You are here

South Asia Research

South Asia Research

Other Titles in:
South Asia Studies

eISSN: 17413141 | ISSN: 02627280 | Current volume: 44 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: 3 Times/Year

South Asia Research is an international, multidisciplinary forum which covers the history, politics, law, economics, sociology, visual culture, languages and literature of all countries in South Asia. We publish both work of a more theoretical nature as well as detailed empirical studies by emerging and established scholars from around the world.

Founded in 1980 by young activist researchers at SOAS, University of London, the Journal now attracts a huge number of submissions and follows a rigorous double blind peer review process. Over the years, the editorial team has sought to maintain the Journal’s original focus on promoting the work of young scholars, the next generation of South Asia Area Studies specialists, now a global community with a strong diasporic presence. In the context of decolonisation and the decentring of knowledge, South Asia Research has recognised the need for promoting New Area Studies as a truly interdisciplinary arena not constrained by national boundaries. The Journal has consistently committed itself to empowering the (g)local rather than privileging global neo-colonial forces. Over the years, it has also cultivated new clusters of regional expertise and specific, newly intersecting forms of interdisciplinary scholarship. Consequently, detailed empirical studies have gained prominence, and the Journal increasingly features complex issues of socio-economic and political relevance. Activist engagement with often deeply contested new themes in the study of contemporary South Asia also motivates our collective education-centric efforts to find a viable balance between Social Sciences and Arts subjects.

The Journal constantly updates its operating procedures and has built an expansive profile, growing from two issues per year to three parts, with more pages and a lively Book Reviews section. Run by a truly interdisciplinary team of Editors and Assistant Editors, it is supported by an Editorial Committee and an International Advisory Board.

Electronic Access:
South Asia Research is available electronically on SAGE Journals Online at

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

South Asia Research is a peer-reviewed international, multidisciplinary forum which covers the history, politics, law, economics, sociology, visual culture, languages and literature of the countries in South Asia. It includes works of theory, review and synthesis as well as detailed empirical studies by both research students and established scholars from around the world.

