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Cognitive Science - International Student Edition
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Cognitive Science - International Student Edition
An Introduction to the Study of Mind

Fourth Edition


November 2021 | SAGE Publications, Inc
Cognitive Science provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the study of the mind. The authors examine the mind from the perspective of different fields, including philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, networks, evolution, emotional and social cognition, linguistics, artificial intelligence, robotics, and the new framework of embodied cognition. Each chapter focuses on a particular disciplinary approach and explores methodologies, theories, and empirical findings. Substantially updated with new and expanded content, the Fourth Edition reflects the latest research in this rapidly evolving field.
 
Preface
 
About the Authors
 
CHAPTER 1. Introduction: Exploring Mental Space
A Brave New World

 
What Is Cognitive Science?

 
Representation

 
Computation

 
The Interdisciplinary Perspective

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 1

 
 
CHAPTER 2. The Philosophical Approach: Enduring Questions
What Is Philosophy?

 
Chapter Overview

 
The Mind–Body Problem: What Is Mind?

 
Monism

 
Dualism

 
Functionalism: Are Minds Limited to Brains?

 
The Knowledge Acquisition Problem: How Do We Acquire Knowledge?

 
The Mystery of Consciousness: What Is Consciousness and How Does It Operate?

 
Evaluating the Emergent View of Mind

 
Overall Evaluation of the Philosophical Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 2

 
 
CHAPTER 3. The Psychological Approach: A Profusion of Theories
What Is Psychology?

 
Psychology and the Scientific Method

 
Intelligence Tests

 
Mental Atoms, Mental Molecules, and a Periodic Table of the Mind: The Voluntarist Movement

 
Structuralism: What the Mind Is

 
Functionalism: What the Mind Does

 
The Whole Is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts: Mental Physics and the Gestalt Movement

 
Mini Minds: Mechanism and Psychoanalytic Psychology

 
Mind as a Black Box: The Behaviorist Approach

 
Overall Evaluation of the Psychological Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 3

 
 
CHAPTER 4. The Cognitive Approach I: Vision, Pattern Recognition, and Attention
Some History First: The Rise of Cognitive Psychology

 
The Cognitive Approach: Mind as an Information Processor

 
Modularity of Mind

 
Theories of Vision and Pattern Recognition: How Do We Recognize Objects?

 
Theories of Attention: How Do We Pay Attention?

 
Evaluating the Model-Building Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 4

 
 
CHAPTER 5. The Cognitive Approach II: Memory, Imagery, Concepts, and Problem Solving
Types of Memory: How Do We Remember?

 
Memory Models

 
Concepts: How Do We Represent Our Knowledge of Concepts?

 
Problem Solving: How Do We Solve Problems?

 
Overall Evaluation of the Cognitive Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 5

 
 
CHAPTER 6. The Neuroscience Approach: Mind as Brain
The Neuroscience Perspective

 
Methodology in Neuroscience

 
The Small Picture: Neuron Anatomy and Physiology

 
The Big Picture: Brain Anatomy

 
The Neuroscience of Visual Object Recognition

 
The Neuroscience of Attention

 
The Neuroscience of Memory

 
The Neuroscience of Executive Function and Problem Solving

 
Overall Evaluation of the Neuroscience Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 6

 
 
CHAPTER 7. The Network Approach: Mind as a Web
The Network Perspective

 
Artificial Neural Networks

 
Characteristics of Artificial Neural Networks

 
Early Conceptions of Neural Networks

 
Backpropagation

 
Evaluating the Connectionist Approach

 
Semantic Networks: Meaning in the Web

 
Network Science

 
Overall Evaluation of the Network Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 7

 
 
CHAPTER 8. The Evolutionary Approach: Change Over Time
The Evolutionary View

 
A Little Background: Natural Selection and Genetics

 
Comparative Cognition

 
Evolutionary Psychology

 
Evaluating Evolutionary Psychology

 
Overall Evaluation of the Evolutionary Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 8

 
 
CHAPTER 9. The Linguistic Approach: Language and Cognitive Science
The Linguistic Approach: The Importance of Language

 
The Nature of Language

 
Language Processing

 
Language Acquisition

 
Language Deprivation

 
Language Use in Nonhuman Animals

 
Neuroscience and Linguistics: The Wernicke–Geschwind Model

 
Artificial Intelligence and Linguistics: Natural Language Processing

 
Overall Evaluation of the Linguistic Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 9

 
 
CHAPTER 10. The Emotional Approach: Mind as Emotion
Emotion and Cognitive Science

 
What Is Emotion?

 
Theories of Emotion

 
Basic Emotions

 
Emotions, Evolution, and Psychological Disorders

 
Emotions and Neuroscience

 
Hot and Cold: Emotion–Cognition Interactions

 
Emotions and Artificial Intelligence: Affective Computing

 
Overall Evaluation of the Emotional Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 10

 
 
CHAPTER 11. The Social Approach: Mind as Society
Social Cognition

 
Social Cognitive Neuroscience

 
Topics in Social Cognitive Neuroscience

 
Is Social Cognitive Neuroscience Special?

 
Advantages of the Social Cognitive Neuroscience Approach

 
Theory of Mind

 
Other Social Cognitive Disorders

 
Attitudes

 
Impressions

 
Attribution

 
Stereotypes

 
Prejudice

 
Overall Evaluation of the Social Approach

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 11

 
 
CHAPTER 12. The Artificial Intelligence Approach I: The Computer as a Cognitive Entity
Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence

 
Defining AI

 
Practical AI

 
The Legacies of Turing and Zadeh

 
Intelligent Agents That Think, Learn, and Make Decisions

 
Fundamental Concepts of the IA

 
Learning Experiences

 
Artificial General Intelligence

 
Reverse Engineering the Brain

 
Assessment of AI and AGI

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 12

 
 
CHAPTER 13. The Artificial Intelligence Approach II: Embedded Intelligence and Robotics
Mechanical Beginnings

 
Embodied Cognitive Science

 
Robotic Embodied Intelligence

 
The Intelligent Agent Paradigm

 
Evolutionary Embodiments: The Merger of Human Cognitive Behavior, Biology, and Intelligent Agents

 
Robotic Embodiments

 
Robotic Realizations

 
Cooperating Intelligent Agents and Swarming

 
Machine–Human Interactions

 
Overall Evaluation of Embedded Intelligence

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 13

 
 
CHAPTER 14. The Embodied Ecological Approach: A Dynamic Future for Cognitive Science?
Embodied and Extended Cognition

 
Perceptual Symbol Systems and Motor Affordances

 
Perceptual Simulations

 
Dynamical Systems Theory

 
Dynamical Representation

 
Dynamical Versus Classical Cognitive Science

 
Ecological and Extended Cognition

 
Integrating Cognitive Science

 
The Benefits of Cognitive Science

 
The Future

 
Summing Up: A Review of Chapter 14

 
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Index

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