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Sociological Perspectives

Published in Association with Pacific Sociological Association

eISSN: 15338673 | ISSN: 07311214 | Current volume: 67 | Current issue: 1-3 Frequency: Bi-monthly
Established in 1957 and published for the Pacific Sociological Association, Sociological Perspectives offers a wealth of articles spanning the breadth of sociological inquiry. In the pages of Sociological Perspectives, contributions by leading scholars typically address the ever-expanding body of knowledge about social processes related to economic, political, anthropological, and historical issues. Now published six times per year, each issue of Sociological Perspectives offers pertinent and up-to-the-minute articles within the field of sociology. The journal is truly international, accepting manuscripts from authors in ten countries over the past year.
This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Contact the editorial team with any questions at
Dana Nakano California State University, Stanislaus, USA
Elizabeth Sowers California State University Channel Islands, USA
Managing Editors
Lauren Ballard California State University Channel Islands, USA
Zachary Davidson California State University, Stanislaus, USA
Deputy Editors
Amy K. Bailey University of Illinois-Chicago, USA
Robyn Brown University of Kentucky
Andrew S. Fullerton Oklahoma State University, USA
Terrence Hill University of Arizona
Jennifer Hook University of Southern California, USA
Michelle Maroto University of Alberta, Canada
Evelyn Patterson Vanderbilt University, USA
Associate Editors
Michael B. Aguilera University of Oregon, USA
Zack W. Almquist University of Washington, USA
Stefan Bargheer University of California-Los Angeles
Bradley Bartos University of Arizona, USA
Catherine I. Bolzendahl University of California, Irvine
Tristan Bridges University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
David Cunningham Washington University-St. Louis, USA
Christina Diaz University of Arizona, USA
John M. Eason University of Wisconsin - Madison, USA
Barry Eidlin McGill University, Canada
Qiang Fu University of British Columbia, Canada
S. Michael Gaddis University of California - Los Angeles, USA
Melanie Jones Gast University of Louisville, USA
Shannon Gleeson Cornell University, USA
Rachel Goldberg University of California - Irvine, USA
Paul Hanselman University of California - Irvine, USA
David Harding University of California - Berkeley, USA
Claire Herbert University of Oregon
Trevor Hoppe The University of North Carolina - Greensboro, USA
Matt L. Huffman University of California, Irvine, USA
Joshua Kaiser Dartmouth College, USA
Emily H. Kennedy University of British Columbia, Canada
Shamus Khan Princeton University, USA
Sabino Kornrich NYU Abu Dhabi
Armando Lara-Millan University of California-Berkeley
Lei Lei Rutgers University, USA
Julia Lerch University of California - Irvine, USA
Raoul S. Liévanos University of Oregon, USA
Ryan Light University of Oregon
Le Lin University of Hawaii, USA
Christopher Lyons University of New Mexico, USA
Dawne Moon Marquette University, USA
Sharon Oselin University of California - Riverside, USA
Juan Pedroza University of California-Santa Cruz, USA
Christine Percheski Northwestern University, USA
David Pettinicchio The University of Toronto, Canada
Becky Pettit University of Texas - Austin, USA
Jennifer Randles California State University Fresno, USA
Emily Rauscher Brown University, USA
Victoria Reyes University of California-Riverside
Wenona Rymond-Richmond University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA
Aliya Saperstein Stanford University
David R. Schaefer University of California-Irvine
Erik Schneiderhan University of Toronto, Canada
Kristin Seefeldt University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
Josh Seim University of Southern California, USA
Hana Shepherd Rutgers University-New Brunswick
Mahesh Somashekhar University of Illinois - Chicago, USA
Sabrina A. Strings University of California - Irvine, USA
Christopher Sullivan California State University, Fresno, USA
Rachel Sullivan Robinson American University, USA
April Sutton University of California-San Diego
Judith Treas University of California - Irvine, USA
Kristin Turney University of California-Irvine
Anjuli Verma University of California, Santa Cruz, USA
Maureen Waller Cornell University, USA
Laurel Westbrook Grand Valley State University, USA
Christopher Wildeman Duke University
Nicholas Hoover Wilson Stony Brook University, USA
Christopher Wimer Columbia University, USA
Student Editors
Alex Aguirre University of California - Irvine, USA
Meghan Ballard University of California - Irvine, USA
Bradley Bartos University of Arizona, USA
Ernest Chavez University of California - Irvine, USA
Navjyot Kaur Gill University of California - Irvine, USA
Margaret Goldman University of California - Irvine, USA
Veronica Gonzalez University of California - Irvine, USA
Rebecca Goodsell University of California - Irvine, USA
Li Huang University of California - Irvine, USA
Daniela Kaiser University of California - Irvine, USA
Gabriella Kirk Northwestern University, USA
Vicente Celestino Mata University of California - Irvine, USA
Matthew Renner University of California, Irvine, USA
Justin Sola University of California - Irvine, USA
Justin Strong University of California - Irvine, USA
Rebecca Tublitz University of California - Irvine, USA
Seth Williams University of California - Irvine, USA
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Submit your article electronically at Please follow the instructions for creating an account. Then the system will walk you through a step-by-step process for manuscript submission. A printable pdf version of these guidelines is located HERE. 

