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Transactions of The Society for Modeling and Simulation International

eISSN: 17413133 | ISSN: 00375497 | Current volume: 100 | Current issue: 6 Frequency: Monthly

New section on Medical Modeling & Simulation- read the papers for free

SIMULATION: Transactions of The Society for Modeling and Simulation International is a fully peer-reviewed international journal that publishes original research and review articles devoted to theory and applications, all with clear relevance to general modeling and simulation issues.

In addition to building the knowledge base in theory, methodology and technology, the journal also aims to help professionals and researchers (particularly those involved in multidisciplinary projects) apply advances in modeling and simulation to their application areas.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).


An institutional subscription to the Journal of Defense Modeling & Simulation now includes its sister journal SIMULATION: Transactions of the Society of Modeling & Simulation International. An institutional subscription gives you access to 16 issues of essential simulation information. View the subscription package here.

Individual subscribers must purchase each journal separately.

SIMULATION is available to browse online.

Subscription includes both SIMULATION and JDMS: Journal of Defense Modeling & Simulation. Subscribers now benefit from 16 issues of essential simulation information from the leading society in modeling and simulation: Society for Modeling and Simulation International.

Published on behalf of The Society for Modeling and Simulation International, the leading society devoted to advancing the discipline and profession of modeling and simulation, SIMULATION: Transactions of The Society for Modeling and Simulation International is a fully peer-reviewed international journal that publishes original research and review articles devoted to theory and applications, all with clear relevance to general modeling and simulation issues.

Published articles must have a clear relevance to general modeling and simulation issues. In addition to its archival mission, the journal aims to help professionals and researchers, particularly those involved in multidisciplinary projects, apply advances in modeling and simulation theory, methodology, and technology to their application areas.

Methodology and Theory Sections

The journal consists of two distinct sections: one devoted to theory, the other to applications.

The Methodology section welcomes original papers of lasting value dealing with modeling and simulation that are methodological in nature. In particular, purely mathematical, computational, or empirical results, however valuable, are considered more appropriate to the many journals specializing in these areas.

The Applications section welcomes applied papers describing mature work involving computational accounts of modeling and simulation. Proposals for new ways of looking at modeling and simulation must include demonstrations of effectiveness.

Wide-Coverage of Established and Emerging Areas

The methods and applications of modeling and simulation in both well established and emerging areas include the fields of, but are not restricted to:

  • Computer Science: Computer networking and communications, high performance computers, real-time systems, mobile and intelligent agents, simulation software, and language design.
  • Engineering: System engineering and design, aerospace, traffic systems, microelectronics, robotics, mechatronics, and air traffic.
  • Physical and Life Sciences: Chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, biomedicine, sociology, and cognition.

Comprehensive review and tutorial papers that explicate methodological topics in modeling and simulation are especially welcome and will be reviewed both for technical quality as well as understandability to the general reader.

The journal plays an important role in helping professionals and researchers, particularly those involved in multidisciplinary projects, apply advances in modeling and simulation theory, methodology, and technology to their application areas.

