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Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences
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Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences

Third Edition
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April 2019 | 616 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences, Third Edition employs a problem-focused approach to present a clear and comprehensive introduction to research methods. Award-winning teacher, author, and advisor Gregory J. Privitera fully integrates the research methods decision tree into the text to help students choose the most appropriate methodology for the research question they are seeking to answer. Speaking to readers directly, Privitera empowers students to view research methods as something they can understand and apply in their daily lives.

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About the Author
 
Acknowledgments
 
Preface
 
To the Student—How to Use SPSS With This Book
P.1 Overview of SPSS: What Are You Looking At?  
P.2 Preview of SPSS in Focus  
 
SECTION I. SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
 
Chapter 1. Introduction to Scientific Thinking
1.1 Science as a Method of Knowing  
1.2 The Scientific Method  
1.3 Other Methods of Knowing  
1.4 The Goals of Science  
1.5 Approaches in Acquiring Knowledge  
1.6 Distinguishing Science From Pseudoscience  
 
Chapter 2. Generating Testable Ideas
2.1 Generating Interesting and Novel Ideas  
2.2 Converting Ideas to Hypotheses and Theories  
2.3 Developing Your Idea: Deduction and Induction  
2.4 Performing a Literature Review  
2.5 Ethics in Focus: Giving Proper Credit  
2.6 The “3 Cs” of an Effective Literature Review  
2.7 Testing Your Idea: Confirmation and Disconfirmation  
2.8 Ethics in Focus: Publication Bias  
 
Chapter 3. Research Ethics
3.1 Ethics in Behavioral Research  
3.2 The Need for Ethics Committees in Research: A Historical Synopsis  
3.3 Ethics in Focus: Examples From Psychology  
3.4 Human Participant Research: IRBs and the APA Code of Conduct  
3.5 Ethics in Focus: Anonymity and Confidentiality  
3.6 Animal Subject Research: IACUCs and the APA Code of Conduct  
3.7 Additional Ethical Considerations: Scientific Integrity  
 
SECTION II. DEFINING AND MEASURING VARIABLES, SELECTING SAMPLES, AND CHOOSING AN APPROPRIATE RESEARCH DESIGN
 
Chapter 4. Identifying Scientific Variables
4.1 Criteria for Defining and Measuring Variables  
4.2 Constructs and Operational Definitions  
4.3 Types of Variables  
4.4 Scales of Measurement  
4.5 Reliability of a Measurement  
4.6 Validity of a Measurement  
4.7 Selecting a Measurement Procedure  
4.8 Ethics in Focus: Replication as a Gauge for Fraud?  
4.9 SPSS in Focus: Entering and Coding Data  
 
Chapter 5. Sampling From Populations
5.1 Why Do Researchers Select Samples?  
5.2 Subjects, Participants, and Sampling Methods  
5.3 Methods of Sampling: Nonprobability Sampling  
5.4 Methods of Sampling: Probability Sampling  
5.5 Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean  
5.6 SPSS in Focus: Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean  
5.7 Potential Biases in Sampling  
5.8 Ethics in Focus: Participant Pools  
5.9 SPSS in Focus: Identifying New Populations Using the One-Sample t Test  
 
Chapter 6. Choosing a Research Design
6.1 Designing a Study to Answer a Question  
6.2 Categories of Research Design  
6.3 Internal and External Validity  
6.4 Demonstrating Cause in an Experiment  
6.5 Ethics in Focus: Beneficence and Random Assignment  
6.6 Threats to the Internal Validity of a Research Study  
6.7 Threats to the External Validity of a Research Study  
6.8 External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism  
6.9 A Final Thought on Validity and Choosing a Research Design  
 
SECTION III. NONEXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS
 
Chapter 7. Naturalistic, Qualitative, and Existing Data Research Designs
Naturalistic Observation  
7.1 An Overview of Naturalistic Observation  
7.2 The Research Setting: Natural and Contrived Settings  
7.3 Techniques for Conducting Naturalistic Observation  
7.4 Ethics in Focus: Influencing Participant Behavior  
Qualitative Designs  
7.5 An Overview of Qualitative Designs  
7.6 Qualitative Research Designs  
7.7 Ethics in Focus: Anonymity in Qualitative Research  
Existing Data Designs  
7.8 An Overview of Existing Data Designs  
7.9 Existing Data Designs  
7.10 Ethics in Focus: Existing Data and Experimenter Bias  
 
Chapter 8. Survey and Correlational Research Designs
Survey Designs  
8.1 An Overview of Survey Designs  
8.2 Types of Survey Items  
8.3 Rules for Writing Survey Items  
8.4 Administering Surveys  
8.5 Surveys, Sampling, and Nonresponse Bias  
8.6 Ethics in Focus: Handling and Administering Surveys  
Correlational Designs  
8.7 The Structure of Correlational Designs  
8.8 Describing the Relationship Between Variables  
8.9 Limitations in Interpretation  
8.10 Correlation, Regression, and Prediction  
8.11 SPSS in Focus: Correlation and Linear Regression  
 