Werner Menski South Asia Institute, SOAS, London, UK
D Parthasarathy Nayanta School of Public Policy, Hyderabad, India
Deputy Editors
Diotima Chattoraj Migration and Health Studies, James Cook University, Singapore
Md. Sadequle Islam Bangladesh Studies, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
Kalindi Kokal (Reviews Editor) Law & Society. Symbiosis School for Liberal Arts, Pune, India
Gaurav J Pathania Sociology, Eastern Mennonite University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA
Anubhav Pradhan Liberal Arts, IIT Bhilai, Raipur, India
Anirudh Tagat Economics, Monk Prayogshala, Mumbai, India
Zahoor A Wani Political Science/Afghanistan, LPU, Phagwara, India
Muneeb Yousuf International Relations, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
Assistant Editors
Neha Adsul Health Policy, George Institute for Global Health, Mumbai, India
Ambika Aiyadurai Anthropology/Wildlife Studies, IITGN, Gandhinagar, India
Nafay Choudhury Law, Socio-Legal Studies Centre, Oxford University, Oxford, UK
Goutam Karmakar Literature and Culture, NIT Durgapur, Durgapur, India
Manav Khaire Housing Policy Studies, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India
Muhammad Asim Khan Applied Linguistics, NED University, Karachi, Pakistan
Vineeth Mathoor History, Changanacherry, Kerala, India
Haripriya Narasimhan Liberal Arts, Anthropology, IIT Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India
Saidalavi P C Sociology, Shiv Nadar University (IoE), Delhi, India
Arshid Hussain Peer Economics/Management, Bennett University, Noida, India
Niranjana Prasad Cambridge Econometrics, Brussels, Belgium
Lloyd Price Modern South Asian History, Independent Scholar, Geoje-Si, South Korea
Shubha Ranganathan Medical Anthropology, IIT Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India
Amit Ranjan International Relations/Pakistan Studies, NUS, Singapore
Serena C Rattu Public History, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
Rajnish Saryal Political Science, Panjab University RC Ludhiana, Chandigarh, India
Annapurna Sinha Communication, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia
Arun Som Sociology of Law, Independent Scholar, Muzaffarnagar, India
Federica Sona Law/Minorities in the West, Max-Planck-Institute, Halle, Germany
Soni Wadhwa Liberal Arts, SRM University, Andhra Pradesh, India
Editorial Committee
Ayan Guha School of Global Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
Qaiser Abbas Energy Economics/Development, Ghazi University, DG Khan, Pakistan
Santhosh Abraham Humanities/Social Sciences, IIT Madras, Chennai, India
Chudamani Basnet Department of Sociology, South Asian University, New Delhi, India
Uttam Deb Agricultural Economics, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, AR, USA
Eswarappa Kasi Tribal Studies, IGNTU, Amarkantak, MP, India
Prashant Kidambi History, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
Nida Kirmani Urban Studies, LUMS, Lahore, Pakistan
Shashikantha Koudur Humanities/Social Sciences, NITK Surathkal, Karnataka, India
Hawon Ku South Asian Art History, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
Rama K.R. Kummitha Entrepreneurship, Essex University, Southend, UK
Abhijit Mazumdar Journalism, Park University, Parkville, MO, USA
Alessandra Mezzadri Development Studies, SOAS, London, UK
Muhammad Mughal Anthropology, King Fahd University of Petro & Min, Saudi Arabia
Shobna Nijhawan Languages and Literatures, York University, Toronto, Canada
Avinash Paliwal International Relations, South Asia Institute, SOAS, London, UK
Iromi Perera Urban Studies, Colombo Urban Lab, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Saba Pirzadeh Environmental Humanities, LUMS, Lahore, Pakistan
Praveen Rai Electoral Politics, CSDS, Delhi, India
Shilpi Rajpal Social History of Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Devapriya Sanyal Film Studies, Mt. Carmel College, Bangalore, India
Annika Schmeding Anthropology of Religion, NIOD Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Kanika Sharma Law and Gender, SOAS, London, UK
Gopika Solanki Political Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada
Pradip Swarnakar Environmental Sociology, IIT Kanpur, Kanpur, India
International Advisory Board
Bina Agarwal Development Economics, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
Waheeda Amien Law, Religion and Gender, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Domenico Amirante Law, Università della Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Caserta, Italy
Padma Anagol History, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
Raziuddin Aquil History, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
Fardaus Ara Public Administration, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Ishita Banerjee-Dube History, El Colegio de México, Mexico
Rohit De History, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
Faisal Devji History, St Antony’s, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
K J Gardner Anthropology/Bangladesh, LSE, London, UK
Charu Gupta Medieval and Early Modern History, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
Farhat Hasan Medieval and Early Modern History, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
Livia Holden Legal Anthropology, Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris, France
Ridwanul Hoque Law, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Hiroko Ito Global Ethics, National Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Japan
Ashutosh Kumar Political Science, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Chris Ogden Asian Security, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland, UK
Ashok Pankaj Development Studies, Council for Social Development, New Delhi, India
Susmita Roye English/Foreign Languages, Delaware State University, Dover, USA
Tanika Sarkar School of Social Sciences, JNU, Delhi, India
Sudha Shastri Literary Studies, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India
Gauri Viswanathan Comparative Literature, University of Columbia, New York, USA
Jeanne S Zaino Political Science, Iona University, New Rochelle, NY, USA
  • Bibliography of Asian Studies (BAS)
  • CABELLS Journalytics
  • Clarivate Analytics: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)
  • DeepDyve
  • Dutch-KB
  • Indian Citation Index (ICI)
  • J-Gate
  • OCLC
  • Ohio
  • PAIS International - ProQuest
  • Portico
  • Pro-Quest-RSP
  • ProQuest
  • ProQuest-Illustrata
  • ProQuest: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
  • Sociological Abstracts - ProQuest
  • Worldwide Political Science Abstracts - ProQuest
  • South Asia Research

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    Please read the guidelines below and then submit your manuscripts to the Deputy Editor in charge of submissions, Dr. Anubhav Pradhan, at Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned or rejected.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of South Asia Research will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication.

    If you have any questions about publishing with SAGE, please visit the SAGE Journal Solutions Portal

    1. What do we publish?
    1.1 Aims & Scope
    1.2 Article types
    1.3 Writing your paper

    2. Editorial policies
    2.1 Peer review policy
    2.2 Authorship
    2.3 Acknowledgements
    2.4 Funding
    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    2.6 Research data

    3. Publishing policies
    3.1 Publication ethics
    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement
    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    4. Preparing your manuscript
    4.1 Formatting 
    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    4.3 Supplemental material
    4.4 Reference style

    5. Submitting your manuscript
    5.1 Information required for completing your submission
    5.2 Permissions

    6. On acceptance and publication
    6.1 SAGE Production
    6.2 Online First publication
    6.3 Access to your published article
    6.4 Promoting your article

    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to South Asia Research, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

    1.2 Article types

    Articles should be sent in a word document format, and should normally be between 5000–7000 words, including references. Book reviews are also invited of about 1000–1500 words. There is no limit on the number of references allowed.

    The manuscript should be structured as follows:

    • Contributors must provide their complete affiliations and e-mail addresses with their papers. In case there are two or more authors, then corresponding author’s name and address details must be clearly specified on the first page itself.
    • All articles must be accompanied by an abstract of 150–200 words and 4–6 keywords.
    • A short bio-sketch of about 50–75 words must be provided for every contributor.
    • Use a clear readable style, avoiding jargon. If technical terms or acronyms must be included, define them when first used. Use non-racist, non-sexist language and plurals rather than he/she.
    • UK spellings with ‘ise’ are normal practice for this Journal (but retain US spelling in original quotes and references).
    • Use single quotation marks with double quotes inside single quotes. 
    • Use points in abbreviations in initials of name, Latin abbreviations, reference abbreviations, the United States when used as an adjective and for labels to conceal the identities of study participants. Do not use points with contractions or acronyms (e.g., APA, NY, USA, Dr, PhD) or measurement abbreviations.
    • Page ranges should be elided to the last digit. For example, 320–329 should be 320–9, but 318–356 should be 318–56.
    • Use ‘per cent’ instead of % in the text. In tables, graphs, etc., % can be used.
    • Give specific dates in the form 22 November 1980. Decades should be referred to as ‘twentieth century’, ‘1980s’.
    • Use of italics and diacriticals should be minimised but consistent. For non-English and uncommon words and phrases, use italics throughout the text. Meaning of non-English words should be given in parenthesis just after the word when it is used for the first time.

