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American Sociological Review

American Sociological Review

Published in Association with American Sociological Association
Other Titles in:
Sociology (General)

eISSN: 19398271 | ISSN: 00031224 | Current volume: 86 | Current issue: 5 Frequency: Bi-monthly
American Sociological Review (ASR) is the American Sociological Association’s flagship journal. The ASA founded this journal in 1936 with the mission to publish original works of interest to the discipline of sociology in general, new theoretical developments, results of research that advance understanding of fundamental social processes, and important methodological innovations. All areas of sociology are welcome in ASR. Emphasis is on exceptional quality and general interest.


The American Sociological Association (ASA), founded in 1905, is a non-profit membership association dedicated to advancing sociology as a scientific discipline and profession serving the public good. With 12,000 members, ASA encompasses sociologists who are faculty members at colleges and universities, researchers, practitioners, and students. About 20 percent of the members work in government, business, or non-profit organizations. ASA hosts an annual meeting with more than 6,000 participants and publishes 14 professional journals and magazines.

As the national organization for sociologists, ASA, through its Executive Office, is well positioned to provide a unique set of services to its members and to promote the vitality, visibility, and diversity of the discipline. Working at the national and international levels, ASA aims to articulate policy and implement programs likely to have the broadest possible impact for sociology now and in the future.


American Sociological Review (ASR) is the American Sociological Association’s flagship journal. The ASA founded this journal in 1936 with the mission to publish original works of interest to the discipline of sociology in general, new theoretical developments, results of research that advance understanding of fundamental social processes, and important methodological innovations. All areas of sociology are welcome in ASR. Emphasis is on exceptional quality and general interest.

Arthur S. Alderson Indiana University-Bloomington
Dina G. Okamoto Indiana University-Bloomington
Deputy Editors
Elizabeth A. Armstrong University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
Tak Wing Chan University College London
Laura J. Enriquez University of California-Berkeley
Filiz Garip Princeton University
Alexandra A. Killewald Harvard University
Wendy Diane Manning Bowling Green State University
Steven Pfaff University of Washington
Olav Sorenson University of California-Los Angeles
Patrick T. Sharkey Princeton University
Florencia Torche Stanford University
Editorial Board
Maria Abascal New York University
Cawo Mohamed Abdi University of Minnesota-Twin Cities
Sharla N. Alegria University of California-Merced
Katrin Auspurg University of Munich, Germany
Joyce M. Bell University of Chicago
Monica C. Bell Yale University
Kelly Bergstrand University of Texas-Arlington
Elizabeth Popp Berman University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
Thomas Biegert London School of Economics and Political Science
Sarah Brayne University of Texas-Austin, USA
Karida Brown University of California-Los Angeles
William J. Carbonaro University of Notre Dame, USA
Siwei Cheng New York University
Christina Diaz University of Arizona, USA
John Major Eason University of Wisconsin-Madison
Sinikka Elliott University of British Columbia, Canada
John-Paul Ferguson McGill University
René D. Flores University of Chicago
Eric Fong University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Sam Friedman London School of Economics, UK
Bridget Goosby University of Texas-Austin
Stine Grodal Northeastern University
Tod G. Hamilton Princeton University
Caroline Hanley College of William and Mary
Patricia Homan Florida State University
Elizabeth Hordge-Freeman University of South Florida
Amy Hsin CUNY-Queens College, USA
Greta Hsu University of California, Davis, USA
Anthony Abraham Jack Harvard University
Kara Joyner University of Texas-San Antonio
Jiwook Jung University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Ali Kadivar Boston College
Derek Kreager Pennsylvania State University
Joscha Legewie Harvard University
Ming D. Leung University of California-Irvine
Tim Futing Liao University of Illinois
Daniel E. Martinez University of Arizona
Tey Meadow Columbia University
Ashley E. Mears Boston University
Trenton D. Mize Purdue University
Kelly Musick Cornell University
Shira Offer Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Chinyere Osuji Rutgers University-Camden
Andrew V. Papachristos Northwestern University
David Pedulla Stanford University
Victoria Reyes University of California - Riverside, USA
Lauren Rivera Northwestern University
Jake Rosenfeld Washington University-St. Louis
Ariela Schachter Washington Unviersity-St. Louis
Sheryl L. Skaggs University of Texas-Dallas
Jeffrey A. Smith University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Mitchell L. Stevens Stanford University
András Tilcsik University of Toronto, Canada
Catherine J. Turco Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Stefaan Walgrave University of Antwerp, Belgium
Natasha Warikoo Tufts University
Katherine Weisshaar University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
Laurel Westbrook Grand Valley State University, USA
Cristobal Young Cornell University
Alford A. Young, Jr. University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
Wei-hsin Yu University of California-Los Angeles
Xiang Zhou Harvard University, USA
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    Manuscript Submission Format: All text must be double-spaced and typed in Times New Roman, 12-point font size. Margins should be at least 1 inch on all four sides. You may cite your own work, but do not use wording that identifies you as the author.

