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A Brief Introduction to Criminal Justice
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A Brief Introduction to Criminal Justice
Practice and Process


Other Titles in:
Criminal Justice

November 2019 | 352 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

A Brief Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process is a condensed version of the best-selling Introduction to Criminal Justice: Practice and Process by Kenneth J. Peak and Tamara D. Madensen-Herold. This new text uses a practical, applied approach to teach students the foundations of the U.S. criminal justice system in a concise and accessible format. The authors draw on their many years of combined practitioner and academic experience to explain the importance of criminal justice and show how key trends, emerging issues, and practical lessons can be applied in the field.

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PREFACE
 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
 
PART I. CRIMINAL JUSTICE AS A SYSTEM: THE BASICS
 
Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: Essential Themes and Practices
Introduction

 
Foundations of Criminal Justice: Legal and Historical Bases

 
Crime Control and Due Process: Do Ends Justify Means?

 
Discretion: Making and Applying the Law

 
The Criminal Justice Process: An Overview of Flow and Functions

 
The Wedding Cake Model of Criminal Justice

 
Ethics Throughout the Criminal Justice System

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
Chapter 2. Foundations of Law and Crime: Nature, Elements, and Measurement
Introduction

 
Common Law and Its Progeny

 
Modern-Day Sources and Hierarchy of Law

 
Criminal and Civil Law

 
Substantive and Procedural Law

 
Essential Elements: Mens Rea and Actus Reus

 
Felonies and Misdemeanors

 
Offense Definitions and Categories

 
Measuring Crime and Victimization

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
Chapter 3. Ethical Essentials: Doing Right When No One Is Watching
Introduction

 
Good Examples of Bad Examples

 
Philosophical Foundations

 
Ethics in Policing

 
“Random Acts of Kindness”: The Hidden Side of Police Work

 
Ethics in the Courts

 
Ethical Conduct of Federal Employees

 
Ethics in Corrections

 
Ethics Tests for the Criminal Justice Student

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
PART II. THE POLICE
 
Chapter 4. Police Organization: Structure and Functions
Introduction

 
English and Colonial Roots: An Overview

 
Policing Comes to the United States

 
Federal Law Enforcement

 
State Agencies

 
Local Agencies: Municipal Police Departments and Sheriff’s Offices

 
Interested in a Career? Some General Considerations

 
On Guard: The Private Police

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
Chapter 5. Police Training, Patrolling, Investigating: Forming, Reforming, and Solving
Introduction

 
From Citizen to Patrol Officer

 
Having the “Right Stuff”: Defining the Role

 
Use of Discretion

 
Community Policing and Problem Solving

 
Use of Force: A Sacred Trust

 
From Patrol Officer to Detective: The Work of Forensics and Investigators

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
Chapter 6. Expounding The Constitution: Laws of Arrest, Search, and Seizure
Introduction

 
The Fourth Amendment

 
The Fifth Amendment

 
The Sixth Amendment

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
PART III. THE COURTS
 
Chapter 7. Court Organization: Structure, Functions, and the Trial Process
Introduction

 
American Courts: A Dual Court System

 
State Courts

 
Federal Courts

 
Making Preparations: Pretrial Processes

 
The Trial Process

 
Technologies in the Courts

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
Chapter 8. The Bench and The Bar: Those Who Judge, Prosecute, and Defend
Introduction

 
Those Who Would Be Judges: Selection Methods and Issues

 
Judges’ Benefits, Training, and Challenges

 
The Art of Judging, Courtroom Civility, and Judicial Misconduct

 
The Attorneys

 
Courtroom Work Group

 
Defenses

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
Chapter 9. Court Methods and Challenges: Sentencing and Punishment
Introduction

 
Purposes of Punishment

 
Types of Sentences to Be Served

 
Sentencing Guidelines

 
Victim Impact Statements

 
Capital Punishment

 
Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances

 
Criminal Appeals

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
PART IV. CORRECTIONS
 
Chapter 10. Prisons and Jails: Structure and Function
Introduction

 
Correctional Facilities as Organizations

 
State Prisons as Organizations

 
Federal Prisons

 
Supermax Prisons

 
Private Prisons

 
Jails as Organizations

 
Technologies in Correctional Facilities: Going After Contraband

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
Chapter 11. Corrections in the Community: Probation, Parole, and Other Alternatives to Incarceration
Introduction

 
Why Alternatives to Incarceration?

 
Origins of Probation and Parole

 
Probation and Parole Today

 
Functions of Probation and Parole Officers

 
Other Alternatives: Intermediate Sanctions

 
Confronting Recidivists: The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) Model

 
Restorative Justice

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
PART V. EXTRAORDINARY PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES
 
Chapter 12. On the Crime Policy and Prevention Agenda: Drug Abuse, Sex Trafficking, Terrorism, and Immigration
Introduction

 
America’s Drug Epidemic

 
Sex Trafficking

 
Policing Terrorism

 
Immigration: Who Should be Coming to America?

 
In a Nutshell

 
Key Terms & Concepts

 
Review Questions

 
Learn by Doing

 
 
ASSESS YOUR AWARENESS ANSWERS
 
GLOSSARY
 
NOTES
 
INDEX

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