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Using IBM® SPSS® Statistics
An Interactive Hands-On Approach

Third Edition

- James O. Aldrich - California State University, Northridge, USA

© 2019 | 504 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

*Now with a new companion website!*

**Using IBM® SPSS® Statistics: An Interactive Hands-On Approach,**gives readers an accessible and comprehensive guide to walking through SPSS®, providing them with step-by-step knowledge for effectively analyzing their data. From entering data to working with existing databases, and working with the help menu through performing factor analysis,

*Third Edition***Using IBM® SPSS® Statistics**covers every aspect of SPSS® from introductory through intermediate statistics. The book is divided into parts that focus on mastering SPSS® basics, dealing with univariate statistics and graphing, inferential statistics, relational statistics, and more. Written using IBM® SPSS® version 25 and 24, and compatible with the earlier releases, this book is one of the most comprehensive SPSS® guides available.

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Author

SECTION I. SPSS COMMANDS AND ASSIGNMENT OF LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT

1. First Encounters

1.1 Introduction and Objectives |

1.2 Entering, Analyzing, and Graphing Data |

1.3 Summary |

1.4 Review Exercises |

2. Navigating in SPSS

2.1 Introduction and Objectives |

2.2 SPSS Variable View Screen |

2.3 SPSS Data View Screen |

2.4 SPSS Main Menu |

2.5 Data Editor Toolbar |

2.6 Variable View Screen: A Closer Look |

2.7 Summary |

2.8 Review Exercises |

3. Getting Data In and Out of SPSS

3.1 Introduction and Objectives |

3.2 Typing Data Using the Computer Keyboard |

3.3 Saving Your SPSS Data Files |

3.4 Saving Your SPSS Output Files |

3.5 Opening Your Saved SPSS Files |

3.6 Opening SPSS Sample Files |

3.7 Copying and Pasting Data to Other Applications |

3.8 Exporting SPSS Files to Other Applications |

3.9 Importing Files From Other Applications |

3.10 Summary |

3.11 Review Exercises |

4. Levels of Measurement

4.1 Introduction and Objectives |

4.2 Variable View Screen: Measure Column |

4.3 Variables Measured at the Nominal Level |

4.4 Variables Measured at the Ordinal Level |

4.5 Variables Measured at the Scale Level |

4.6 Using SPSS to Suggest Variable Measurement Levels |

4.7 Summary |

4.8 Review Exercises |

5. Entering Variables and Data and Validating Data

5.1 Introduction and Objectives |

5.2 Entering Variables and Assigning Attributes (Properties) |

5.3 Entering Data for Each Variable |

5.4 Validating Data for Datasets |

5.5 Summary |

5.6 Review Exercises |

6. Working With Data and Variables

6.1 Introduction and Objectives |

6.2 Computing a New Variable |

6.3 Recoding Scale Data Into a String Variable |

6.4 Data Transformation |

6.5 Split Cases for Independent Analysis |

6.6 Obtaining a Simple Random Sample (SRS) |

6.7 Inserting New Variables and Cases Into Existing Datasets |

6.8 Data View Page: Copy, Cut, and Paste Procedures |

6.9 Summary |

6.10 Review Exercises |

7. Printing Data View, Variable View, and Output Viewer Screens

7.1 Introduction and Objectives |

7.2 Printing Data From the Variable View Screen |

7.3 Printing Variable Information From the Output Viewer |

7.4 Printing Tables From the Output Viewer |

7.5 Summary |

7.6 Review Exercises |

8. Using the SPSS Help Menu

8.1 Introduction and Objectives |

8.2 Help Options |

8.3 Using SPSS Tutorials |

8.4 Using SPSS Case Studies |

8.5 Using Context Sensitive |

8.6 Summary |

8.7 Review Exercises |

SECTION II. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND GRAPHING

9. Descriptive Statistics

9.1 Introduction and Objectives |

9.2 Measures of Central Tendency |

9.3 Measures of Dispersion |

9.4 The Big Question: Are the Data Normally Distributed? |

9.5 Descriptive Statistics for the Class Survey |

9.6 Summary |

9.7 Review Exercises |

10. Creating Graphs for Nominal and/or Ordinal Data

10.1 Introduction and Objectives |

10.2 A Brief Introduction to the Chart Builder |

10.3 Using the Chart Builder to Build a Simple 3-D Pie Graph |

10.4 Building a Population Pyramid |

10.5 Building the Stacked Bar Graph (percentage of stack’s total) |

10.6 Summary |

10.7 Review Exercises |

11. Creating Graphs for Continuous Data

11.1 Introduction and Objectives |

11.2 Creating a Histogram |

11.3 Creating a Boxplot |

11.4 Creating a Paneled Graph |

11.5 Summary |

11.6 Review Exercises |

SECTION III. BASIC INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

12. Inferential Statistics

12.1 Introduction and Objectives |

12.2 Populations |

12.3 Sampling |

12.4 Normal Curve |

12.5 Standard Error |

12.6 Confidence Intervals |

12.7 Hypothesis Testing |

12.8 Statistical Significance |

12.9 Type I (Alpha) and Type II (Beta) Errors |

12.10 Research Steps in Hypothesis Testing |

12.11 Parametric Versus Nonparametric Tests |

12.12 Practical Versus Statistical Significance |

12.13 Summary |

12.14 Review Exercises |

13. One-Sample t Test and a Binomial Test of Equality

13.1 Introduction and Objectives |

13.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

13.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

13.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

13.5 Confidence Intervals |

13.6 Nonparametric Test: The Binomial Test of Equality |

13.7 Summary |

13.8 Review Exercises |

14. Independent-Samples t Test and the Mann–Whitney U Test

14.1 Introduction and Objectives |

14.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

14.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

14.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

14.5 Nonparametric Test: Mann–Whitney U Test |

14.6 Summary |

14.7 Review Exercises |

15. Paired-Samples t Test and the Wilcoxon Test

15.1 Introduction and Objectives |

15.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

15.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

15.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

15.5 Nonparametric Test: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test |