    Submission Requirements: Manuscripts submitted to ASR are processed electronically through SAGE Track. Authors can create an account and log in to submit a manuscript at As part of the blind peer review process, authors will need to upload a blinded manuscript without a title page, as well as a separate title page with the authors' institutional affiliations, acknowledgments, and contact information for the corresponding author.

    Authors will need to upload the following separate files/items into SAGE Track:

    • Cover Letter. Please provide complete contact information for the corresponding author (name, address, phone, e-mail), the complete manuscript title, and any other important and relevant information.
    • Abstract. Please upload an abstract of 200 words or fewer describing the purpose, methods, and general findings of the study.
    • Title Page. Please include authors' institutional affiliations, acknowledgments, word count, and contact information for the corresponding author.
    • Blinded Manuscript. Blinded manuscripts do not include the title page (or any self identifying information, see below). There is no need to include the abstract with the blinded manuscript.
    • $25.00 Non-refundable Manuscript Processing Fee. Authors must pay the non-refundable $25.00 manuscript processing fee electronically through SAGE Track. All new manuscripts require a fee unless authored by ASA student members.

    Address for Correspondence: American Sociological Review, Indiana University, 1020 E. Kirkwood Avenue, 744 Ballantine Hall, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47404; (812) 855-2791;

    NOTE: Additional details on preparing manuscripts for ASR are published in the ASA Style Guide (6th ed., 2019) available from the American Sociological Association.

    Ethics: Submission of a manuscript to another professional journal while it is under review by the ASR is regarded by the ASA as unethical. Significant findings or contributions that have already appeared (or will appear) elsewhere must be clearly identified. All persons who publish in ASA journals are required to abide by ASA guidelines and ethics codes regarding plagiarism and other ethical issues. This requirement includes adhering to ASA’s stated policy on data-sharing: “Sociologists make their data available after completion of the project or its major publications, except where proprietary agreements with employers, contractors, or clients preclude such accessibility or when it is impossible to share data and protect the confidentiality of the data or the anonymity of research participants (e.g., raw field notes or detailed information from ethnographic interviews)” (ASA Code of Ethics, 1997).


    All pages must be double-spaced (including notes and references) with margins measuring at least 1 inch (i.e., line length must not exceed 6-1/2 inches). Please use 12-point Times New Roman font. ASR Articles may not exceed 15,000 words in length including text, references, and footnotes (excluding tables and figures). ASR Comments/Replies should not exceed 3,000 words. Upload Comments and Replies directly into SAGE Track; ASR does not require that Comments first be sent to article authors.

    Sections in a manuscript may include the following: (1) Title page, (2) Abstract, (3) Text, (4) Notes, (5) References, (6) Tables, (7) Figures, and (8) Appendixes. Make sure to include a placeholder for all tables and figures in the main text (e.g., insert Table 1 here).

