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Public Relations Campaigns
An Integrated Approach

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Public Relations (Analysis)

April 2018 | 304 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc

“An easy to read textbook that will inspire public relations students and provide them with the principles and tools to understand the profession and succeed in their careers.” 

—Chike Anyaegbunam, University of Kentucky

 

“A great book on campaign planning with outstanding theoretical models that students will find useful. A textbook students will want to keep as a reference.”

—Gary Ford, Webster University

 

Public Relations Campaigns: An Integrated Approach introduces students to the process of creating public relations campaigns using a hands-on approach that emphasizes the tools students will need when working in the industry. Authors Regina M. Luttrell and Luke W. Capizzo present real examples and current case studies to help students develop practical skills for creating more effective PR campaigns. Students are given multiple opportunities to practice and build their skills throughout the book by learning how to incorporate the PESO model—Paid media, Earned media, Social media, and Owned media. The PESO model helps students understand the importance of creating integrated campaigns that coordinate PR efforts with both advertising and marketing.

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FOREWORD
 
PREFACE
 
WHY INTEGRATED CAMPAIGNS? WHY NOW?
 
ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
 
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
 
INTRODUCTION: Campaigns in the Professional Public Relations Context
PUBLIC RELATIONS THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES

 
Excellence Theory

 
Systems Theory

 
Diffusion Theory

 
Framing Theory

 
Agenda Setting & Agenda Building Theories

 
Situational Crisis Communication Theory

 
Two-step Flow Model

 
MODELS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS PRACTICE

 
Press Agentry

 
Public Information

 
Two-way Asymmetrical

 
Two-way Symmetrical

 
PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING MODELS

 
R-A-C-E, R-O-P-E, or R-O-S-I-E

 
ROSTIR: Research, Objectives, Strategies, Tactics,

 
Implementation & Reporting

 
Communication Goals

 
PULLING IT ALL TOGETHER

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: EQUALITY TODAY

 
 
CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Integrated Campaigns
A NEED FOR NEW PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING MODELS

 
Emerging Models

 
THE SIX STEPS OF ROSTIR

 
THE VALUE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS PLANNING MODELS

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: INTRODUCING EQUALITY TODAY

 
CASE STUDY: “SEIZE THE HOLIDAYS” WITH KRUSTEAZ: A VIRTUAL BAKING EVENT

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Tactics

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Owned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluating

 
Theories

 
Models

 
 
CHAPTER 2: Strategic Communication Campaign Fundamentals
WHY WE PLAN

 
ELEMENTS OF A STRATEGIC PLAN

 
Research, Diagnosis, and Goal Setting

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Tactics

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Budget

 
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: MISSION-DRIVEN PLANNING FOR EQUALITY TODAY

 
CASE STUDY: OSCAR MAYER’S WAKEY, WAKEY, EGGS AND BAKEY!

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Target Audience

 
Tactics

 
Owned

 
Shared

 
Earned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
 
CHAPTER 3: Understanding PESO
WHAT IS PESO?

 
Paid Media

 
Earned Media

 
Shared Media

 
Owned Media

 
WHEN SHOULD EACH OF THE PESO CHANNELS BE USED?

 
Campaigns in Action

 
Paid Media

 
Earned Media

 
Shared Media

 
Owned Media

 
CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: EQUALITY TODAY’S CHANNEL, PARTNER, AND MEASUREMENT BRAINSTORMING

 
CASE STUDY: THE PROUD WHOPPER— BE YOUR WAY CAMPAIGN

 
PESO Model

 
Owned

 
Shared

 
Earned

 
Paid

 
Theories

 
 
CHAPTER 4: Research, Part 1: Diagnosis and Developmental Research
DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH: DIAGNOSING THE PROBLEM AND/OR OPPORTUNITY

 
RESEARCHING AND MEASURING THE PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY

 
RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY AND TECHNIQUES

 
Data

 
Qualitative and Quantitative Research

 
Secondary and Primary Research

 
Validity

 
CONDUCTING RESEARCH

 
Secondary Research

 
Case Studies

 
Government Data

 
Scholarly Research

 
Think Tank/Nonprofit Reports

 
Trade Association Research

 
Primary Research

 
Polling and Surveys: Opinion and Awareness

 
Content Analysis

 
Competitor Analysis

 
Experimental Research

 
Interviews

 
Focus Groups

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: RESEARCH FOR ISSUE PRIORITIZATION AT EQUALITY TODAY

 
CASE STUDY: HALLMARK ITTY BITTYS STEAL THE SPOTLIGHT

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Primary Research: Getting to Know the Consumer

