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An Introduction to Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research
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An Introduction to Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research

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April 2017 | 296 pages | SAGE Publications, Inc
This practical book provides the tools needed to design, execute, and evaluate fully integrated mixed methods research studies. A uniting metaphor of the architectural arch helps students understand the benefits of a mixed methods approach as they consider ways to integrate the qualitative and quantitative strands at all stages of design and execution. With use of examples from popular media and published research, this text also includes a detailed discussion of ways to accomplish mixing methods during data collection and analysis and a separate chapter on designing and executing a realistic mixed methods dissertation. 
 
List of Tables and Figures
 
Preface
Conceptual Framework

 
Purpose

 
Audience

 
Distinguishing Features

 
Organization of the Book

 
Organization of Each Chapter

 
Taking Advantage of the Text

 
Related Assignments

 
 
Acknowledgments
 
About the Author
 
PART 1: FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES
 
Chapter 1: Definitional Issues
Example from Popular Media: Locating the Bones of Richard III

 
Purposes and Goals of the Chapter

 
Different Perspectives on the Definition of Mixed Methods Research

 
The Centrality of Mixing to the Definition of Mixed Methods Research

 
Distinguishing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

 
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches as Different Analytical Strategies

 
Conceptualizing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches on a Continuum

 
Mixed Methods as a Logic of Inquiry

 
Evaluation and Mixed Methods

 
Conceptual Framework – Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research

 
The Architectural Arch as a Metaphor

 
"Mixed Up" Methods

 
Controversies Involving Foundational Issues

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Supplemental Activity

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Chapter 2: Classifying the Purposes of Mixed Methods Research
Mixed Methods Research Featured in the Popular Media

 
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter

 
Arguments for the Preeminence of Purpose in Distinguishing Mixed Methods Studies

 
An Over-Riding Purpose of Mixing Compatible Methods: Triangulation

 
Typologies for Categorizing Research Articles by Purpose

 
Evolution of Typologies

 
An Expanded Typology of Purposes

 
Design Features of the Major Categories of Purpose Types

 
Prevalence of the Use of Different Types of Purposes

 
Design Features of the Exemplary Publication (Durksen & Klassen, 2012)

 
Mixing in the Chapter Exemplar

 
Value-Added of Mixed Methods in the Chapter Exemplar

 
Situations Where a Mixed Methods Approach May Not Be Appropriate

 
Conclusions

 
Recommendations for Practice

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Supplemental Activities

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Chapter 3: Recognizing Paradigmatic Assumptions
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter

 
Goals of the Chapter

 
Defining What is Meant by a Paradigm

 
Differing Viewpoints About the Relevance of Paradigms

 
Key Features of Paradigmatic Stances to Research That Are Compatible with Mixed Methods

 
Pragmatism

 
Dialectical Pluralism

 
Realist and Critical Realist Paradigm

 
Transformative-Emancipatory Paradigm

 
Grounded Theory and Mixed Methods – Exemplary Publication (Gasson & Waters, 2013)

 
Paradigmatic Assumptions that are Likely to Be Incompatible with Mixed Methods

 
Being Reflexive About Your Own Paradigm

 
Controversies Associated with Paradigms

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Supplemental Activities

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Chapter 4: Distinguishing Mixed Methods Designs
Purposes, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter

 
Timing and Priority as Key Features That Distinguish Mixed Method Designs

 
A Classification System for Prototypical Mixed Method Designs

 
Summary About Design Types

 
Priority as a Key Feature of Mixed Method Designs

 
A Notation System that Incorporates Priority and Timing

 
Explaining the Prevalence of a Quantitative Priority

 
Mixed Methods Studies with Unequal Priority

 
Mixed Methods Studies with a Qualitative Priority

 
Design Features of the Exemplary Publication

 
Describing Key Features of the Chapter Exemplar

 
Strategies to Establish Priority

 
Equal Priority Mixed Methods Studies

 
Conclusions

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Supplemental Activities

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
PART 2: EXECUTING FULLY INTEGRATED MIXED METHODS RESEARCH
 
Chapter 5: Strategies for Mixing Prior to Analysis
Example from the Popular Media: The Blue Zones