    1. Title page. Please include the following:
      1. Full article title
      2. Acknowledgments and credits
      3. Each author’s complete name and institutional affiliation(s)
      4. Grant numbers and/or funding information
      5. Key words (four or five)
      6. Corresponding author (name, address, phone, e-mail)
    2. Abstract. The abstract (150 to 200 words) should not include authors' names or other identifying information.
    3. Blinded Manuscript. The manuscript should not include the title page, authors' names or affiliations, or any other identifying information. ASR uses anonymous peer reviewers for manuscript evaluation. Delete or rewrite any text that identifies you as the author: when citing your own work, please write “Smith (1992) concluded...,” but do not write “I concluded (Smith 1992)....”
      1. Headings and subheadings. Generally, three heading levels are sufficient to organize text. See recent issues for examples.
      2. Citations in the text should provide the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers for direct quotes or specific passages. Cite only those works needed to provide evidence for your assertions and to refer to important sources on the topic. In the following examples of text citations, ellipses (...) indicate manuscript text:
      3. When author’s name is in the text, follow it with the year in parentheses—... Duncan (1959).
      4. When author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and year in parentheses—... (Gouldner 1963).
      5. Pages cited follow the year of publication after a colon—... (Ramirez and Weiss 1979:239–40)
      6. Provide last names for joint authors—... (Martin and Bailey 1988).
      7. For three authors, list all three last names in the first citation in the text—... (Carr, Smith, and Jones1962). For all subsequent citations use “et al.”—... (Carr et al. 1962). For works with four or more authors, use “et al.” throughout.
      8. For institutional authorship, supply minimal identification from the complete citation—... (U.S. Bureau of the Census 1963:117).
      9. List a series of citations in alphabetical order or date order separated by semicolons—... (Burgess 1968; Marwell et al. 1971).
      10. Use “forthcoming” to cite sources scheduled for publication. To preserve the anonymity, do not in general cite your own dissertations, working drafts, or unpublished papers.
      11. For machine-readable data files, cite authorship and date—... (Institute for Survey Research 1976).
      12. Notes should be numbered in the text consecutively using superscript Arabic numerals. When referring to a note later in the text, use a parenthetical note—... (see note 3)
      13. Equations: Use consecutive Arabic numerals in parentheses at the right margin to identify important equations.
    4. Note should be typed, double-spaced, in a separate “NOTES” section. Begin each note with the superscript numeral to which it is keyed in the text (e.g., “1. After 1981, there were…”). Notes can (a) explain or amplify text, (b) cite materials of limited availability, or (c) append information presented in a table or figure. Avoid long notes: consider (a) stating in the text that information is available from the author, (b) depositing the information in a national retrieval center and inserting a short footnote or a citation in the text, or (c) adding an appendix. Each note should not exceed 100 words.
    5. References are presented in a separate section headed “REFERENCES.” All references cited in the text must be listed in the reference section, and vice versa. Publication information for each must be complete and correct. List the references in alphabetical order by authors’ last names; include first names and middle initials for all authors when available. List two or more entries by the same author(s) in order of the year of publication. When the cited material is not yet published but has been accepted for publication, use “Forthcoming” in place of the date and give the journal name or publishing house. For dissertations and unpublished papers, cite the date and place the paper was presented and/or where it is available. If no date is available, use “n.d.” in place of the date. If two or more cited works are by the same author(s) within the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title and distinguish them by adding the letters a, b, c, etc., to the year (or to “Forthcoming”). For works with more than one author, only the name of the first author is inverted (e.g., “Jones, Arthur B., Colin D. Smith, and James Petersen”). List all authors; using “et al.” in the reference list is not acceptable. References for data sets should include a persistent identifier, such as a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Persistent identifiers ensure future access to unique published digital objects, such as a text or data set. Persistent identifiers are assigned to data sets by digital archives, such as institutional repositories and partners in the Data Preservation Alliance for the Social Sciences (Data-PASS). Refer to the ASA Style Guide (6th ed., 2019) for additional examples
      1. Books:
        Bernard, Claude. [1865] 1957. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Translated by H. C. Greene. New York: Dover.

        Mason, Karen O. 1974. Women’s Labor Force Participation and Fertility. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.

        U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1960. Characteristics of Population, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

      2. Periodicals:
        Goodman, Leo A. 1947a. “The Analysis of Systems of Qualitative Variables When Some of the Variables Are Unobservable. Part I—A Modified Latent Structure Approach.” American Journal of Sociology 79(5):1179–1259.

        Goodman, Leo A. 1947b. “Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis Using Both Identifiable and Unidentifiable Models.” Biometrika 61(2):215–31

        Szelényi, Szonja, and Jacqueline Olvera. Forthcoming. “The Declining Significance of Class: Does Gender Complicate the Story?” Theory and Society.

      3. Collections:
        Sampson, Robert J. 1992. “Family Management and Child Development: Insights from Social Disorganization Theory.” Pp. 63–93 in Advances in Criminology Theory, Vol. 3, Facts, Frameworks, and Forecasts, edited by J. McCord. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      4. Dissertations:
        Charles, Maria. 1990. “Occupational Sex Segregation: A Log-Linear Analysis of Patterns in 25 Industrial Countries.” PhD dissertation, Department of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

      5. Web sites:
        American Sociological Association. 1997. “Call for Help: Social Science Knowledge on Race, Racism, and Race Relations” (ASA Action Alert, October 15). Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.(

        Kao, Grace, and Jennifer Thompson. 2003. “Racial and Ethnic Stratification in Educational Achievement and Attainment.” Annual Review of Sociology 29:417–42. (

      6. Datasets:
        Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper, Susan Turner, and Joan Petersilia. 2000. "Intensive Community Supervision in Minnesota, 1990–1992: A Dual Experiment in Prison Diversion and Enhanced Supervised Release [Computer file]." ICPSR06849-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. (https//

    6. Tables should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include table titles. Tables will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially. Each table must include a descriptive title and headings for all columns and rows. Gather general notes to tables as “Note:”; use a, b, c, etc., for table footnotes. Use asterisks *, **, and *** to indicate significance at the p < .05, p < .01, and p < .001 levels, respectively, and always specify one-tailed or two-tailed tests. Generally, results at p > .05 (such as p < .10) should not be indicated as significant.
    7. Figures should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include figure captions. Figures will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially. Preferred programs and formats for figures include the following: Excel, Word, PowerPoint, .wmf, .emf, and .tiff (300 dpi).
      PERMISSION: The author(s) are responsible for securing permission to reproduce all copyrighted figures or materials before they are published by ASR. A copy of the written permission must be included with the manuscript submission.
    8. Appendixes should be lettered to distinguish them from numbered tables and figures. Include a descriptive title for each appendix (e.g., “Appendix A. Variable Names and Definitions”). 


    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

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