SECTION IV. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS
 
Chapter 9. Quasi-Experimental and Single-Case Experimental Designs
Quasi-Experimental Designs  
9.1 An Overview of Quasi-Experimental Designs  
9.2 Quasi-Experimental Design: One-Group Designs  
9.3 Quasi-Experimental Design: Nonequivalent Control Group Designs  
9.4 Quasi-Experimental Design: Time Series Designs  
9.5 Quasi-Experimental Design: Developmental Designs  
9.6 Ethics in Focus: Development and Aging  
Single-Case Experimental Designs  
9.7 An Overview of Single-Case Designs  
9.8 Single-Case Baseline-Phase Designs  
9.9 Validity, Stability, Magnitude, and Generality  
9.10 Ethics in Focus: The Ethics of Innovation  
 
Chapter 10. Between-Subjects Experimental Designs
10.1 Conducting Experiments: Between-Subjects Design  
10.2 Experimental Versus Control Group  
10.3 Manipulation and the Independent Variable  
10.4 Variability and the Independent Variable  
10.5 Ethics in Focus: The Accountability of Manipulation  
10.6 Comparing Two Independent Samples  
10.7 SPSS in Focus: Two-Independent-Sample t Test  
10.8 Comparing Two or More Independent Samples  
10.9 SPSS in Focus: One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA  
10.10 Measuring the Dependent Variable  
10.11 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Between-Subjects Design  
 
Chapter 11. Within-Subjects Experimental Designs
11.1 Conducting Experiments: Within-Subjects Design  
11.2 Controlling Time-Related Factors  
11.3 Ethics in Focus: Minimizing Participant Fatigue  
11.4 Individual Differences and Variability  
11.5 Comparing Two Related Samples  
11.6 SPSS in Focus: Related-Samples t Test  
11.7 Comparing Two or More Related Samples  
11.8 SPSS in Focus: One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA  
11.9 An Alternative to Pre-Post Designs: Solomon Four-Group Design  
11.10 Comparing Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Designs  
 
Chapter 12. Factorial Experimental Designs
12.1 Testing Multiple Factors in the Same Experiment  
12.2 Selecting Samples for a Factorial Design in Experimentation  
12.3 Types of Factorial Designs  
12.4 Ethics in Focus: Participant Fatigue and Factorial Designs  
12.5 Main Effects and Interactions  
12.6 Identifying Main Effects and Interactions in a Graph  
12.7 Including Quasi-Independent Factors in an Experiment  
12.8 Reasons for Including Two or More Factors in an Experiment  
12.9 Higher-Order Factorial Designs  
12.10 SPSS in Focus: General Instructions for Conducting a Factorial ANOVA  
 
SECTION V. ANALYZING, INTERPRETING, AND COMMUNICATING RESEARCH DATA
 
Chapter 13. Analysis and Interpretation: Exposition of Data
13.1 Descriptive Statistics: Why Summarize Data?  
13.2 Frequency Distributions: Tables and Graphs  
13.3 Measures of Central Tendency  
13.4 Measures of Variability  
13.5 SPSS in Focus: Central Tendency and Variability  
13.6 Graphing Means and Correlations  
13.7 Using Correlation to Describe Reliability  
13.8 SPSS in Focus: Cronbach’s Alpha and Cohen’s Kappa  
13.9 Ethics in Focus: Deception Due to the Distortion of Data  
 
Chapter 14. Analysis and Interpretation: Making Decisions About Data
14.1 Inferential Statistics: What Are We Making Inferences About?  
14.2 Types of Error and Power  
14.3 Parametric Tests: Applying the Decision Tree  
14.4 Nonparametric Tests: Applying the Decision Tree  
14.5 SPSS in Focus: The Chi-Square Tests  
14.6 Effect Size: How Big Is an Effect in the Population?  
14.7 Estimation: What Are the Possible Values of a Parameter?  
14.8 Confidence Intervals, Significance, and Effect Size  
14.9 Issues for Interpretation: Precision and Certainty  
14.10 Ethics in Focus: Full Disclosure of Data  
 
Chapter 15. Communicating Research: Preparing Manuscripts, Posters, and Talks
15.1 Elements of Communication  
15.2 Writing a Manuscript: Writing Style and Language  
15.3 Elements of an APA-Style Manuscript  
15.4 Literature Reviews  
15.5 Reporting Observations in Qualitative Research  
15.6 Ethics in Focus: Credit and Authorship  
15.7 Presenting a Poster  
15.8 Giving a Professional Talk  
 
Appendix A: APA-Style Writing, Sample Manuscript, and Posters
A.1 Essentials for Writing APA-Style Research Papers  
A.2 Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling (GPS) Writing Guide  
A.3 Sample APA-Style Manuscript  
A.4 Poster Template and Sample Poster  
 
Appendix B: Instructions for Randomizing and Counterbalancing
B.1 Random Numbers Table  
B.2 Constructing a Latin Square  
 
Appendix C: SPSS General Instructions Guide and Statistical Tables
C.1 General Instructions Guide for Using SPSS  
C.2 Statistical Tables  
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index

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