Sociological Perspectives is a peer-reviewed journal with a double-anonymized external review process. The fee for submitting a new manuscript is $20 (U.S.). All submissions will be reviewed by the editor(s) and provided with editorial feedback. However, the submission fee does not guarantee that a manuscript will be sent for peer review. The submission fee can be paid electronically online at time of submission. It can also be paid by check or money order payable to "Pacific Sociological Association" and mailed to the address below. The submission fee is waived for manuscripts submitted where all authors of the manuscript are students. To request the student waiver, please send an email using the address that follows.

Please address manuscript cover letters to the co-editors and send all journal correspondence to

Sociological Perspectives, Pacific Sociological Association, PO Box 4161, Arcata, CA 95521 Email:

Manuscript Preparation

Articles submitted to Sociological Perspectives may not exceed 10,000 words (approximately 40 pages including text, endnotes, and references) and may not contain more than 10 tables and figure panels. Manuscripts should be prepared using the ASA Style Guide (Fourth Edition). All pages must be typed, double-spaced (including references, footnotes, and endnotes). Text must be in 12-point Time Roman. Block quotes may be single-spaced. Must include margins of 1.25 inches on all the four sides and number all pages sequentially.

Sections in a manuscript may include the following (in this order):

(1) Title page, (2) Abstract, (3) Keywords, (4) Text, (5) Notes, (6) References, (7) Tables, (8) Figures, and (9) Appendices.

1. Title page. Please include the following:Full article titleAcknowledgments and creditsEach author’s complete name and institutional affiliation(s)Grant numbers and/or funding informationCorresponding author (name, address, phone/fax, e-mail)

2. Abstract. Print the abstract (150 to 200 words) on a separate page headed by the full article title. Omit author(s)’s names.

3. Text. Begin article text on a new page headed by the full article title.

    a. Headings and subheadings. Subheadings should indicate the organization of the content of the manuscript. Generally, three heading levels are sufficient to organize text. THIS IS A FIRST- LEVEL HEAD (All caps and left-justified), This Is a Second-Level Head (Italics and left-justified; capitalize all words except prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions) and This is a third-level head (these are run-in heads, italics, indented at the beginning of the paragraph and followed by a period).

    b. Citations. Citations in the text should provide the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page numbers when referring to direct quotes or specific passages. Following are some examples of text citations: (i)When author’s name is in the text, follow it with the publication year in parentheses-… Duncan (1959). The first time that an author's name is in the text, the full name should be included. Subsequently, only the last name should be included-...Samuel George (2003) says...George (2003) When author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and year in parentheses-…(George1963). (ii) Pages cited follow the year of publication after a colon-…(Duncan and Weiss 1971:71-85). (iii)Use the last name of both authors for joint authors-…(Martin and Bailey 1988). (iv)For three authors, cite all three names in the first citation in the text-…(George, Smith, and Baily1962). For all subsequent citations use “et al.”-…(George et al. 1962).(v)For works with four or more authors, use “et al.” throughout. (vi)For citation of a version published earlier, list the earliest publication date in brackets followed by the most recent publication date-…Veblen ([1866] 1900).(vii) Separate a series of references with semicolons.(viii)Use “forthcoming” for unpublished materials and N.d if no date is available-…the earlier study by Smith (forthcoming) and Bailey (N.d).(ix)For machine-readable data files, cite authorship and date-…(Institute for Survey Research 1976).(x)For e-resource citations, See section 5.3 of ASA(4th ed).

4. Notes. Notes should be typed or printed, double-spaced, in a separate “ENDNOTES” section. Begin each note with the superscript numeral to which it is keyed in the text (e.g., “¹ After 1981, there were…”). Notes can (a) explain or amplify text, (b) cite materials of limited availability, or (c) append information presented in a table or figure. Avoid long notes: consider (a) stating in the text that information is available from the author, (b) depositing the information in a national retrieval center and inserting a short footnote or a citation in the text, or (c) adding an appendix. Each note should not exceed 100 words.