 
Objectives

 
Strategy

 
Implementation

 
Tactics

 
Paid

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
 
CHAPTER 5: Research, Part 2: Goals
UNDERSTANDING YOUR ORGANIZATION AND ITS GOALS

 
THE GOAL-SETTING PROCESS

 
Seeking the Impact Role for Communication

 
Defining the Scope

 
Selecting Audiences for Outreach

 
Defining the Desired Change

 
Prioritizing Budgets and Resources

 
WRITING GOALS

 
Types of Goals

 
Context: Mission versus Situation

 
Visionary Goals, Concrete Objectives

 
GOAL-SETTING CHALLENGES

 
Working with Organizational Decision Makers

 
Prompting More Research

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: EQUALITY TODAY SETS COMMUNICATION GOALS

 
CASE STUDY: #WEIGHTHIS—REDEFINING SELF-WORTH FROM LEAN CUISINE

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategy

 
Tactics

 
Paid

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Owned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories and Models

 
 
CHAPTER 6: Objectives
WHAT MAKES HIGH-VALUE OBJECTIVES?

 
MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES

 
Types of Objectives

 
Writing S.M.A.R.T. Objectives

 
Specific

 
Measurable

 
Attainable

 
Relevant

 
Time-Bound

 
Additional Objective Frameworks

 
CONNECTING OBJECTIVES TO KEY INTERNAL AUDIENCES

 
Do Your Objectives Make Organizational Decision Makers Excited?

 
Proving Relevance: Will Completing Your Objectives Drive Positive Change?

 
Are You Connecting Short- and Long-Term Objectives?

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: SETTING OBJECTIVES FOR EQUALITY TODAY

 
CASE STUDY: COOKIE CARE DELIVERS SWEET RESULTS FOR DOUBLETREE BY HILTON

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategy

 
Tactics

 
Paid

 
Shared

 
Owned

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
 
CHAPTER 7: Strategies
CHOOSING YOUR CHANNELS: THE PESO MODEL

 
The Model

 
Paid

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Owned

 
HOW THE MODEL OVERLAPS

 
How to Build an Integrated Campaign Strategy around PESO

 
THE RIGHT APPROACH FOR YOUR AUDIENCE(S)

 
Demographics

 
Geography

 
Psychographics

 
Activity/Interest

 
Influence

 
Channel Consumption

 
LEVERAGING YOUR ORGANIZATION’S STRENGTHS AND RESOURCES

 
Subject Matter Expertise

 
Imagery/Visuals

 
Dynamic Presenters/Personalities

 
Data

 
Organizational Vision or Narrative

 
History/Institutional Authority

 
THE COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE

 
Understand Competitors and External Challenges

 
Avoid What Everyone Else Is Already Doing

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: CHANNEL SELECTION FOR EQUALITY TODAY

 
CASE STUDY: MASTERCARD BITES INTO APPLE PAY

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objective

 
Strategy

 
Tactics

 
Earned & Paid

 
Owned

 
Shared & Owned

 
Paid, Earned, Shared & Owned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Cut through the Chatter

 
Lead the Conversation on Contactless Security

 
Drive MasterCard Sign-ups on Apple Pay

 
Theories

 
 
CHAPTER 8: Tactics
TACTICAL APPROACHES

 
Paid Media

 
Timing

 
Budget

 
Messaging

 
Content Creation

 
Advertising

 
Advertorial Content

 
Earned Media

 
Timing

 
Budget

 
Messaging

 
Content Creation

 
Media Relations

 
Shared Media

 
Timing

 
Budget

 
Messaging

 
Content Creation

 
Owned Media

 
Timing

 
Budget

 
Messaging

 
Content Creation

 
Website Content Management

 
Marketing

 
Publications

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: TACTICAL CHOICES FOR EQUALITY TODAY

 
CASE STUDY: CINNAMILK BY GENERAL MILLS

 
Campaign Focus: Promotional

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objective

 
Strategy

 
Tactics

 
Paid & Owned

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
Model

 
 
CHAPTER 9: Implementation
KEY SKILLS FOR IMPLEMENTING PR CAMPAIGNS

 
Project Management Basics

 
Budgeting

 
Dividing Tasks among a Team

 
Creating Timelines and Deadlines

 
Setting Clear Expectations and Ensuring Clear Communication

 
Working with Non-PR People

 
Working with the Media

 
Self-awareness and Self-evaluation

 
Persistence and Perseverance

 
PREPARING FOR CHANGE

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: EQUALITY TODAY MEETS UNEXPECTED OBSTACLES

 
CASE STUDY: MISSING TYPE—U.K.’S NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE

 
Research and Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategy

 
Tactics

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Owned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
Model

 
 
CHAPTER 10: Reporting and Evaluation
EVALUATING YOUR CAMPAIGN

 
Media Evaluation

 
Digital Evaluation Metrics and Approaches

 
Turning Evaluation into Improvement

 
REPORTING ON YOUR CAMPAIGN

 
Objective-driven Reporting

 
Prioritization: What Information Is Most

 
Important for the Reader?