Editor in Chief
Gabriel Wainer Carleton University, Canada
Special Issues Editor
Philippe Giabbanelli Miami University, USA
Medical Section Editor
Michel Albert Audette Old Dominion University, USA
Associate Editors
Ajla Aksamija University of Utah, USA
Taylor Anderson George Mason University, USA
Fernando Barros University of Coimbra, Portugal
Rodrigo Castro University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Andrea D'Ambrogio University of Roma TorVergata, Italy
Franco Davoli University of Genoa, Italy
Mohammad Dehghani Northeastern University, USA
Joachim Denil University of Antwerp, Belgium
Mehmet Duman Duzce University, Turkey
Alberto Falcone University of Calabria, Italy
Idalia Flores National Autonomous Univ of Mexico, Mexico
Erika Frydenlund Old Dominion University, USA
Peter Grant University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Canada
Paul Harper Cardiff University, UK
Imran Mahmood Qureshi Hashmi University of Oxford, UK
Cathal Heavey University of Limerick, Ireland
Xiaolin Hu Georgia State University, USA
Hamdi Kavak George Mason University, USA
Sanja Lazarova-Molnar Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
Charles M Macal Argonne National Laboratory, USA
Cristina Ruiz Martin Carleton University, Canada
Carla Martín-Villalba National University of Distance Education (UNED), Spain
Yuri Merkuryev Riga Technical University, Latvia
John Miller University of Georgia, USA
Saurabh Mittal MITRE Corporation, USA
Saleh Mobayen University of Zanjan, Iran
Lidia Montero Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain
Rui Silva Moreira Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal
Miguel Mujica Mota Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Eva Navarro-Lopez University of Wolverhampton, UK
Angela Nebot Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Spain
Ashkan Negahban Pennsylvania State University, USA
James L. Nutaro Oak Ridge National Laborartory, USA
Mohammad S. Obaidat University of Jordan, Jordan
Monica Oliveira University of Aveiro, Portugal
Ernest H Page The Mitre Corporation, USA
Mikel D. Petty University of Alabama Huntsville, USA
José Luis Risco Martín Complutense University of Madrid, Spain
Hessam S Sarjoughian Ph.D Arizona State University, USA
Hamid M. Sedighi Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
Claudia Szabo University of Adelaide, Australia
Yifa Tang Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Andreas Tolk MITRE Corporation, USA
Mamadou K. Traoré University of Bordeaux, France
Alfonso Urquia National University of Distance Education (UNED), Spain
Mohammad Valipour Metropolitan State University of Denver, USA
Philip Wilsey University of Cincinnati, USA
Jinyang Xu Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Gregory Zacharewicz Institut Mines Telecom - Ecole des Mines d'Alès, France
Cheng Zhang Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, China
Yu Zhang Trinity University, USA
Editorial Advisory Board
Francois E Cellier Computer Science Department, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Paul E Fishwick The University of Texas at Dallas, USA
Richard Fujimoto Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
Yiannis E. Papelis Ph.D. Old Dominion University, USA
Kishor Trivedi Duke University, USA
Adelinde Uhrmacher University of Rostock, Germany
Bernard P Zeigler University of Arizona, USA
  • Applied Mechanics Reviews
  • Applied Mechanics Reviews (Ceased July 2004)
  • Applied Science & Technology Index
  • Biostatistica
  • Book Review Index
  • British Maritime Technology
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
  • Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Compendex
  • CompuMath Citation Index
  • Computer Abstracts
  • Current Contents / Engineering, Comp, & Tech
  • Current Contents, Engineering, Comp, & Tech
  • Current Index To Statistics
  • DBLP Computer Science Index
  • Engineering Citation Index
  • Index Medicus (Ceased 2004)
  • Inspec
  • International Aerospace Abstracts
  • Mechanical & Transportation Engineering Abstracts
  • Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts
  • Operations Research - Management Science
  • Paperchem
  • Polution's Abstracts
  • PsycINFO
  • Psychological Abstracts
  • Quality Control & Applied Statistics
  • Research Alert
  • Russian Academy of Sciences Bibliographies
  • SciSearch
  • Sociological Abstracts
  • Technical Education and Training Abstracts
  • Zentralblatt MATH
  • Manuscript Submission Guidelines: SIMULATION

    This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of SIMULATION will be reviewed.

    There are no fees payable to submit or publish in this Journal. Open Access options are available - see section 3.3 below.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

    1. What do we publish?
      1.1 Aims & Scope
      1.2 Article types
      1.3 Writing your paper
    2. Editorial policies
      2.1 Peer review policy
      2.2 Authorship
      2.3 Acknowledgements
      2.4 Funding
      2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      2.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      2.7 Clinical trials
      2.8 Research Data
    3. Publishing policies
      3.1 Publication ethics
      3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
      3.3 Open access and author archiving
    4. Preparing your manuscript
      4.1 Formatting
      4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      4.3 Supplementary material
      4.4 Reference style
      4.5 English language editing services
    5. Submitting your manuscript
      5.1 ORCID
      5.2 Information required for completing your submission
      5.3 Permissions
    6. On acceptance and publication
      6.1 Sage Production
      6.2 Online First publication
      6.3 Access to your published article
      6.4 Promoting your article
    7. Further information

    1. What do we publish?

    1.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to SIMULATION, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope

    1.2 Article Types

    Original research, reviews, case reports, letters

    1.3 Writing your paper

    The Sage Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources. Sage Author Services also offers authors a variety of ways to improve and enhance their article including English language editing, plagiarism detection, and video abstract and infographic preparation.