15.6 Summary |

15.7 Review Exercises |

16. One-Way ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis Test

16.1 Introduction and Objectives |

16.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

16.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

16.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

16.5 Nonparametric Test: Kruskal–Wallis Test |

16.6 Summary |

16.7 Review Exercises |

17. One-Way ANOVA Repeated Measures Test and Friedman Test

17.1 Introduction and Objectives |

17.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

17.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

17.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

17.5 Nonparametric Test: Friedman Test |

17.6 Summary |

17.7 Review Exercises |

18. Two-Way ANOVA (Factorial)

18.1 Introduction and Objectives |

18.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

18.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

18.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

18.5 Summary |

18.6 Review Exercises |

19. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

19.1 Introduction and Objectives |

19.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

19.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

19.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

19.5 Summary |

19.6 Review Exercises |

20. Chi-Square Goodness of Fit

20.1 Introduction and Objectives |

20.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection: Legacy Dialogs |

20.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis: Legacy Dialogs |

20.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output: Legacy Dialogs |

20.5 Research Scenario and Test Selection: One Sample |

20.6 Research Question and Null Hypothesis: One Sample |

20.7 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output: One Sample |

20.8 Summary |

20.9 Review Exercises |

21. Chi-Square Test of Independence

21.1 Introduction and Objectives |

21.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection: Summarized Data |

21.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis: Summarized Data |

21.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output: Summarized Data |

21.5 Research Scenario and Test Selection: Raw Data |

21.6 Research Question and Null Hypothesis: Raw Data |

21.7 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output: Raw Data |

21.8 Summary |

21.9 Review Exercises |

SECTION IV. RELATIONAL STATISTICS – PREDICTION, DESCRIBING, AND EXPLORING MULTIVARIABLE RELATIONSHIPS

22. Pearson’s and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficients

22.1 Introduction and Objectives |

22.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

22.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

22.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

22.5 Nonparametric Test: Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient |

22.6 Summary |

22.7 Review Exercises |

23. Simple Linear Regression

23.1 Introduction and Objectives |

23.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

23.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

23.4 Data Input |

23.5 Data Assumptions (Normality) |

23.6 Data Assumptions (Linear Relationship) |

23.7 Regression and Prediction |

23.8 Interpretation of Output (Data Assumptions) |

23.9 Interpretation of Output (Regression and Prediction) |

23.10 Research Question Answered |

23.11 Summary |

23.12 Review Exercises |

24. Multiple Linear Regression

24.1 Introduction and Objectives |

24.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

24.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

24.4 Data Input |

24.5 Data Assumptions (Normality) |

24.6 Regression and Prediction |

24.7 Interpretation of Output (Data Assumptions) |

24.8 Interpretation of Output (Regression and Prediction) |

24.9 Research Question Answered |

24.10 Summary |

24.11 Review Exercises |

25. Logistic Regression

25.1 Introduction and Objectives |

25.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

25.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

25.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

25.5 Summary |

25.6 Review Exercises |

26. Factor Analysis

26.1 Introduction and Objectives |

26.2 Research Scenario and Test Selection |

26.3 Research Question and Null Hypothesis |

26.4 Data Input, Analysis, and Interpretation of Output |

26.5 Summary |

26.6 Review Exercises |

Appendix A. Class Survey Dataset (Entered in Chapter 5)

Appendix B. Normal Curve Interpretation

Appendix C. Answers to Review Exercises 1, 2, and 3

Appendix D. Datasets Listed by Chapter

Index

### Supplements

Student Study Website

The open-access** Student Study Site** includes the following:

**Step-by-Step SPSS® Tutorial Videos**created by the author provide screencast demonstrations for 26 key chapter concepts.**Mobile-friendly web quizzes**allow for independent assessment of progress made in learning course material.**A selection of downloadable datasets**for use with end-of-chapter exercises and data entry practice**.**- Direct access to
**SPSS sample files**used in the book.

Instructor Website

Password-protected **Instructor Resources** include the following:

**Pre-written quizzes**provide a diverse range of multiple choice and T/F questions for each chapter, as well as the opportunity to edit questions or insert your own to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.**Direct access to**used in the book allows instructors to decide which to make available for students, as well as the level and frequency of challenging the student with structuring and entering data.*all*datasets and SPSS sample files**The answers, with explanations, for exercises 4 and 5**found at the end of each chapter, which instructors can assign as homework or exam questions.**Step-by-Step SPSS® Tutorial Videos**created by the author provide screencast demonstrations for 26 key chapter concepts.**Tables and figures**from the book available for download.

“I am very appreciative of the authors' depth and clear writing with comprehensible and useful examples throughout this text.”

Texas A&M University-San Antonio