 
Purposes, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter

 
Organization of the Chapter

 
Design Phase Mixing: Mixed Method Purpose Statements and Research Questions

 
Wording Research Questions to Reflect Priority

 
Three Approaches to Writing Mixed Method Research Questions

 
Mixing During Sampling

 
Combining Probability and Purposeful Sampling

 
Timing as a Way to Distinguish Mixed Method Sampling Approaches

 
Using Identical or Nested Samples

 
Exemplary Article: A Mixed Method Study of Using Social Media (Young & Jaganath, 2013)

 
Five Types of Mixing in the Chapter Exemplar

 
Methodological Transparency in the Exemplar

 
Conclusion

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Supplemental Activities

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Chapter 6: Mixed Method Analytical Procedures
Returning to the Metaphor of the Architectural Arch

 
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter

 
Mixed Method Analytical Strategies

 
Examples of the Use of Mixed Method Analytical Strategies

 
Example 1: Illustrating Data Transformation: Creamer and Ghoston (2012)

 
Example 2: Illustration Four Mixed Methods Analytical Strategies: Jang, McDougall, Pollon, Herbert, and Russell (2008)

 
Example 3: Illustrating Two Mixed Method Analytical Strategies: Elliott, Gale, Parsons, Kuh, and The HALCyon Study (2014)

 
Mixing by Constructing Inferences and Meta-Inferences

 
Examples of Meta-Inferences

 
Embedding Design Strategies that Promote Meaningful Meta-Inferences

 
Conclusions

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Supplemental Activities

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Chapter 7: Data Transformation and other Strategies for Mixing During Analysis
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter

 
Contributions of the Chapter

 
Organization of the Chapter

 
Quantifying and Quantitizing Qualitative Data

 
Quantifying

 
Attending to Sample Size

 
Examples of Quantifying and Quantitizing Qualitative Data

 
Example One from Mazzola, Walker, Schockley, & Spector (2011): Quantifying two Qualitatively Derived Variables for Purposes of Demonstrating a Relationship

 
Example Two from Castro, Kellison, Boyd, & Kopak (2010): Demonstrating a Relationship between Qualitatively and Quantitatively Derived Variables

 
Example Three from Young and Jaganath (2013): Quantifying Qualitative Themes to Show Change over Time

 
Example Four from Odom et al. (2006): Quantifying Qualitative Themes to Distinguish Groups

 
Qualitizing Numeric Data

 
Mixed Method Approaches to Case Study

 
Philosophical Assumptions of Case Study that are Well-Suited to Mixed Methods

 
Mixing by Linking Qualitative and Quantitative Data in a Case Report

 
Accomplishing Mixing through Sampling Procedures in Case Study Research

 
Exemplary Article: Mixed Methods Case Study Research by Cooper (2014)

 
Mixing across Stages of the Research Process in the Exemplar

 
Conclusions

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Supplemental Activities

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
PART 3: EVALUATING QUALITY
 
Chapter 8: Evaluating Quality in Mixed Methods Research Publications
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter

 
Organization of the Chapter

 
Chapter Exemplar: McMahon (2007) Study About the Endorsement of Rape Myths among College Athletes

 
Mixed Method Evaluation Rubric (MMER)

 
Defining and Illustrating the Evaluation Criteria in the MMER

 
Criterion # 1: Transparency Application to the Exemplar

 
Criterion # 2: Amount of Mixing Application to the Exemplar

 
Criterion # 3: Interpretive Comprehensiveness Application to the Exemplar

 
Criterion # 4: Methodological Foundation Application to the Exemplar

 
Using Evaluation Criteria to Demonstrate a Link between Design and Quality

 
Challenges and Future Uses of the MMER

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Supplemental Activities

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Chapter 9: Designing and Reporting a Fully Integrated Mixed Methods Research Proposal or Doctoral Dissertation
Communicating Priority