5. References. References are presented in a separate section headed “REFERENCES.” All references cited in the text must be listed in the reference section, and vice versa. 1. Do not use “et al.” in the Reference list at the end; names of all authors of a publication should be listed there. Publication information for each must be complete and correct. List the references in alphabetical order by authors’ last names; include first names and middle initials for all authors when available. List two or more entries by the same author(s) in order of the year of publication. When the cited material is not yet published but has been accepted for publication, use “Forthcoming” in place of the date and give the journal name or publishing house. For dissertations and unpublished papers, cite the date and place the paper was presented and/or where it is available. If no date is available, use “N.d.” in place of the date. If two or more cited works are by the same author(s) within the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title and distinguish them by adding the letters a, b, c, etc., to the year (or to “Forthcoming”). For works with more than one author, only the name of the first author is inverted (e.g., “Jones, Arthur B., Colin D. Smith, and James Petersen”). List all authors; using “et al.” in the reference list is not acceptable. Please do not use em-dashes for same author names is consecutive references. Instead treat it as any other reference and use the full author name. Refer to the ASA Style Guide (4th ed.) for additional examples:


Bernard, Claude [1865] 1957. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Translated by H.C. Greene, New York: Dover.Mason, Karen O. 1974. Women’s Labor Force Participation and Fertility. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1960. Characteristics of Population. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.


Goodman, Leo A. 1947a. “The Analysis of Systems of Qualitative Variables When Some of the Variables Are Unobservable. Part I – A Modified Latent Structure Approach.” American Journal of Sociology 79: 1179-1259.____.1947b. “Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis Using Both Identifiable and Unidentifiable Models.”Biometrika 61: 215-31.

Szelenyi, Szonja and Jacqueline Olvera. Forthcoming. “The Declining Significance of Class: Does Gender Complicate the Story?” Theory and Society.


Clausen, John A. 1972. “The Life Course of Individuals.” Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society, vol. 3, A Sociology of Age Stratification, edited by M. W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

Sampson, Robert J. 1992. “Family Management and Child Development: Insights from Social Disorganization Theory.” Pp. 63-93 in Advances in Criminology Theory, vol. 3, Facts, Frameworks, and Forecasts, edited by J. McCord. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.


Charles, Maria. 1990. “Occupational Sex Segregation: A Log-Linear Analysis of Patterns in 25 Industrial Countries.” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.Web Sites:American Sociological Association, 1997. “Call for Help: Social Science Knowledge on Race, Racism, And Race Relations” (ASA Action Alert, October 15). Washington, DC: American Sociological Association. Retrieved October 15, 1997 (

Boorstein, Michelle. 2003. “Homeless Needs Outrun Success in Finding Shelter Site.” Washington Post, October 19, 2003, p. C05. Retrieved October 20, 2003 (

Kao, Grace and Jennifer Thompson. 2003. “Racial and Ethnic Stratification in Educational Achievement and Attainment.” Annual Review of Sociology 29: 417-42. Retrieved October 20, 2003 (

6. Tables. Tables should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include table titles. Tables will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially. Each table must include a descriptive title and headings for all columns and rows. Gather general notes to tables as “Notes:”; use a, b, c, etc., for table footnotes. Use asterisks*, **, and/or *** to indicate significance at the p<.05, p<.01, and p<.001 levels, respectively, and always specify one-tailed or two-tailed tests.

All tables must be cited in text. Please make sure tables are in editable format and not supplied as images.

7. Figures. Figures should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and must include figure captions. Figures will appear in the published article in the order in which they are numbered initially. All artwork must be submitted on disk or as camera-ready art. Figures must be executed by computer or by a graphic artist in black ink on white paper; lettering must be done in pen and ink or be typeset; photographs must be black-and-white on glossy paper.

All figures must be cited in text. Please make sure there are no typographical errors in the figures as they are not copyedited by us.

IMPORTANT: All figures (including all type) must be legible when resized to fit one or two column widths, 2-9/16 and 5-5/16 inches wide, respectively.

PERMISSION: The author(s) are responsible for securing permission to reproduce all copyrighted figures or materials before they are published in SCU. A copy of the written permission must be included with the manuscript submission.

8. Endnotes. Endnotes should be placed as text at the end of the manuscript. They should be indicated with superscripts within the text.

9. Appendices. Appendices should be lettered to distinguish them from numbered tables and figures. Include a descriptive title for each appendix (e.g., “Appendix A. Variable Names and Definitions”). Cross-check text for accuracy against appendices.

10. Author specific contributions. Authors are to designate (using their initials) their contributions to the paper/project in each of the following seven categories:

1) Conceptual/Theoretical Development
2) Research/Methodological Design
3) Data Collection/Coding/Analysis
4) Manuscript Drafting
5) Critical Analytical/Writing Revisions
6) Managing/Supervising the Project
7) Securing External Funding

Supplemental Materials

This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information, please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

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