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. SAGE Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable
    For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online

    Return to Top

    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    South Asia Research operates a strictly double blinded peer review process in which the reviewer’s name is withheld from the author and, the author’s name from the reviewer. The reviewer may at their own discretion opt to reveal their name to the author, but our standard policy practice is for both identities to remain concealed. Decisions on manuscripts will be taken as rapidly as possible, but may take several months. 

    2.2 Authorship

    All parties who have made a substantive contribution to the article should be listed as authors. Principal authorship, authorship order, and other publication credits should be based on the relative scientific or professional contributions of the individuals involved, regardless of their status. A student is usually listed as principal author on any multiple-authored publication that substantially derives from the student’s dissertation or thesis.

    If the named authors for a manuscript change at any point between submission and acceptance, an Authorship Change Form must be completed and digitally signed by all authors (including any added or removed) . An addition of an author is only permitted following feedback raised during peer review. Completed forms can be uploaded at Revision Submission stage or emailed to the Journal Editorial Office contact (listed on the journal’s manuscript submission guidelines). All requests will be moderated by the Editor and/or Sage staff.

    Important: Changes to the author by-line by adding or deleting authors are NOT permitted following acceptance of a paper.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.


    Return to Top

    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

    2.3.1 Writing assistance
    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    2.4 Funding

    South Asia Research requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading. Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of South Asia Research to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles. 
    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

    2.6. Research data

    At SAGE we are committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research. Where relevant, The Journal encourages authors to share their research data in a suitable public repository subject to ethical considerations and where data is included, to add a data accessibility statement in their manuscript file. Authors should also follow data citation principles. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway, which includes information about SAGE’s partnership with the data repository Figshare.

    Return to Top

    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway

    3.1.1 Plagiarism
    South Asia Research
    and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the Journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication
    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    3.2 Contributor’s publishing agreement

    Before publication, SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. SAGE’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants SAGE the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than SAGE. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the SAGE Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    South Asia Research offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

    Return to Top

    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. A LaTex template is available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from SAGE after receipt of your accepted article. 

    4.3 Supplemental material

    This Journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplemental files

    4.4 Reference style

    References in both the text and end notes should be cited in the text as author (date: page), or, for a series of references (Black & Williams, 1999; Downey & Jones, 2001). Use ‘et al.’ in the text for more than two authors, and give all names in the References list. The letters a, b, c, etc. should be used for different works by the same author in the same year: (Brown, 1999a, b).
    An alphabetical references section should follow the text (and end notes if any), formatted as follows:

    Surname, X.X. & Surname, Y. (year) Title with Initial Caps [Translated Title]. Place: Publisher.
    Chapter in a book
    Surname, X.X. (year) ‘Title of Chapter’. In X. Surname & Y. Surname (Eds), Title of Book (pp. xxx – xxx). Place: Publisher.
    Journal article
    Surname, X.X. (year) ‘Title of Article’, Name of Journal, no.): xx – xxx [page range].
    Paper in a conference
    Surname, X.X. (year, month) ‘Title of paper’. Paper presented at Name of Conference, City of presentation.
    Surname, X. (year, month, date) Title of Article. URL (consulted month, year), from http://xxxx.xxxx.xx.xx/xxxx/xxxx

    Return to Top

    5. Submitting your manuscript

    Please submit your manuscripts to the editor Dr Deputy Editor Dr. Anubhav Pradhan, at

    5.1 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.2 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway

    Return to Top

    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the SAGE Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    SAGE provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

    Return to Top

    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the South Asia Research editorial office as follows: 

    Prof. Werner Menski, Emeritus Professor of South Asian Laws, School of Oriental & African Studies (SOAS), Thornhaugh Street, London, WC1H 0XG, UK. E-mail: Web:

    Individual Subscription, Print Only

    Institutional Subscription, E-access

    Institutional Subscription & Backfile Lease, E-access Plus Backfile (All Online Content)

    Institutional Subscription, Print Only

    Institutional Subscription, Combined (Print & E-access)

    Institutional Subscription & Backfile Lease, Combined Plus Backfile (Current Volume Print & All Online Content)

    Institutional Backfile Purchase, E-access (Content through 1998)

    Individual, Single Print Issue

    Institutional, Single Print Issue