 
Purpose, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter

 
Organization of the Chapter

 
Situations When the Multi-Method Label is Appropriate

 
Intentionality About Incorporating Design Features That Promote Mixing

 
Designing a Mixed Methods Study in Ways that are Feasible for a Newcomer to Empirical Research

 
Chapter Exemplars that are the Most Feasible as Models for Doctoral Research

 
Methods that are Adaptable to a Mixed Methods Approach

 
Content Analysis

 
Organizing a Mixed Methods Research Manuscript

 
Extending the Quality of Reporting

 
Process-Oriented Graphics

 
Illustrating the Guidelines for Methodological Transparency with an Exemplar

 
Conclusions

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
PART 4: CONTROVERSIES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
 
Chapter 10: Controversies and Future Directions
Purposes, Goals, and Contribution of the Chapter

 
Contribution of the Chapter

 
Organization of the Chapter

 
Looking Back: Controversies about Mixed Methods Research

 
Evidence About Prevalence

 
Reframing Designs to Emphasize Mixing During Analysis

 
Conceiving Mixed Priority Designs

 
Inserting a Third Column: Visualizing Designs in Ways that Highlight Mixing

 
Re-Conceptualizing Priority in Terms of Inferences and Meta-Inferences

 
Applying a Template to Visualize Meta-Inferences

 
Summarizing Major Themes

 
Lessons from the Exemplars

 
Refocusing the Logic of Combination

 
Applying the Mixed Methods Label

 
Summary of Key Points

 
Key Terms

 
Supplemental Activities

 
Recommended Reading

 
 
Appendices
Appendix A: Summary of Key Points by Chapter

 
Appendix B: List of Supplemental Activities by Chapter

 
Appendix C: Blank Template for Article Summaries

 
Appendix D: Templates for Chapter Exemplars

 
 
Endnote
 
Glossary
 
References
 
Name Index
 
Subject Index

Supplements

Instructor Teaching Site
SAGE offers an exceptionally robust set of offerings for both student and instructor resources, all accessible from each title’s companion website. The Student Study Site is completely open access, making it as easy as possible for your students to use. The Instructor Teaching Site is verified and password-protected, offering you both peace of mind and a wealth of support for your courses.

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It’s easy to log on to SAGE’s password-protected Instructor Teaching Site for complete and protected access to all text-specific Instructor Resources. Simply provide your institutional information for verification and within 72 hours you’ll be able to use your login information for any SAGE title! 

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Instructor Resources include the following:
  • Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course
  • Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for use when creating the syllabus for your course
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically
Student Resource Site
Use the Student Study Site to get the most out of your course!
Our Student Study Site is completely open-access and offers a wide range of additional features.
  • Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts
  • EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles that have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter

“Author Elizabeth G. Creamer provides an accessible, user-friendly text for graduate students and those new to the field of mixed methods. It aims to move the field to using fully integrated designs, and emphasizes the importance of the yield, particularly the meta-inferences, of mixed methods studies.  Case examples from a variety of fields bring these concepts to life throughout the text.”

Leanne M. Kallemeyn
Loyola University Chicago

“Finally—a text that explains mixed methods research in a thorough yet readable format, one that is full of excellent examples and helpful tables, and that presents a perspective that is simultaneously detailed and broad in scope.”

Laura J. Meyer
University of Denver

“The text is comprehensive and well written. It provides a strong background and overview of mixed methods, and educates students on how to be consumers of mixed methods studies.”

Tina L. Freiburger
University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee

Methodological choices vary according to epistemology, discipline, and motivation, making the 'sell for a particular methodology quite difficult' (Cousin, 2009, p. 5). By weaving her argument for mixed methods across numerous research contexts, motivations, and disciplines, Creamer’s work bypasses these challenges and asserts itself as a provocative guide for a wide range of researchers. Creamer’s ability to make mixed methods accessible for readers— regardless of their discipline—is a vital contribution to mixed methods literature.

Cherie D. Edwards, David Reeping, Ashley Taylor, and Alison Bowers
Virginia Tech University

Sample Materials & Chapters

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Chapter 9


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