Slavery is a live issue today, but the people who talk about it as such are not all of a piece. Some insist the world is now plagued by the contemporary equivalent of transatlantic slavery, and call on us to combat “modern slavery”. Others hold that the on-going devaluation and destruction of black life continues the logic of transatlantic slavery. They urge us to address the “afterlives” of racial chattel slavery. These two groupings provide different answers to the questions, “what do we know and what should we do about slavery?” This book reviews what is known about the issues at the heart of each perspective, and argues that the concept of “afterlives” is more helpful than that of “modern slavery” to those seeking to challenge injustice, violence, inequality and oppression in the twenty-first century.