 
Format: How Should Your Information Be Best Presented to Your Audience?

 
PESO: SPECIAL REPORTING CONSIDERATIONS

 
Paid Media

 
Earned Media

 
Shared Media

 
Owned Media

 
Integrated Reporting

 
CONCLUSION

 
THINK CRITICALLY

 
KEY TERMS

 
CONCEPT CASE: REPORTING RESULTS—EQUALITY TODAY’S ANNUAL MEETING

 
CASE STUDY: CANS GET YOU COOKING

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Developmental Research and Insights

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Tactics

 
Paid

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Owned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
 
CHAPTER 11: Formulating an Integrated Campaign—Case Studies
PRODUCT MARKETING

 
Brewing Inspiration to Engage Coffee Fans

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Tactics

 
Shared

 
Paid + Shared

 
Owned

 
Paid + Owned + Shared

 
Earned + Shared

 
Owned + Shared

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Theories

 
Model

 
ACTIVISM

 
One for All: Mississippians’ Fight for a New Flag

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategy

 
Tactics

 
Earned + Owned

 
Shared

 
Owned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting

 
Theories

 
Model

 
ENGAGEMENT

 
Appreciating Mom; World’s Toughest Job—American Greetings

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Tactics

 
Shared + Owned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Owned

 
Theories

 
Model

 
CRISIS COMMUNICATION

 
Harambe’s Last Day at the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Tactics

 
Owned

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
Model

 
GLOBAL AND MULTICULTURAL

 
UNICEF: Toys in Mourning

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Tactics

 
Earned + Shared + Owned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
Model

 
Teens 4 Pink: Sisters Network and Eisai Inc. with Shared Voice Public Relations

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategy

 
Tactics

 
Earned

 
Shared

 
Owned

 
Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
Model

 
INTERNAL COMMUNICATION AND EMPLOYEE RELATIONS

 
Responding to “Ferguson”: From Tragedy to Positive Change

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Tactics and Implementation

 
Earned + Shared

 
Owned

 
Reporting

 
Theories

 
Model

 
HP Global Wellness Challenge

 
Research/Diagnosis

 
Objectives

 
Strategies

 
Tactics

 
Owned & Shared

 
Implementation

 
Challenges during Implementation

 
Reporting/Evaluation

 
Theories

 
Model

 
 
APPENDIX
 
GLOSSARY
 
REFERENCES
 
INDEX

Supplements

Instructor Site

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  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.
  • Carefully selected web-based video resources feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
Student Site

SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.

  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
  • Mobile-friendly practice quizzes allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material.
  • Carefully selected web-based video resources feature relevant interviews, lectures, personal stories, inquiries, and other content for use in independent or classroom-based explorations of key topics.
  • Web resources are included for further research and insights.
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter is included.  

“An easy to read textbook that will inspire public relations students and provide them with the principles and tools to understand the profession and succeed in their careers.”  

Chike Anyaegbunam
University of Kentucky

“A great book on campaign planning with outstanding theoretical models that students will find useful.  A textbook students will want to keep as a reference.”

Gary Ford
Webster University

“Thorough, well written with a modern common sense approach to teaching students all of the components of a public relations campaign.”

Donald Girard
California State University San Bernardino

“A concise textbook with good media-focused strategies and tactics.”

Minjeong Kang
Indiana University, Bloomington

“A good basic campaigns text that explores all facets of public relations campaigns.”

Nicki L. Bourdeaux
Nicholls State University

“A different approach for a campaign class that is worth thinking about and utilizing.  The ROSTIR method accompanied by the PESO overlay is a great approach to breaking down an overwhelming campaign.”

Nancy Kerr
Champlain College

 “It’s a new, helpful approach to thinking about campaigns. It offers more depth in its PESO model.”

Donna Downs
Taylor University

“A useful text for helping students understand the public relations planning process from an integrated marketing communication perspective.”

Jennie Donohue
Marist College

This is a great textbook for students wanting to learn how to develop PR Campaigns. Each chapter builds upon the other in a manner that is logical and easy to follow. The case studies are engaging and the additional supporting content useful. I particularly like how it integrated Dietrich PESO model throughout as it something we teach in an earlier class and helps the students feel like there is good sense of continuity.

Ms Joyce Costello
Corporate & Marketing Communications, Bournemouth University
February 14, 2019

For instructors

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