    1.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    When writing up your paper, think about how you can make it discoverable. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article through search engines such as Google. For information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords, have a look at this page on the Gateway: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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    2. Editorial policies

    2.1 Peer review policy

    As part of the submission process you will be asked to provide the names of 2 peers who could be called upon to review your manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to) the below: 

      • The reviewer should have no prior knowledge of your submission
      • The reviewer should not have recently collaborated with any of the authors
      • Reviewer nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted

    Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

    SIMULATION is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for [Journal] can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor/Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    2.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

      1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
      2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
      3. Approved the version to be published,
      4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    Please note that AI chatbots, for example ChatGPT, should not be listed as authors. For more information see the policy on Use of ChatGPT and generative AI tools.


    2.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your References.

    2.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g. conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, Sage reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    2.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services

    2.4 Funding

    SIMULATION requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the Sage Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    2.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of SIMULATION to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    2.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    2.7 Clinical trials

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    2.8 Research Data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the Sage Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, we encourage you to consider using the statement to explain why it cannot be shared.
    • cite this data in your research

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    3. Publishing Policies

    3.1 Publication ethics

    Sage is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the Sage Author Gateway 

    3.1.1 Plagiarism

    SIMULATION and Sage take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    3.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a Sage journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the Sage Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below. Please visit the SCS Publications Policy for more information regarding special issues. 

    3.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication, Sage requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. Sage’s Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement is an exclusive licence agreement which means that the author retains copyright in the work but grants Sage the sole and exclusive right and licence to publish for the full legal term of copyright. Exceptions may exist where an assignment of copyright is required or preferred by a proprietor other than Sage. In this case copyright in the work will be assigned from the author to the society. For more information please visit the Sage Author Gateway

    3.3 Open access and author archiving

    SIMULATION offers optional open access publishing via the Sage Choice programme and Open Access agreements, where authors can publish open access either discounted or free of charge depending on the agreement with Sage. Find out if your institution is participating by visiting Open Access Agreements at Sage. For more information on Open Access publishing options at Sage please visit Sage Open Access. For information on funding body compliance, and depositing your article in repositories, please visit Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines and Publishing Policies.

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    4. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    4.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted, but they need to be accompanied by a PDF file. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.


    If you wish to add equations in your paper, please make sure they are editable using an equation editor. Equations which are displayed in a picture format will not be processed in your paper.

    4.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit Sage’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.  

    Figures supplied in colour will appear in colour online regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. For specifically requested colour reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Sage after receipt of your accepted article.

    4.3 Supplementary material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    4.4 Reference style

    SIMULATION adheres to the Sage Vancouver reference style. View the Sage Vancouver guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

    If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the Sage Vancouver EndNote output file.

    4.5 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using Sage Language Services. Visit Sage Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    5. Submitting your manuscript

    SIMULATION is hosted on Sage Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit to login and submit your article online.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

    5.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process Sage is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized. 

    The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID iD to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

    If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    5.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    5.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any original or adapted illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere prior to acceptance. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the Sage Author Gateway

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    6. On acceptance and publication

    6.1 Sage Production

    Your Sage Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be sent by PDF to the corresponding author and should be returned promptly.  Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate.

    6.2 Online First publication

    Online First allows final articles (completed and approved articles awaiting assignment to a future issue) to be published online prior to their inclusion in a journal issue, which significantly reduces the lead time between submission and publication. Visit the Sage Journals help page for more details, including how to cite Online First articles.

    6.3 Access to your published article

    Sage provides authors with online access to their final article.

    6.4 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The Sage Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice.

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    7. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the SIMULATION editorial office as follows:

    Adam Gordon -

    Institutional subscriptions are available as part of the Simulation journal and The Journal of Defense Modelling and Simulation Package. Click here for more information and to take out a subscription.

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