terms and Study Guide

 
Some Introductory Terms

 
Behavior Analysis Unpacked

 
Foundations of Field Systems and Sequential Analyses

 
Behavior Alayisis as a Descriptive/Explanatory Enterprise

 
How Behavior Analysis Conceptualized Mental Events

An Endnote on "Feelings" and Metaphysical Explanations

An Endnote on "Feelings" and Metaphysical Explanations

An Endnote on "Feelings" and Metaphysical Explanations

 
 
CHAPTER THREE: An Interbehavioral Multi-Event Perspective
Terms and Study Guide

 
From Science to Technology

 
Differences in Assessment: Modeling an Interbehavioral Lens
Differences in Assessment: Modeling an Interbehavioral Lens
Differences in Assessment: Modeling an Interbehavioral Lens

 
Multi-Event Theory in the Applied Sciences
Multi-Event Theory in the Applied Sciences

Multi-Event Theory in the Applied Sciences

Multi-Event Theory in the Applied Sciences
Multi-Event Theory in the Applied Sciences

 
The Implications of Computer Technology

 
Some Assumptions and Limitations

 
A Preface to Behavior Analysis Methodology

 
 
PART II: CONSTRUCTING OBSERVATIONAL SYSTEMS
 
CHAPTER FOUR: Constructing a Coding Scheme
Terms and Study Guide

 
A Preface to Category System Construction

 
Defining Purposes

 
Determining Observation System Characteristics

 
Recording Physical Versus Social Coding Schemes

 
How to Construct Operational Definitions

 
 
CHAPTER FIVE: Inderdisciplinary Examples and Illustrations
Terms and Study Guide

 
A General Framework for Developing a Coding Scheme

 
Examples From Teacher Education

 
Examples From School Psychology

 
Examples From Special Education

 
An Illustration From Clinical Psychology

 
A Systems Code From Ethology

 
 
CHAPTER SIX: Reliability and Staff Training
Terms and Study Guide

 
The Purposes of Assessment

 
The Issue of Data Accuracy

 
A Recommended Three-Step Reliability Process

 
Treatment Fidelity

 
Reliability Formula Summaries

 
Summary and Foreground for Part III

 
 
PART III: RECORDING TACTICS, DESIGN TYPES, AND DATA ANALYSIS
 
CHAPTER SEVEN: Approaches to Recording Direct Observational Data
Terms and Study Guide

 
Measurement Options

 
Traditional Recording Methods

 
Recording in Real Time

 
 
CHAPTER EIGHT: Constructing an Appropriate Research Design
Terms and Study Guide

 
Validity Issues

 
The Simplest Case: An ABAB Design

 
The Multiple Baseline Design

 
Additional Design Options

 
Design Choice Summary

 
 
CHAPTER NINE: Analyzing Observational Data
Terms and Study Guide

 
Preparing a Graph

 
Visual Inspection

 
The Challenge of Statistical Analyses

 
Some Recommendations Regarding Statistical Analyses

 
Sequential Analyses

 
An Endnote on Sequential Data

 
 
PART IV: APPLICATION ILLUSTRATIONS AND A WINDOW TO THE FUTURE
 
CHAPTER TEN: Measurably Superior Instruction and Therapy
Terms and Study Guide

 
A Return to the Counting of Things?

 
Research and Development Opportunities

 
Instruction and Evaluation

 
Laboratory Applications

 
 
APPENDIX A: SEQUENTIAL ANALYSIS FORMULAE
 
APPENDIX B: BEHAVIOR EVALUATION STRATEGY AND TAXONOMY (BEST) SOFTWARE
 
REFERENCES

"Sharpe and Koperwas provide a methodological framework that objectifies the complexity of behavior. This book’s quantitative and multiple-event approach to data collection and analysis is essential for effective descriptions and explanations of the behavior of humans and nonhumans. Of particular note is the multidisciplinary applicability of the methodology and that the methods can be used by basic, applied, and clinical researchers. Human service providers are being increasingly pressured to take objective measures; practitioners should find much in this book to help them satisfactorily meet these demands. The authors’ sensitivity to clarity of presentation makes the book an excellent primary or supplementary text for any course in behavior methodology."

Dennis J. Delprato
Eastern Michigan University

"I think the author did a very thoughtful, informed analysis and presentation of his view of research methodology."

Richard W. Malott
Western Michigan University

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Sample Materials & Chapters

CHAPTER ONE: History and Evolution


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